The last chapter closed with the arrival of Zhiguan Hills. Here the Grand Administrator, , supplied them plentifully with food and other necessaries and escorted the Emperor to Zhidao. For his timely help the Emperor conferred upon the rank of a Grand Marshal, or President, and he went and camped at Yewang.who shouted out falsely that the army was that of the two arch rebels and come to capture the imperial cavalcade. But recognized the voice of and bade go out to fight him. He went and in the first bout the traitor fell. His men scattered and the travelers got safely through
Luoyang was presently entered. Within the walls all was destruction. The palaces and halls had been burned, the streets were overgrown with grass and brambles and obstructed by heaps of ruins. The palaces and courts were represented by broken roofs and toppling walls. A small “palace” however was soon built and therein the officers of court presented their congratulations, standing in the open air among thorn bushes and brambles. The reign style was changed from Xingping to Jian’an (firm tranquility).
The year was a year of grievous famine. The Luoyang people, even reduced in numbers as they were to a few hundreds, had not enough to eat and they prowled about stripping the bark off trees and grubbing up the roots of plants to satisfy their starving hunger. Officers of the Government of all but the highest ranks went out into the country to gather fuel. Many people lay down and died quietly behind the ruined walls of their houses. At no time during the decadence of Han did misery press harder than at this period.
A poem written in pity for the sufferings of that time says:
Mortally wounded, the serpent poured forth his life blood at Mantang;
Blood-red pennons of war waved then in every quarter,
Chieftain with chieftain strove and raided each other’s borders,
‘Midst the turmoil and strife the Kingship even was threatened.
Wickedness stalks in a country when the King is a weakling,
Brigandage always is rife, when a dynasty’s failing,
Had one a heart of iron, wholly devoid of feeling,
Yet would one surely grieve at the sight of such desolation.
The Dai you memorialized the Throne saying, “The decree issued to me some time ago has never been acted upon. Now is very strong in Shandong and it would be well to associate him in the government that he might support the ruling house.”
The Emperor replied, “There was no need to refer to the matter again. Send a messenger when you will.”
So the decree went forth and a messenger bore it into Shandong. Now when had heard that the Court had returned to Luoyang he called together his advisers to consult. laid the matter before him and the council thus: “Of old Duke Wen supported of the Zhou dynasty and all the feudal lords backed him. The founder of the Hans, , won the popular favor by wearing mourning for the (who never really sat on the throne). Now the Emperor has been a fugitive on the dusty roads. To take the lead in offering an army to restore him to honor is to have an unrivaled opportunity to win universal regard. But you must act quickly or some one will get in before you.”
understood and at once prepared his army to move. Just at this moment an imperial messenger was announced with the very command he wanted and he immediately set out.
At Luoyang everything was desolate. The walls had fallen and there were no means of rebuilding them, while rumors and reports of the coming of and kept up a state of constant anxiety.
The frightened Emperor spoke with Shandong and our enemies are near.”saying, “What can be done? There is no answer from
Thenand said, “We, your ministers, will fight to the death for you.”
Shandong.”said, “The fortifications are weak and our military resources small, so that we cannot hope for victory and what does defeat mean? I see nothing better to propose than a move into
The Emperor agreed to this and the journey began without further preparation. There being few horses, the officers of the Court had to march afoot. Hardly a bowshot outside the gate they saw a thick cloud of dust out of which came all the clash and clamor of an advancing army. The Emperor and his Consort were dumb with fear. Then appeared a horseman; he was the messenger returning from Shandong. He rode up to the chariot, made an obeisance and said, “ , as commanded, is coming with all the military force of Shandong, but hearing that and had again approached the capital he has sent in advance. With him are many capable leaders and five legions of proved soldiers. They will guard Your Majesty.”
All fear was swept away. Soon afterand his staff arrived and they were presented to the Emperor who graciously addressed them.
Then one came to say a large army was approaching from the east and at the Emperor’s commandwent to ascertain who these were. He soon returned saying they were ’s infantry.
In a short timeand his officers came to the chariot and their names having been duly communicated the chief said, “When my brother heard of the approach of the rebels he feared that the advance guard he had sent might be too weak so he sent me to march quickly and reinforce him.”
“is indeed a trusty servant,” said the Emperor.
Orders were given to advance, the escort leading. By and by scouts came to say that the rebels were coming up very quickly. The Emperor bade Luoyang and guarded the city.divide his force into two parts to oppose them, whereupon the armies threw out two wings with cavalry in front and foot behind. They attacked with vigor and beat off the rebels with great loss. Then they begged the Emperor to return to
Sooncame with his great army and having got them duly camped he went into the city to audience. He knelt at the foot of the steps, but was called up hither to stand beside the Emperor and be thanked.
replied, “Having been the recipient of great bounty thy servant owes the State much gratitude. The measure of evil of the two rebels is full, I have a score of legions of good soldiers to oppose them and they are fully equal to securing the safety of Your Majesty and the Throne. The preservation of the state sacrifice is the matter of real moment.”
