Biography (SGZ): Jia Xu (Wenhe)

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Jia Xu (Wenhe)
賈詡 (文和)
(Circa AD 147-224)

Sanguozhi Officer Biography
Pei Songzhi in Blue, Translator Notes in Green
Translated by

Jia Xu, styled Wenhe, was a man from Gozang in Wuwei. No one recognized his talents when he was young, but only Yan Zhong from Hanyang considered him to be extraordinary, and said of him that he had the genius of Zhang Liang and Chen Ping (I) (1). He was recommended to imperial service as a Filial and Incorrupt and served as an attendant [in the court in Luoyang], but later resigned due to illness. On the way westward back home, he encountered a group of Di tribe insurgents at Qian, who held him captive along with the few scores of men that he was travelling with. Jia Xu said [to the rebels], “Lord Duan is my maternal grandfather. Bury me apart from the others, as my family would pay a princely ransom for my body.” At that time, Grand Commandant Duan Jiong was a long-time campaigner in the frontier, and his name struck awe into all who dwelt in the west. Thus Jia Xu took his name to frighten the Di. Indeed, the Di dared not harm him, but sent him off after negotiating a pact with him. All the others were killed. Jia Xu in reality was not Duan’s grandson; this was just an indication of how capable he was at dealing with unexpected situations.

(I) Zhang Liang and Chen Ping were among the most important strategists of the first emperor of Han.

(1) Spring and Autumn Annals of the Nine Provinces: In the first year of Zhongping (AD 184), Huangfu Song, General of the Chariots and Cavalry, had just defeated the Yellow Turbans and his prowess inspired awe in all the realm. Yan Zhong had just been removed from the position of Prefect of Xindu at that time, and he went to Huangfu Song and lobbied him thus, “That which is hard to get and easy to lose is time. That which appears in time but goes at the blink of an eye is opportunity. Thus the sages acted in accordance with the times, and the intelligent make a move when opportunity strikes. Now, General, you have been given difficult-to-obtain fortune, and are striding on opportunity that will easily dissolve away. However, standing on good fortune, you do not take advantage of it, and though opportunity is at hand you act not. How can you come to enjoy great fame?”

Huangfu Song asked, “To what do you refer?”

“Heaven’s Mandate knows not of family ties,” replied Yan Zhong, “and it is the common people who empower. Thus, one who has accomplished extraordinary feats does not accept the rewards of a mediocre lord. General, you were first granted the Imperial Axe (A) at spring’s start, but by the end of winter your victory was complete. Your troop deployment is prodigious, your strategies so precise they need no re-evaluation. In the matter of fortnights, your phenomenal troops swept through the land as quick as lightning. You conquered the strong with more ease than breaking a dead branch, and destroyed the enemy like pouring boiling water upon snow. Seven provinces have you reclaimed, thirty-six circuits you slaughtered. You have exterminated the troops of the Yellow Turbans and rid the world of a great evil. [The emperor] granted you fiefs, carved for you seals, and on his throne he praised you for your deeds. Your name inspires awe through the empire, your fame travels like wind to the lands across the waters. Because of this, heroic leaders turn around to see you, and the commoners crowd together and step on each other’s heels to catch a glimpse of you. Even the feats of Tangwu (B) do not measure higher than what you have done. However, you still face northward to serve a mediocre lord. How can you know satisfaction?”

“If my heart does not forget loyalty, how can I not be satisfied?” said Huangfu Song.

“Not so,” said Yan Zhong. “In the past, Han Xin could not overlook the favour as trifling as a mere meal and forsook the advantages of taking one-third of the kingdom. He refused the profession of loyalty by Kuai Tong and did not acknowledge the possibility of standing as one leg in a tripod. Only when the blade neared his throat did he sigh and regret his decision, which led to his being slain by his juniors (C).

“Now, the ruler’s power is weaker than that of Liu Bang and Xiang Yu, and you, general, possess authority greater than the Marquis of Huaiyin [Han Xin]. Should you point your banner in one direction, wind and clouds are shaken. Should you give a roar, thunder and lightning are set in motion. Let your wrath rouse the men’s spirits, that they may stand on [moral] high ground and fight the degenerates. Spread your benevolence, and let those before you come to you! Rouse your strength, and let those behind you bow to you! Recruit the good men of the Ji region, and mobilize the populace of the seven provinces; send an urgent announcement ahead, and follow that with a roaring army. Trample over the Zhang River and water your horses at Mengjin, so that you will come to the Capital with Heaven’s nets of righteousness and capture it. Then you can execute the eunuchs for their crimes, resolving the resentment of the citizens and saving this most dire situation.

