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Fan Jian (Changyuan)  [Fan Chien; 樊建] - Romance of the Three Kingdoms Encyclopedia

Encyclopedia: Fan Jian

Fan Jian (Changyuan); Fan Chien (Ch‘ang-yüan); 樊建 (長元)

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You are viewing the profile of Fan Jian (樊建), styled Changyuan (長元), born in Yiyang. “Did not associate with Huang Hao. Went with Liu Shan when Shu fell.” Fan Jian was affiliated with the Shu Kingdom, the Wei Kingdom and the Jin Dynasty. Return to the Three Kingdoms Encyclopedia to learn more or explore our Encyclopedia Directory to browse by kingdom or category.


Fan Jian (Changyuan) 樊建 (長元)

Lived: AD c.225–?

None Available

Served: Shu, Wei, Jin

Did not associate with Huang Hao. Went with Liu Shan when Shu fell.

Officer Details

Wade-Giles: Fan Chien (Ch‘ang-yüan)
Simplified Chinese: 樊建 (长元)
Min-Nan: Hwan Kian (Tiang-goan)

Birthplace: Yiyang

Rank and Titles

Colonel; Palace Attendant; Prefect of the Masters of Writing; Chancellor of the State; Regular Cavalier Attendant

Literary Appearances

Romance of the Three Kingdoms: 87, 91, 99, 102, 111, 119


Historic (Confirmed)

Fan Jian, styled Changyuan, was from Yiyang commandery. As a colonel (xiàowèi 校尉), he was sent to Wu as an emissary in 251. Sun Quan was very ill at the time, so they were unable to meet. Sun Quan asked Zhuge Ke, “How does Fan Jian compare to Zong Yu?” Zhuge Ke replied, “His talent and knowledge do not compare to [Zong] Yu, but his noble nature surpasses him.” Such was Fan Jian’s nature. He later served as Palace Attendant and Secretariat Director (zhōngshūlìng 中書令). Fan Jian replaced Dong Jue 董厥 as Director of the Imperial Secretariat (shàngshū lìng 尚書令) in late 258. Fan Jian, along with Dong Jue and Zhuge Zhan, unsuccessfully tried to curb Huang Hao’s increasing influence and Jiang Wei’s campaigns against Wei. Fan Jian would never fully associate himself with Huang Hao, rejecting any offers from the latter.

After Shu’s fall in 263, Fan Jian was sent to Luoyang the spring of 264, joining Sima Zhao’s army. He was also enfeoffed as a marquis. In autumn, he was sent back to Shu as Regular Mounted Attendant to soothe the lands of Shu as he was a familiar figure. He is mentioned in the Table of Jin Officials (晉百官表), showing that he served Jin. Once, Jin emperor Sima Yan asked Fan Jian about Zhuge Liang’s governance of Shu. Fan Jian responded, “When he heard evil, he would always correct it, whilst he did not boast excessively. The faith in rewards and punishments [under him] are enough to impress the deities.” Sima Yan replied, “Excellent! If I got such a person as to assist me, how can there be any difficulties today?” However, Fan Jian bowed his head to the ground and said, “I humbly have heard the discussions of the world, and all of them have said that Deng Ai was treated wrongly. Your Majesty knows this but does not fix it. Is this perhaps what Feng Tang 馮唐 would say of this, ‘Getting [Lian] Po and [Li] Mu but being unable to use them.'?” Sima Yan laughed and said, “I was about to ask as to understand such, yet your words have surpassed my thoughts!” After the conversation, Sima Yan released an edict rehabilitating Deng Ai posthumously.



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April 10, 2023