High honors were conferred on.
The two rebels wished to attack’s army while fatigued from its long march, but their adviser opposed this, saying there was no hope of victory. In fact he advised submission. was angry at the suggestion, saying that the adviser wished to dishearten the army and drew his sword on . But the other officers interceded and saved him. That same night stole out of the camp and, quite alone, took his way home to his native village.
Soon the rebels decided to offer battle.sent out in reply a small company of horse with three warriors as leaders. These dashed into the rebels army but quickly retired. This maneuver was repeated, and again repeated before the real battle array was formed. Then and , nephews of , rode out. At once from ’s side dashed out and cut down the former. was so startled that he fell out of the saddle. He too was slain. The victor rode back to his own side with the two heads. When he offered them to the chief, patted him on the back crying, “You are really my Fan Kuai!”
Next a general move forward was made,and leading the two wings and in the center. They advanced to the roll of the drum. The rebels fell back before them and presently fled. They were pursued, himself leading, sword in hand. Many were killed and many more surrendered. The two leaders went west, flying in panic like dogs from a falling house. Having no place of refuge they took to the hills and hid among the brushwood.
The army returned and camped again near the city. Then Daliang.and said one to another, “This has done a great service and he will be the man in power. There will be no place for us.” So they represented to the Emperor that they wished to pursue the rebels and under this excuse withdrew and camped at
One day the Emperor sent to summonto audience. The messenger was called in. noticed that he looked remarkably well and could not understand it seeing that everyone else looked hungry and famine stricken. So he said, “You look plump and well, Sir, how do you manage it?”
“Only this; I have lived meager for thirty years.”
nodded. “What office do you hold?”
“I am a graduate. I had an office under Dingtao called .”, but came here when the Emperor returned. Now I am one of the secretaries. I am a native of
got up from his place and crossed over saying, “I have heard of you. How happy I am to meet you!”
Then wine was brought into the tent andwas called in and introduced. While they were talking a man came in to report that a party was moving eastward. Orders were given to find out whose men these were but the visitor knew at once. “They are old leaders under the rebels, and the “White Wave General” Han. They are running off because you have come, Illustrious Sir!”
“Do they mistrust me?” asked.
“They are not worthy of your attention. They are a poor lot.”
“What of this departure ofand ?”
“Tigers without claws, birds without wings will not escape you very long. They are not worth thinking about.”
saw that he and his guest had much in common so he began to talk of affairs of State.
Said Xudu in Honan. However, it must be remembered that the restoration of the capital has been published far and wide and the attention of all the people is concentrated on Luoyang, hoping for a period of rest and tranquility. Another move will displease many. However, the performance of extraordinary service may mean the acquisition of extraordinary merit. It is for you to decide.”, “You, Illustrious Sir, with your noble army have swept away rebellion and have become the mainstay of the throne, an achievement worthy of the five chieftains. But the officials will look at it in very different ways and not all favorably to you. I think you would not be wise to remain here and I advise a change of capital to
“Exactly my own inclination!” said Daliang and the Court officials?”, seizing his guest’s hand. “But are there not dangers? at
“That is easily managed. Write toand set his mind at rest. Say plainly that there is no food in the capital here and so you are going to another place where there is, and where there is no danger of scarcity. When the higher officials hear it they will approve.”
had now decided and as his guest took leave he seized his hands once more saying, “All my success I shall only owe to you.”
thanked and left. Thereafter and his advisers secretly discussed the change of capital.
A secret memorial was presented to the Empire of Han is in Wei.”saying, “The Mandate of Heaven has its course and the five elements are out of proportion. ‘Earth’ is attacking ‘Fire’ and the successor to the
heard of these sayings and memorials and sent a man to the astrologer to say, “Your loyalty is well known, but the ways of Heaven are past finding out. The less said the better.”
Han was fire; your element is earth. Xudu is under the influence of earth and so your fortune depends on getting there. Fire can overcome earth, as earth can multiply wood. and the astrologer agree and you have only to bide your time.”, the adviser, expounded the meaning thus: “The virtue of
So Xudu is a noble city, standing close to a fruitful district. It is everything that a capital should be. I venture to request that the Court move thither.”made up his mind. Next day at Court he said, “The capital is deserted and cannot be restored nor can it be supplied easily with food.