“Should you choose to do this, no city can be defended against you; and though you ask them not, people will follow you like a shadow follows its host. In that condition, even a child can swing his fists and make a forceful impact, and a woman can tuck in her dress and do great deeds. How much more can you do, commanding men of great intelligence and abilities, riding on the winds of the times? It will be a mere trifle for you to bring the grand plans into fruition and gather the eight points of the compass together. Once your deeds are accomplished and the subcelestial realm submits to you, you can make offerings to the Lord of Heaven and plead for Heaven’s Mandate. Then you can bring the entire world together, ascend onto the south-facing throne in order to judge the world, and transfer the sacred vessels into your family. Pushing over the already-dead Han and setting up a new dynasty is indeed the decision of the godly-wise who takes advantage of this timely opportunity.

“They say that when a piece of wood is rotten, it should not be carved, and when the dynasty is deteriorated, it cannot be upheld. It will be difficult for you, O General, to serve loyally a dynasty that is difficult to uphold. That is just like attempting to carve and draw on rotten lumber or making a ball roll uphill on its own – it is impossible. Now, powerful eunuchs gather together to plot evil, like [evildoers gather] in the marketplace; the ruler is not free; imperial commands are issued by those around him instead. [Now that the opportunity is near,] should you refuse to heed it when you hear it, and act ahead of others when it comes to you, you shall regret, and in vain.” Huangfu Song would not heed his advice, and so Yan Zhong fled.

Records of the Heroes: There were bandits in Liang Province, led by Wang Guo and some others, who started a rebellion. They kidnapped Yan Zhong and forced him to be their leader, controlling 36 battalions in the name of “General of the Chariots and Cavalry”. Yan Zhong, out of shock and guilt, became ill and died.
(A) The Imperial Axe is granted as a sign that one has imperial authority to destroy insubordinate people.
(B) Tang-wu is the first king of the Shang dynasty.
(C) Han Xin was a general who served under Liu Bang, the first emperor of the Han dynasty. After he conquered the eastern part of China under Liu Bang’s orders, Xiang Yu, Liu’s rival, sent envoys to persuade Han Xin to declare independence from Liu Bang and set up his own kingdom in alliance with Xiang Yu’s Chu kingdom. Han Xin refused this advice, considering the favours Liu Bang showed him. After Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and unified the empire, the court feared Han Xin’s control over the military, and plotted his execution. Kuai Tong was a strategist from the modern-day Shandong area who advised Han Xin to become independent.

When Dong Zhuo entered Luoyang, Jia Xu took over the position of Chief Commandant of Pingjin in the capacity of a department head under the Grand Commandant. Later he was promoted to be Colonel who Exterminates the Caitiffs. Niu Fu, son-in-law of Dong Zhuo and General of the Interior, was garrisoned at Xian at that time, and Jia Xu was stationed in his army. When Dong Zhuo was killed and Niu Fu died as well, all were fearful; colonels Li Jue, Guo Si, and Zhang Ji among others proposed to disband and take back roads to their homes. Jia Xu said, “I heard that in Chang’an they were talking about killing all men from Liang Province. If you, good sirs, were to leave the group and travel alone, even a commune chief can take you. We would be better off travelling as a group, recruiting soldiers as we go along in order to attack Chang’an and avenge Lord Dong. If we are lucky and the plan goes well, then we can conquer the world in the name of the dynasty; but even if we fail, it would not be too late to flee then.” All agreed with him, and thereupon Li Jue attacked Chang’an – this is recorded in Dong Zhuo’s biography (2).

(2) I, Songzhi, your servant, consider how the Zuo Chronicles remarks that “How abundantly does goodness flow/ from the words of a benevolent man!” If this be true, then the opposite should hold for malevolent words. Deeds of benevolence are hard to come by, but sources of havoc are easily formed. That’s why there have been occasions where, once trouble has been triggered, disaster befalls generations to come. At that time, the leader of evil was just killed, and the heavens and earth saw light again. However, calamity redoubled, [and] great disasters spread through the lands. The country experienced the sorrows of death and destruction, and the commoners suffered from that which plagued the end of the Zhou. Are these not all due to just several words of Jia Xu? How great, then, is Jia Xu’s crime! Such turmoil had not been known since times of antiquity.

