Three Kingdoms History: Shu-Han Kingdom

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Introduction to the Kingdom of Shu

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Kingdom of Shu Hanzi

In the year AD 184, a rebellion lead by the Yellow Scarves throws the Han dynasty into chaos. Liu Bei, a descendant of the Han Prince of Zhongsheng, gathers a volunteer force to fight the rebels.

Together with his sworn brothers, Guan Yu and Zhang Fei, Liu Bei continuously fights the enemies that threaten the legitimacy of the Han Emperor. In the year AD 190, a coalition of warlords is formed to rid the Capital Luo Yang of a new enemy; the former Han general Dong Zhuo.

Liu Bei, under the command of Gongsun Zan, fights against the new rebels with his brothers. When Cao Cao takes up the post as the new Han Prime Minister Liu Bei is recognized as the Imperial Uncle and given a post in Xuzhou. After serving Tao Qian and Lü Bu, Liu Bei angers Cao Cao and is forced to flee with his army to northern Jingzhou.

There, Liu Bei takes refuge with his relative, Liu Biao. Cao Cao, however, continues to pursue Liu Bei and in the process takes northern Jingzhou. Liu Bei quickly allies himself with Sun Quan, the ruler of the southlands, and aids Sun Quan in repelling Cao Cao’s fleet at the decisive battle of Chi Bi.

While Cao Cao retreats to the north, Liu Bei borrows southern Jingzhou from Sun Quan and prepares to move into Yizhou, which is better known as the lands of Shu. Liu Bei’s cousin, Liu Zhang ruled Yizhou, however a cunning plot by the strategist Pang Tong enables Liu Bei to take control. Now, with a land of his own, enjoying Sun Quan’s protection off to the east, Liu Bei forms Shu into his own Kingdom.

In the year AD 218, Liu Bei launches an offensive against the key city of Han Zhong where Cao Cao’s main force was stationed. With the help of Fa Zheng, Liu Bei sends Cao Cao running and proclaims himself King of Hanzhong that the same year.

However, relationships with Wu grow sour and in the year AD 220 Shu loses Jingzhou and Liu Bei’s brother, Guan Yu is executed by Sun Quan. In the year AD 221, after Cao Cao’s son Cao Pi formed the Wei Empire, Liu Bei proclaims himself Emperor of Han-Shu. In the year AD 222, eager to avenge Guan Yu’s death, Liu Bei marches against Wu.

Liu Bei, after being defeated by Lu Xun, retreats back to Yizhou with what remains of the Shu army. In the next year, AD 223, Liu Bei dies and his son Liu Shan takes the Shu throne. After Liu Bei’s death, Zhuge Liang helps to form an alliance between Wu and Shu.

Liu Shan was unable to gain ground against Wei, and Shu’s resources quickly diminished. Following the death of Prime Minister Zhuge Liang, the country is caught in a spiral of defeats.

In the year AD 257, Liu Shan abandons the war against Wei’s Sima Zhao, and in AD 264 surrenders at the capital Cheng Du to Wei, ending the Shu dynasty.

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