The Emperor dared not oppose and the officials were too overawed to have any independent opinion so they chose a day to set out.commanded the escort and the officials all followed. When they had traveled a few stages they saw before them a high mound and from behind this there arose the beating of drums. Then and came out and barred the way. In front of all stood , who shouted, “ is stealing away the Emperor!”
rode out and took a good look at this man. He seemed a fine fellow and in his secret soul greatly admired him, although he was an enemy. Then he ordered to go and fight him. The combat was ax against broadsword and the two men fought more than half a hundred bouts without advantage to either side. then beat the gongs and drew off his men.
In the camp a council was called.said, “The two rebels themselves need not be discussed; but is a fine captain and I was unwilling to use any great force against him. I want to win him over to our side.”
An officer,, replied, “Do not let that trouble you; I will have a word with him. I shall disguise myself as a soldier this evening and steal over to the enemy’s camp to talk to him. I shall incline his heart toward you.”
That night, duly disguised, got over to the other side and made his way to the tent of , who sat there by the light of a candle. He was still wearing his coat of mail. Suddenly ran out in front and saluted saying, “You have been well since we parted, old friend?”
Shanyang? What are you doing here?”jumped up in surprise, gazed into the face of the speaker a long time and presently said, “What! you are of
“I am an officer in’s army. Seeing my old friend out in front of the army today I wanted to say a word to him. So I took the risk of stealing in this evening and here I am.”
invited him in and they sat down. Then said , “There are very few as bold as you on the earth; why then do you serve such as your present chiefs? My master is the most prominent man in the world, a man who delights in wise men and appreciates soldiers as every one knows. Your valor today won his entire admiration and so he took care that the attack was not vigorous enough to sacrifice you. Now he has sent me to invite you to join him. Will you not leave darkness for light and help him in his magnificent task?”
sat a long time pondering over the offer. Then he said, with a sigh, “I know my masters are doomed to failure, but I have followed their fortunes a long time and do not like to leave them.”
“But you know the prudent bird selects its tree and the wise servant chooses his master. When one meets a worthy master and lets him go one is a fool.”
“I am willing to do what you say,” said, rising.
“Why not put these two to death as an introductory gift?” said.
“It is very wrong for a servant to slay his master. I will not do that.”
“True; you are really a good man.”
Then, taking only a few horsemen of his own men with him, left that night and deserted to . Soon some one took the news to , who at the head of a strong company of horsemen, set out to capture the deserter. He called out to him to come back.
But whenwas getting near he fell into an ambush. Suddenly the whole mountain side was lit up with torches and out sprang ’s men, he himself being in command. “I have been waiting here a long time; do not run away,” cried he.
was completely surprised and tried to draw off, but was quickly surrounded. His colleague came to his rescue and a confused battle began. succeeded in escaping, while kept up the attack on the disordered army. A great number of the rebels gave in and the leaders found they had too few men left to maintain their independence so they betook themselves to .
Whenreturned to camp the newly surrendered man was presented and well received. Then again the cavalcade set out for the new capital. In due time they reached it and they built palaces and halls and an ancestral temple and an altar, terraces and public offices. The walls were repaired, storehouses built and all put in order.
Then came the rewards for’s adherents. Thirteen were raised to rank of hou, or marquis. All good service was rewarded; certain others again, who deserved it, were punished, all according to ’s sole decision.
Marquis of Wuping. was made Imperial Counselor and Chair of the Secretariat; , Minister of War; , Minister of Rites and Religion; , Minister of Works; , Minister of Agriculture, and together with , they were appointed supervision over military farms and stores. was appointed Lord of Dongping; , Magistrate of Luoyang; , Magistrate of Xuchang. , , , , , , , , and were made Commanders; and were made Commanders of Capital District. All good service received full recognition.himself was made Prime Minister, Regent Marshal, and Lord of Wuping.
was then the one man of the Court. All memorials went first to him and were then submitted to the Throne.
When State matters were in order a great banquet was given in his private quarters to all Xu province and he carries on the administration of the prefecture. fled to him when defeated and gave him Xiapi to live in. If these two agreed to join forces and attack, my position would be most serious. What precautions can be taken?”’s advisers, and affairs outside the capital were the subject of discussion. Then said, “ has his army at
Then rose, saying, “Give me five legions and I will give the Minister both their heads.”
said, “O Leader, you are brave, but you are no strategist. You cannot start sudden war just as the capital has been changed. However, there is a certain ruse known as The Rival Tigers. has no decree authorizing him to govern the district. You, Illustrious Sir, can procure one for him, and when sending it, and so conferring upon him right in addition to his might, you can enclose a private note telling him to get rid of . If he does, then he will have lost a vigorous warrior from his side and he could be dealt with as occasions serve. Should he fail, then will slay him. This is The Rival Tiger ruse; they wrangle and bite each other.”