After that, Jia Xu became Governor of the Zuopingyi Region (II), and Li Jue and others wished to make him a marquis on the basis of his contributions. Jia Xu said, “This was for saving us all. What merit can I claim for myself?” And he firmly declined the offer. Then they wished to make him Deputy Head of the Imperial Secretariat, at which Jia Xu said, “The Deputy Head of the Imperial Secretariat is a teacher and an elder to all officers, and the one who all in the realm look up to. My name has never been regarded highly, and my assuming of this position cannot be convincing. Even if I accept this, blinded by the prospect of honour and profit, how can the [honour of the] kingdom be justified?” And so they made Jia Xu the head of a department under the Imperial Secretariat, in charge of recommending people to office. Many benefited from his help, and Li Jue’s group wished to be close with him but at the same time was apprehensive of him (3). Jia Xu’s mother died, and he relinquished his position for the funeral rites; subsequently he was reinstated as Imperial Household Grandee.

(3) Annals of Emperor Xian: Guo Si and Fan Chou were at loggerheads with Li Jue, and on several occasions they almost waged battle on each other. Jia Xu would always admonish them with reason, and they would listen to him.
History of Wei: When Jia Xu was in charge of recommending and promoting people to office, he reinstated many old-timers (A) as department heads of the Imperial Secretariat’s Office. Those who discussed affairs of the time praised Jia Xu for that.
(A) i.e., those who used to be in imperial service but were removed from office during the turmoil during the times of the eunuchs and Dong Zhuo.
(II) Pingyi was the commandery-sized region near the capital city which is directly under central administration rather than forming its own local governance. It was split into three districts, Zuopingyi being one of them. It is located around Chang’an.

Li Jue, Guo Si and others fought each other in Chang’an (4), and Li Jue again invited Jia Xu to be General who Proclaims Righteousness (5). Jia Xu was instrumental in bringing peace to Li Jue and his ilk, releasing the Emperor, and protecting the ministers (6). Once the Emperor was released, Jia Xu surrendered his seal and cord of office; and since there was one General Duan Wei stationed at Huayin (7) at that time who was from the same commandery as Jia Xu, he left Li Jue to seek refuge with him. Jia Xu’s name was known and respected by those in Duan Wei’s army, and so Duan Wei in his heart feared that Jia Xu would supplant him, but treated Jia Xu courteously in appearance. Jia Xu felt uneasy.

(4) Annals of Emperor Xian: Li Jue and others conferred with Jia Xu about bringing the Emperor into the camps. Jia Xu said, “This cannot be. Holding the Son of Heaven hostage is hardly the ways of righteousness.” Li Jue did not listen. Zhang Xiu said to Jia Xu, “This is no place to stay. Sir, why do you not leave?” Jia Xu said, “Much benevolence has been granted me by the country. By the rules of righteousness, I cannot turn my back to her. Sir, leave alone. I cannot follow.”
(5) Annals of Emperor Xian: At that time, Li Jue summoned several thousand from the Qiang and Hu tribes to himself. He first presented them with imperial commodities and dyed silk and promised them an allotment of servants and women from the palace, in an attempt to have them attack Guo Si. The Qiang and Hu came to the main gate several times, saying, “Is the Son of Heaven within? General Li has promised us palace servants and beautiful women. Where are they?” The Emperor was worried about this, and ordered Jia Xu to come up with a plan. And so Jia Xu secretly called the Qiang and Hu leaders for a great feast, at which he promised them high ranks and an abundance of treasures. At that, they led their men away. From this time on, Li Jue’s power weakened.
(6) Annals of Emperor Xian: Once the Son of Heaven went to the west, Li Jue came in pursuit. The imperial army lost. Li Jue had held grudges against Minister over the Masses Zhao We, Master of Rites Wang Wei, Commandant of the Palace Guard Zhou Zhong, and Colonel Director of the Retainers Rong Shao, and he was about to kill them. Jia Xu said to Li Jiu, “These are all ministers of the Emperor. Sir, how can you harm them?” Thus Li Jue desisted.
(7) According to Dian Lue, when Duan Wei was in Huayin, he promoted agriculture and did not plunder the people. When the Emperor returned to the east, Duan Wei went to meet him on the road and offered supplies to alleviate the shortages.
Annals of Emperor Xian: Afterwards, [the Emperor] made Duan Wei Grand Minister of Reception and Imperial Household Grandee. In the 14th year of Jian’an (AD 210), he died of old age.

