Encyclopedia: Guan Zhong

Guan Yiwu (Zhong); Kuan Iwu (Chung); 管夷吾 ()

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Guan Yiwu (Zhong) 管夷吾 ()

Game Name:
Guan Yiwu

Lived: 725–645 BC

None Available

Served: Spring and Autumn Period, Qi, Historical

Famed prime minister of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn period.

Officer Details

Wade-Giles: Kuan Iwu (Chung)
Simplified Chinese: 管夷吾 ()

Other Names: Guan Zhong, Hermit of the Eastern Suburb

Rank and Titles

Prime Minister of Qi (685 BC)

Literary Appearances

Romance of the Three Kingdoms: 36, 37, 38, 43, 57, 93, 104, 118

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Collaborative Works

Guan Yiwu, styled Zhong, was a Chinese politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. Born in 725 BC, he was recommended by Bao Shuya and appointed Prime Minister by Duke Huan of Qi in 685 BC.

Guan Zhong modernized the state of Qi by starting multiple reforms. Politically, he centralized power and divided the state into different villages, each carrying out a specific trade. Instead of relying on the traditional aristocracy for manpower, he applied levies to the village units directly. He also developed a better method for choosing talent to be governors. Under Guan Zhong, Qi shifted administrative responsibilities from hereditary aristocrats to professional bureaucrats.

Guan Zhong also introduced several important economic reforms. He created a uniform tax code. He also used state power to encourage the production of salt and iron; historians usually credit Guan Zhong for introducing state monopolies of salt and iron. During his term of office, the state of Qi became much stronger and Duke Huan of Qi gained hegemony among the states.

He is listed as the author of the Guanzi encyclopedia, actually a much later (of the late “Warring States” period) compilation of works from the scholars of the Jixia Academy.

Source: branched from Wikipedia for local editing.



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April 10, 2023