Encyclopedia: Xiahou Ba

Xiahou Ba (Zhongquan); Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan); 夏侯霸 (仲權)

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You are viewing the profile of Xiahou Ba (夏侯霸), styled Zhongquan (仲權). “Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.” Xiahou Ba was affiliated with the Wei Kingdom and the Shu Kingdom. Return to the Three Kingdoms Encyclopedia to learn more or explore our Encyclopedia Directory to browse by kingdom or category.


Xiahou Ba (Zhongquan) 夏侯霸 (仲權)

Lived: AD c.185–c.258


Served: Wei, Shu

Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.

Officer Details

Wade-Giles: Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan)
Simplified Chinese: 夏侯霸 (仲权)
Pronunciation: Xia4hou2 Ba4 (Zhong4quan2)
Cantonese (Yale): Hahau Ba (Jung-kyun)
Cantonese (Jyutpin): Haahau Baa (Zung-kyun)
Min-Nan: Heehouw Pa (Tiong-koan)

Rank and Titles

General of Chariots (in AD 255)

Family and Relationships

Xiahou Yuan (Father); Xiahou Wei, Xiahou Hui, Xiahou He, Xiahou Heng, Xiahou Rong, Xiahou Cheng (Brothers)

Fact vs. Fiction

Differences Between Fact and Common Fiction

  • Xiahou Ba, after joining Shu, did not play as significant a role in history as he did in the novel. In Sanguozhi, he appears only in AD 255 under Jiang Wei against Didao where he achieves success in battle.

Literary Appearances

Romance of the Three Kingdoms: 102104, 106, 107, 109111, 113115

Sanguozhi: Shu 14

Search Results

You Are Xiahou Ba
Date: 05/11     Replies: 10
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Date: 11/04     Replies: 111
Xiahou Ba’s Comments on Deng Ai
Date: 09/04     Replies: 14
Xiahou Ba!
Date: 12/03     Replies: 46

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Historic (Confirmed)

Xiahou Ba was the second son of Xiahou Yuan (de Crespigny, 883). Xiahou Yuan was a famous general of Cao Cao’s, but was killed in battle against Liu Bei’s forces when Liu Bei took Hanzhong (de Crespigny 884–885). As a result, Xiahou Ba grew up despising Shu-Han (the kingdom Liu Bei founded) and hoping to avenge his father’s death [1]. The Weilue states that he was known for taking good care of his troops. He was also on good terms with the “barbarian” peoples of the Northwest. [2]

When the Emperor Cao Rui of Wei died, the government fell into the hands of Cao Shuang and Sima Yi. [3] Initially, Cao Shuang (a relative of Xiahou Ba’s) dominated the government. [4] Furthermore, Xiahou Xuan (a nephew of Xiahou Ba) served as Xiahou Ba’s superior. [5] This nepotistic arrangement sat perfectly fine with Xiahou Ba. In the year AD 244, Cao Shuang launched an invasion of Shu-Han, in which Xiahou Ba participated in a battle at Xingshi. [6] Here, he set up spiked barricades and stoutly defended his position. The Shu-Han army recognized him as Xiahou Ba and assaulted his camp. However, reinforcements arrived swiftly and helped Xiahou Ba drive Shu-Han back. [7] At length, the campaign turned against Cao Shuang, though, and Wei was forced to retreat. [8]

Xiahou Ba continued to serve on the frontier with Shu-Han. In AD 247, several Qiang barbarian tribes in the far Northwest rebelled against Wei and planned to submit to Shu-Han. Jiang Wei, a Shu-Han general, marched out to receive them. Guo Huai and Xiahou Ba fought a battle with Jiang Wei at Tao River. It is not explicitly clear who won this battle, but in the aftermath Jiang Wei was able to resettle several Qiang barbarian kings, along with their tribes, within Shu-Han territory. The kings he was unable to resettle, apparently, were reduced to submission again by Guo Huai. [9]

AD 249 saw a drastic change in Xiahou Ba’s fortunes. Cao Shuang was put to death along with his entire clique. Xiahou Xuan was recalled from the Northwest. Sima Yi usurped control over the government. In place of Xiahou Xuan, Guo Huai was appointed as Xiahou Ba’s superior. [10] Xiahou Ba apparently disliked Guo Huai, but this was just one of many concerns for him. As a close associate of Xiahou Xuan and by extension Cao Shuang, he now feared for his very life. In desperation, he decided to flee to Shu-Han. [11]

The Weilue describes the journey to Shu-Han as arduous for Xiahou Ba. While traveling, he ran out of provisions and was forced to kill his horse. The terrain was difficult for him on foot. The kingdom of Shu-Han eventually heard of his exodus, though, and welcomed him. Much earlier in history, a female cousin of Xiahou Ba had married Zhang Fei, a chief general of Shu-Han. Her daughters became the consorts of Liu Shan, the Shu-Han sovereign. In light of this familial connection, Liu Shan noted that his (Liu Shan’s) own son was a member of the Xiahou family. Liu Shan comforted Xiahou Ba further by conferring upon him official rank and treating him very well. [12]

Jiang Wei asked Xiahou Ba whether Sima Yi planned to launch military expeditions in the near future. In response, Xiahou Ba noted that Sima Yi still needed to consolidate his hold over the Wei court, and thus would not launch any offensives. He also warned Jiang Wei about Zhong Hui, claiming that if Zhong Hui took control of the administration it would be a cause for concern on the part of Wu and Shu-Han. [13]

In AD 255, Jiang Wei sallied forth to attack Wei, bringing with him Zhang Yi and Xiahou Ba. The Shu-Han army smashed a force led by Wang Jing nearby the Tao River, killing tens of thousands of troops. Jiang Wei besieged Didao thereafter, but due to reinforcements from Chen Tai, he was forced to retreat. [14]

This is the last recorded campaign of Xiahou Ba. It is possible that he died shortly after.


[1]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Point 22

[2]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Note 22

[3]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 239, Point 1 and Point 5

[4]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 239, Points 7–11 for examples

[5]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Point 22

[6]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Note 22


[8]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 244, Points 8–11 discuss the campaign and Cao Shuang’s ultimate defeat in detail. Xiahou Ba is not mentioned here, but the area of Xingshi is described as an important location (possibly a point of contention) in the campaign

[9]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 247, Point 11 and Note 11

[10]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Points 11 and 22

[11]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Point 22

[12]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Note 22

[13]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 249, Point 23

[14]-Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms, AD 255, Points 36–40

Works Cited:

Sima Guang. Zizhi Tongjian. Trans. Achilles Fang. N.p.: Harvard University Press, 1952. Print.

De Crespigny, Rafe. A Biographical Dictionary of Later-Han to the Three Kingdoms (AD 23–220. Leiden: Brill, 2007. Print.



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February 17, 2023