At that time Zhang Xiu was in Nanyang, and Jia Xu secretly made connections with Zhang Xiu, who in turn sent someone to bring Jia Xu over. When Jia Xu was about to leave, some said to him, “Duan Wei has treated you well. Why leave?” Jia Xu replied, “Duan Wei is distrustful of nature, and already has misgivings about me. Though the treatment is fair, I cannot count on it. Should I stay too long I will certainly be schemed against by him. However, he would be glad of my leaving, and wishing for me to secure a strong ally for him, he would treat my family well. Zhang Xiu has no chief advisor yet and would be happy to get me. This way, the security of both my family and myself is guaranteed.” Thus he went. Zhang Xiu received him as a son receiving his father. Duan Wei, on the other hand, did indeed see to the well-being of Jia Xu’s family. Jia Xu persuaded Zhang Xiu to ally with Liu Biao (8).

(8) According to Fuzi: Jia Xu went south to see Liu Biao, who treated him as a guest. Jia Xu said [upon his return], “Liu Biao has the talent to be one of the Three Lords in times of peace. However, he cannot foresee changes of events, is suspicious but irresolute, and cannot do anything great.”

The Grand Progenitor, Cao Cao, made repeated attacks on [Zhang Xiu]. Once, he had his army retreat. Zhang Xiu was about to personally lead a pursuit. Jia Xu said to Zhang Xiu, “Do not chase after them! You will certainly lose.” Zhang Xiu did not listen, and pushed his men forward to do battle. He returned after suffering heavy losses. Jia Xu then said to him, “Quickly, go after them! This second battle will be a victory.” Zhang Xiu believed him, and having regrouped his men he left again in pursuit. A great battle ensued, and he indeed returned triumphant. He asked Jia Xu, “When I led elite troops to pursue a retreating army, you, sir, said that I would lose. But after I lost, I took a beaten force to attack a victorious enemy, and you said that I would prevail. It was indeed as you have said. Why is it that these two things, apparently contradictory, both came true?”

Jia Xu said, “This is easy to understand. Though you, general, are adept at deploying troops, you are not a match for Lord Cao. Even when their army was starting to retreat, Lord Cao must have been guarding rear himself. Though your pursuing troops were elite, their leader was not a match for the enemy leader [Cao Cao]; and the enemy soldiers were just as battle-ready. From that I knew you would lose.

“Lord Cao had not made a mistake since the beginning of his campaign against you, but he retreated before their strength was exhausted. This must be because of some drastic incident happening in his land. Once he had defeated you, he would have regrouped and travelled swiftly back. Even if he left generals at the rear, and even if they were men of prowess, they would never be a match for you. That’s why you were sure to win, using routed troops to do battle.” Zhang Xiu was convinced.

After that, Cao Cao fought against Yuan Shao at Guandu, and Yuan Shao sent a messenger to make connections with Zhang Xiu, as well as sending Jia Xu a letter proposing an alliance. Zhang Xiu wished to accept it, but Jia Xu said openly to Yuan Shao’s messenger at the gathering hosted by Zhang Xiu, “Return and express to Yuan Benchu that we decline. If he could not accept even his brother, could he accept the talented men of the realm?”

Zhang Xiu, startled, said, “This is going too far!” And secretly he said to Jia Xu, “If this is so, where should we find asylum?”

Jia Xu said, “Let us submit to Lord Cao.”

“Yuan is strong and Cao is weak,” Zhang Xiu said, “and on top of that we have been Cao’s enemies. Why submit to him?”

Jia Xu replied, “This is precisely the reason why it is good to submit to him. Lord Cao commands the world by keeping the Emperor – reason one. Since Yuan Shao is strong and powerful, should we submit to him with our paltry number of men, he would not regard us highly. Lord Cao’s men are few, and thus would be glad to receive us – reason two. Those who have the ambition of a princely hegemon must release their private grudges, in order to have their virtues be known to the Four Seas – reason three. I pray you, general, doubt not!”

Zhang Xiu concurred and led his men to submit to Cao Cao. When Cao Cao saw him, he was glad; and holding Jia Xu’s hands, he said, “There is one man who made my trustworthiness be exulted by the world; and good sir, you are he!” He then petitioned for Jia Xu to be the Commander of the Palace Guard and made Marquis of an imperial precinct. Jia Xu was then promoted to be Governor of Ji Province. As Ji Province had not been taken under control yet, he was left behind to be a military advisor for [Cao Cao’s] office of the Minister of Works.

