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Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Officers X-Z

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Officers X–Z: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Hsi Chien 郤俭
A famed doctor from Yangcheng.
Hsi Lung 习隆
Son of Xi Zhong.
Hsi Ni 奚泥
Defeats Shu army 15 times but it is all a ploy to make Nanman careless.
習禎 (文祥)
Hsi Chên (Wên-hsiang) 习祯 (文祥)
Skilled in rhetoric, he was comparable to Pang Tong, held civil posts under Liu Bei.
郤正 (令先)
Hsi Chêng (Ling-hsien) 却正 (令先)
Neither loved nor despised by Huang Hao. Advised Liu Shan in exile, left family behind.
Hsi Chihts‘ai 戏志才
Recommended by Xun Yu, Xi Zhicai became a valuable officer to Cao Cao.
Hsi Chung 习忠
Son of Xi Zhen.
Hsi Tsoch‘ih 习凿齿
Authored the Han/Jin historical text, Han Jin chunqiu.
Hsia Yün 夏晖
One of the Ten Regular Attendants, greatly favoured by Dowager Dong and Emperor Ling.

Notes: You may also see him referenced as Xia Hui (‘暉’ can be ‘Hui1’). In this case, we have sided with the Moss Roberts and Brewitt-Taylor translations.

夏侯霸 (仲權)
Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan) 夏侯霸 (仲权)
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
Hsiahou Po 夏侯博
In 200, Cao Cao captured him after defeating Liu Bei.
Hsiahou Tê 夏侯德
Dismissed Huang Zhong for seeking battle. Slain by Yan Yan at Tiandang mountain.
夏侯惇 (元讓)
Hsiahou Tun (Yüan-jang) 夏侯惇 (元让)
One of Cao Cao’s original officers, with civil and military talent. Lost an eye in battle.
Hsiahou ên 夏侯恩
Carried Cao Cao’s Blue Blade. Cut down by Zhao Yun at Dangyang as he plundered.
夏侯和 (義權)
Hsiahou Ho (I-ch‘üan) 夏侯和 (义权)
Fourth son of Xiahou Yuan. Fought well against Shu’s Zhuge Liang.
夏侯惠 (稚權)
Hsiahou Hui (Chih-ch‘üan) 夏侯惠 (稚权)
Third son of Xiahou Yuan. Fought alongside his brother He on the front lines.
Hsiahou Chün 夏侯骏
Jin officer. Appointed to do battle with the Qiang tribes.
夏侯楙 (子林)
Hsiahou Mao (Tzŭ-lin) 夏侯楙 (子林)
Friend of Cao Pi, not very good at tactics and enjoyed an easy life. Slandered by family.

Notes: Xiahou Mao’s style name was recorded, historically, as Zilin, but Zixiu (子休) is used in the novel.

Hsiahou Ju (Chün-lin) 夏侯儒
Held variety of posts in northwest and in Jing, later replaced in one by Xiahou Ba.
夏侯尚 (伯仁)
Hsiahou Shang (Po-jên) 夏侯尚 (伯仁)
Captured at Mt. Dingjun, but traded for Chen Shi. Defended against Wu.
Lady Hsiahou 夏侯氏
Wife to Zhang Fei. Xiahou Yuan’s niece and Xiahou Ba’s cousin.
夏侯威 (季權)
Hsiahou Wei (Chi-ch‘üan) 夏侯威 (季权)
Campaigned against both Shu and Gongsun Yuan. Recognised Yang Hu’s talent.
Hsiahou Hsien 夏侯咸
General who assisted Zhong Hui in taking Shu. One of Cao Shuang’s co regents.
夏侯玄 (太初)
Hsiahou Hsüan (T‘-ai-ch‘u) 夏侯玄 (太初)
Served Cao Fang. Killed by Sima Shi for plotting against him with Li Fang and Zhang Qi.
夏侯淵 (妙才)
Hsiahou Yüan (Miao-ts‘ai) 夏侯渊 (妙才)
Xiahou Dun’s brother. Famed for his attacks against the western barbarians.
Hsiang Ch‘ung 向宠
Given control of internal military affairs. Died fighting Hanjia barbarians.
Hsiang Ch‘ung 向充
On hearing about the seals shown by Wei Guan, recalled Qiao Zhou’s prophecy.
Hsiang Yü [Hsiang Chi] 项羽(项籍)
Founder of the state of Chu. Warred with Liu Bang but was defeated.
襄楷 (公矩)
Hsiang K‘ai (Kung-chih) 襄楷 (公矩)
Widely read, he used portents against the eunuchs and for the reformers. Predicted the eunuchs’ destruction.
向朗 (巨達)
Hsiang Lang (Chü-ta) 向朗 (巨达)
Defended rear flank in the northern campaigns. Friend of Ma Su, didn’t report escape attempt.
向條 (文豹)
Hsiang T‘iao (Wên-pao) 向条 (文豹)
Xiang Lang’s son, he was a man of great learning.
Hsiang Hsiu 向秀
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Accepted appointment after Ji Kang’s death.
Hsienyü Tan 鲜于丹
A military officer in Wu. Served under Lu Xun during Yiling.
Hsienyü Fu 鲜于辅
Revolted against Gongsun Zan to avenge Liu Yu, later serving Wei well in the north.
Hsiao Ch‘iao 小乔
Younger of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Da Qiao. Married to Zhou Yu.