General Who Subdues the East” and a Marquis as well. At the same time a private note was enclosed.agreed that this was a good plan so he memorialized for the formal appointment, which he sent to . was created General “
Whenheard of the change of capital he began to prepare a congratulatory address. In the midst of this an imperial messenger was announced and was met which all ceremony outside the gate. When the epistle had been reverently received a banquet was prepared for the messenger.
The messenger said, “This decree was obtained for you by the.”
thanked him. Then the messenger drew forth his secret letter. When he had read this said, “This matter can be easily arranged.”
The banquet over and the messenger conducted to his lodging to seek repose,, before going to rest, called in his councilors to consider the letter.
“There need be no compunction about putting him to death,” said; “he is a bad man.”
“But he came to me for protection in his weakness, how can I put him to death? That would be immoral,” said.
“If he was a good man; it would be difficult,” replied.
would not consent. Next day, when came to offer congratulations, he was received as usual. He said, “I have come to felicitate you on the receipt of the imperial bounty.”
thanked him in due form. But then he saw draw his sword and come up the hall as if to slay . He hastily interfered and stopped him. was surprised and said, “Why do you wish to slay me, ?”
“says you are immoral and tells my brother to kill you,” shouted .
shouted again and again to him to go away, and he led into the private apartments out of the way.
Then he told him the whole story and showed him the secret letter. He wept as he finished reading.
“This is that miscreant’s scheme for sowing discord between us.”
“Be not anxious, elder brother,” said. “I pledge myself not to be guilty of such an infamous crime.”
again and again expressed his gratitude and kept him for a time. They remained talking and drinking wine until late.
Said the other two brothers, “Why not kill him?”
said, “Because fears that and I may attack him, he is trying to separate us and get us to ’swallow’ each other, while he steps in and takes the advantage. Is there any other reason?”
nodded assent, but said, “I want to get him out of the way lest he trouble us later.”
“That is not what a noble man should do,” said his elder brother.
Soon the messenger was dismissed and returned to the capital with the reply from. The letter only said the plan would be made later. But the messenger, when he saw , told him the story of ’s pledge to . Then said , “The plan has failed; what next?”
replied, “I have another trick called ‘The Tiger and the Wolf’ in which the tiger is made to gobble up the Wolf.”
“Let us hear it,” said.
“Send toto say that has sent up a secret memorial that he wishes to subdue the southern districts. will be angry and attack him. Then you will order to dispose of and so set them destroying each other. will certainly think that is his chance and turn traitor. This is The Tiger-Wolf trick.”
thought this good and sent the messenger and also sent a false edict to . When this came the messenger was received with all the ceremonies and the edict ordered the capture of . After the departure of the bearer called who pronounced it a ruse.
“It may be,” said, “but the royal command is not to be disobeyed.”
So the army was prepared and the day fixed.said that a trusty man must be left on guard and asked which of his brothers would undertake this task.
“I will guard the city,” said.
“I am constantly in need of your advice so how can we part?”
“I will guard the city,” said.
“You will fail,” said. “After one of your drinking bouts you will get savage and flog the soldiers. Beside you are rash and will not listen to any one’s advice. I shall be uneasy all the time.”
“Henceforth I drink no more wine. I will not beat the soldiers and I will always listen to advice,” said.
“I fear the mouth does not correspond to the heart,” said.
“I have followed my elder brother these many years and never broken faith; why should you be contemptuous!” said.
said, “Though you say this I do not feel quite satisfied. I will order friend to help you and keep you sober. Then you will not make any mistake.”
Xu province and marched toward Nanyang.was willing to undertake this duty and the final orders were given. The army of three legions, horse and foot, left
Whenheard that a memorial had been presented proposing to take possession of this district he broke out into abuse of . “You weaver of mats! You plaiter of straw shoes! You have been smart enough to get possession of a large district and elbow your way into the ranks of the nobles. I was just going to attack you and now you dare to scheme against me! How I detest you!”
So he at once gave orders to prepare an army of ten legions, under Xu province. The armies met at Xuyi, where was encamped in a plain with hills behind and a stream on his flank, for his army was small., to attack
Shandong. He used a very heavy three-edged sword. After he had made his camp he rode out and began abusing his opponents “ , you rustic bumpkin, how dare you invade this land?”, his opponent, was a native of
“I have a decree ordering me to destroy the minister who behaves improperly. If you oppose you will be assuredly punished?” replied.
angrily rode out brandishing his weapon. But cried, “Fool, do not attempt to fight!” and rode out to meet him. Then they two fought and after thirty bouts neither had an advantage. Then cried out for a rest. So turned his horse away, rode back to his own array and waited for him.