Yuan Shao besieged Cao Cao at Guandu. Cao Cao was running out of supplies, and asked Jia Xu for advice. Jia Xu said, “Lord, your clear-thinking is superior to Yuan Shao. Your daring is superior to Yuan Shao. Your ways of employing men is superior to Yuan Shao. Your decisiveness is superior to Yuan Shao. The reason for your inability to conquer him despite these four superiorities is because you have been playing it safe. You must take advantage of the situation decisively, and then victory will come in moments.”

Cao Cao said, “Fine.” Thereupon he put a force together and broke the encirclement, and in turn besieged Yuan Shao’s camps some thirty li away and defeated them. Yuan Shao’s army was greatly routed and the region north of the Yellow River was pacified. Cao Cao himself took the position of Governor of Ji Province, and transferred Jia Xu to be Grand Imperial Consultant.

In the 13th year of Jian’an (AD 208), Cao Cao conquered Jing Province, and planned to advance downriver on the Yangtze. Jia Xu advised against this, saying, “Illustrious sir, you have just defeated the Yuan’s, and recently you subdued the region south of the Han River (III). Your great name is known near and far, and your military force is burgeoning. If you would take the wealth of Jing Province to reward the officers and soldiers, and console the commoners and give them security of land and employment, then the Southlands will bow in submission to us without us having to mobilize our men.” Cao Cao did not agree with him, and his military action was in vain (9). Afterwards, Cao Cao was doing battle with Han Sui and Ma Chao at Weinan. Ma Chao, among others, proposed to cede land in exchange for peace, and volunteered to send sons as hostages. Jia Xu’s opinion was that they should pretend to agree. Cao Cao asked Jia Xu for a plan, and Jia Xu said, “Simply sow dissent.” Cao Cao replied, “I understand.” He accepted all of Jia Xu’s plans, and the full story is told in Cao Cao’s biography. Eventually, Han Sui and Ma Chao were defeated, and that was all due to Jia Xu’s stratagem.

(III) That is, northern Jing Province.
(9) I, Songzhi, your servant, am of the opinion that this plan of Jia Xu’s was unsuitable for the times. At that time, men like Han [Sui] and Ma [Chao] were still looking on as wolves west of the Passes – how can Emperor Wu [Cao Cao] sit in peace at Yingdu and cause the lands of Wu and Kuiji to submit in awe to him? This much is obvious. Jing Province is bound to be an object of contention between Sun [Quan] and Liu [Bei]. The people of Jing admire the heroism of Lord Liu and fear the military prowess of Sun Quan, and should this go on for any longer, even the multitude of Cao’s generals could overcome the land. That’s why when Cao Ren defended Jiangling, he was defeated in no time at all. How, then, can they succeed in attracting them by virtue, and expect them to bow in submission? Now, [Cao Cao] has just pacified the Yangtze and the Han River region, his might is feared through the lands of Yang and Yue, and he controls Liu Biao’s equipment for naval battle and the skills of the sailors of the Jing and Chu area. This is indeed a fine time for him to make his majesty sweep through the land, a great opportunity for building up the empire. If he doesn’t take this chance to conquer Wu, how long should he wait? As for the defeat at Chibi, it was merely fate. The reality was that a great epidemic blunted the valour of the elite troops, and a southerly wind created a situation of great burning. This is the work of Heaven and clearly not in the hands of man! Accordingly, Cao Cao’s continuing eastward was not a mistake. Jia Xu’s admonishment is unfounded. Later, after Cao Cao vanquished Zhang Lu, each day saw scores of alarms in the lands of Shu. Liu Bei couldn’t stop the panic even by beheading those who started it. However, having ignored Liu Ye’s plan, [Cao Cao] missed the opportunity for taking [Shu] like rolling up a straw mat. Because of this slight miscalculation, he could do naught but regret. This is a similar event. The fact that everyone agrees that Liu Ye’s plan was right makes it even clearer that Jia Xu’s speech was wrong.

At the time when Emperor Wen [Cao Pi] was still General over the Officers, Cao Zhi, Marquis of Linzi, was becoming widely known for his talents. Each man had his supporters, and rumours appeared of [Cao Zhi] plotting to take over as heir. Cao Pi had someone ask Jia Xu for the method to strengthen his own position. Jia Xu said, “I hope that the General [Cao Pi] will perfect his virtues, become more big-hearted, and practise the disciplines of a scholar not in government office; that he would observe these day and night, and never act contrary to the proper behaviour of a son. This is all.” Cao Pi followed his words and worked hard to improve himself. Cao Cao once dismissed his attendants and asked Jia Xu privately [regarding the succession issue], but Jia Xu was silent. Cao Cao said, “Why is it that you are silent when I was speaking to you?”

Jia Xu said, “I was just thinking about something, and so I didn’t respond right away.”

“What was on your mind?” Cao Cao asked.

“I was thinking,” replied Jia Xu, “of Yuan Benchu, Liu Jingsheng, and their sons.”

Cao Cao laughed, and the choice for the crown prince was set. Jia Xu considered the fact that he was not one of Cao Cao’s long-time followers but one whose strategies were far-seeing, and feared lest suspicion should come upon himself. Thus he kept completely to himself, stayed away from personal relationships, and did not marry his children into prestigious families. He thus gained much respect for those men of the realm who discussed issues of wits and stratagems.

When Emperor Wen ascended the throne, he made Jia Xu the Grand Tutor (10), and promoted his noble rank to Marquis of Weishou Precinct. He increased Jia Xu’s fief by three hundred households to a total of eight hundred. A fief of two hundred households was separated out to support his younger son, Jia Fang, as a Grand Marquis. His eldest was made Chief Commandant of the Imperial Cavalry. The Emperor asked Jia Xu, “I wish to launch a punitive attack on the insurgents in order to bring the lands under Heaven together. Which should be first: Wu, or Shu?” The reply was, “One who wishes only to conquer by force appreciates military power, but one who desires to build a sturdy foundation values the transformation of the people by good virtues. Your Majesty has received the throne by abdication, as Heaven wills, to bring all the realm under His control; if He can attract them by the ways of propriety and virtue, and wait for an opportune time, then it will not be difficult to take them over. Although Wu and Shu are only tiny states, they have mountains and rivers to protect them. Furthermore, Liu Bei has heroic ambitions; Zhuge Liang excels in governing; Sun Quan can discern truth and falsity in politics; and Lu Yi (IV) sees through military situations clearly. They would hold fast to the strategic fortifications in hard-to-attack places, or set their naval forces in the rivers and lakes. It would be difficult to devise a plan to take them. The way of warfare dictates that one should ensure victory before engaging in battle, and only after evaluating the enemy should he discuss how to deploy his men – this is how one can act without fear of miscalculation. My personal opinion is that among our officers, none is the match of Liu Bei and Sun Quan; even if Your Majesty sends his royal wrath upon them, there is no certain way to avoid a failure. In the past, Shun only had to wave his shield and sword and the Youmiao submitted to him (V). Your servant believes that now it is advisable to employ civil means before engaging the military.” Emperor Wen did not accept his advice. In later times he waged the battle of Jiangling, and many soldiers perished. Jia Xu died at the age of 77, and was given the posthumous title of the Austere Marquis. His son Jia Mu was his heir, and held a series of positions as the head of commanderies. When Mu died, his son Mo inherited his position (11).

(10) Wei Epitome: Since he benefited from what Jia Xu said to the Grand Progenitor, he made Jia Xu the first to occupy the highest rank as soon as he ascended the throne.
Supplemental Biography of Xun Xu: When the position of Minister Over the Masses of Jin was vacated, Emperor Wu [Sima Yan] asked Xun Xu who would be a suitable candidate for the position. The reply was, “The Three Lords are the ones upon whom the masses hold their regard, and thus it is most crucial to employ the right man for the job. In the past, when Emperor Wen of Wei employed Jia Xu as one of the Three Lords, Sun Quan laughed at him.
(IV) Lu Yi is Lu Xun.
(V) In the high ancient times, the sage-king Shun wished for the Youmiao tribe to submit to his rule. He worked hard on building up political relationships, and as a result, he only had to symbolically wave his shield and sword at a meeting with the Youmiao delegates, and the tribe agreed to surrender.
(11) According to Shiyu: Jia Mo served as an imperial counsellor and General Army-Protector during Emperor Hui of Jin’s time (AD 290-301). His son Jia Yin, Jia Yin’s younger brother Jia Kan, and their younger cousin Jia Pi all held power under the Jin.

Copyright © 2004
Translated from Chen Shou’s Records of the Three Kingdoms annoted by Pei Songzhi