When the moment came to renew the combatsent out one of his officers to take his place. But said, “Tell to come: I must settle with him who shall be cock and who shall be hen.”
“You a reputationless leader and unworthy to fight with our general,” replied the officer,.
This reply angered Huaiyin River and declined all challenges., who made just one attack on and brought him to the ground. At this success urged on the army and ’s men were defeated. They retired to the mouth of the
However, many of their men came privately into’s camp to try to do what mischief they could and many, so found, were slain.
But the armies will be left facing each other while we relate what happened in Xu province.
After Xu province, keeping military affairs under his own supervision. After thinking over the matter for some time he gave a banquet to all the military officers and when they were all seated he made a speech. “Before my brother left he bade me keep clear of the wine cup for fear of accidents. Now, gentlemen, you may drink deep today but from tomorrow wine is forbidden for we must keep the city safe. So take your fill.” And with this he and all his guests rose to drink together.had started on his expedition placed his colleague and helper in charge of the administration of
The wine bearer came to onewho declined it, saying he never drank as he was forbidden of heaven.
“What! a fighting man not drink wine!” said the host. “I want you to take just one cup.”
was afraid to offend so he drank.
Now the host drank huge goblets with all his guests on every hand and so swallowed a huge quantity of liquor. He became quite intoxicated. Yet he would drink more and insisted on a cup with every guest. It came to the turn ofwho declined.
“Really, I cannot drink,” said.
“You drank just now: why refuse this time?”
pressed him, but still resisted. Then in his drunken madness lost control of his temper and said, “If you disobey the orders of your general you shall be beaten.” And he called in his guards.
Hereinterfered reminding him of the strict injunctions of his brother.
“You civilians attend to your civil business and leave us alone,” said.
The only way of escape for the guest was to beg remission and he did so, but added, “Sir, if you saw my son-in-law’s face you would pardon me.”
“Who is your son-in-law?”
“I did not mean to have you really beaten, but if you think to frighten me withI will. I will beat you as if I was beating him,” said .
The guests interposed to beg him off, but their drunken host was obdurate and the unhappy guest received fifty blows. Then at the earnest prayers of the others the remainder of the punishment was remitted.
The banquet came to an end and the beaten man went away burning with resentment. That night he sent a letter to Xiapi relating the insults he had received from . The letter told of the Grand Administrator’s absence and proposed that a sudden raid should be made that very night before had recovered from his drunken fit. at once summoned and told him.
“This is only a place to occupy temporarily,” said Xu province, do so. It is a good chance.”. “If you can seize
got ready at once and soon on the way with half a company, ordering and to follow him with the main body.
Xiapi being only about forty li away, one gets there almost as soon as one is mounted and was under the walls at the fourth watch. It was clear moonlight. No one on the ramparts saw him. came up close to the wall and called out, “ ’s secret messenger has arrived.”
The guards on the wall were’s men and they called him. He came and when he saw who was there he ordered the gates to be opened. gave the secret signal and the soldiers entered shouting.
was in his apartment sleeping off the fumes of wine. His servants hastened to arouse him and told him an enemy had got the gates open and was in the city. savagely got into his armor and laid hold of his mighty spear, but as he was mounting his horse at the gate the soldiers came up. He rushed at them but being still half intoxicated made but a poor fight. knowing his prowess did not press him hard and made his way, with a small escort, to the east gate, and there went out, leaving his brother’s family to their fate.
, seeing had but a very small force and was still half drunk as well, came in pursuit. saw who it was and was mad with rage. He galloped toward him and drove him off after a few passes. He followed to the moat and wounded him in the back. His frightened steed carried him into the moat and he was drowned.
Once well outside the citycollected his men and they rode off toward the south.
having surprised the city set himself to restore order. He put a guard over the residence of so that no one should disturb the family.
with his few followers went to his brother’s camp and told his story of treachery and surprise. All were greatly distressed.
“Success is not worth rejoicing over; failure is not worth grieving over,” saidwith a sigh.
“Where are our sisters?” asked.
“They shared the fate of the city.”
nodded his head and was silent.
with an effort controlled his reproaches and said, “What did you say when you promised to guard the city and what orders did our brother give you? Now the city is lost and therewith our sisters-in-law. Have you done well?”
was overwhelmed by remorse. He drew his sword to kill himself.
He raised the cup in pledge,
None might say nay;
Remorseful, drew the sword,
Himself to slay.
’s fate will be told in the next chapter.