Notes: Xiao (小), in this context, translates to ‘Little’, thus ‘Younger’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Younger Qiao’, the name Xiao Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by KOEI in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

Hsieh Huan 谢奂
When a senior clerical officer, he advised Cao Cao to become Duke.
Hsieh Ching 谢旌
Duels Zhang Bao for 40 bouts before retreating. Described as brave, killed by Zhang Bao.
Hsieh P’iao 解剽
Sent by Cao Cao to attack Zhang Lu, inflicting a large defeat.
辛敞 (泰雍)
Hsin Ch‘ang (T‘-ai-yung) 辛敞 (泰雍)
An follower of Cao Shuang, his sister warned him to stay loyal.
Hsin Chi 辛机
Held rank as Prefect, but his authority was usurped by the rebel Zhang Jin.
辛毗 (佐治)
Hsin P‘i (Tso-chih) 辛毗 (佐治)
Sent as envoy to Cao Cao but instead urged Cao Cao to attack the Yuan’s. Hugged by Cao Pi.
辛評 (仲治)
Hsin P‘ing (Chung-chih) 辛评 (仲治)
An officer of Han Fu, he later served the Yuan’s loyally when Fu fled.
Hsin Hsienying 辛宪英
Advised her brother Chang to go to Cao Shuang’s camp, saving his life. Advised Xin Pi and others.
Hsing Taojung 邢道荣
A hardy commander of Liu Du. Killed by Zhao Yun.

Notes: ‘Xing Darong’ in the online version of the novel.

Hsing Chên 邢贞
Quarrelled with Cheng Yu and later got rebuked by Wu officers when he was envoy.
Hsiu Yün 修允
Hsiu Tsê 修则
Hsiu Tsê 修则
A general under Sun Hao. Fought Jin in Jiaozhou but was killed in battle.
Hsü Ch‘ang 许昌
Raised revolt against the Han but was put down by Zang Min and Sun Jian.
許褚 (仲康)
Hsü Ch‘u (Chung-k‘-ang) 许褚 (仲康)
One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards and a commander. Leader of the Tiger Guard.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Xu Zhu’, but this is incorrect. His nickname, 虎痴 (Hu3 Chi1), has been translated as Marquis Tiger, Crazy Tiger, Mad Tiger, and other variations. He also appears once in the Brewitt-Taylor translation by the nickname Tiger Lust.

許慈 (仁篤)
Hsü Tz‘ŭ (Jên-tu) 许慈 (仁笃)
Expert in teachings of Zheng Xuan. Argued with Hu Qian, controlled Liu Shan’s harem.
Hsü Tan 许耽
Officer of Liu Bei in Xuzhou. Opened the gates for Lü Bu when he attacked Zhang Fei.
Hsü Kung 许贡
Prefect of Wu Territory. Executed by Sun Ce for having relations with Cao Cao.
徐晃 (公明)
Hsü Huang (Kung-ming) 徐晃 (公明)
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
許靖 (文休)
Hsü Ching (Wên-hsiu) 许靖 (文休)
Said to be an able critic. Liu Bei didn’t respect him but Liang always bowed to him.
Hsü K‘un 徐琨
Fought under Sun Jian and Sun Ce, replaced as Administrator as he was seen as a threat.
徐邈 (景山)
Hsü Miao (Ching-shan) 徐邈 (景山)
Dismissed for drinking privately, a succesful governor noted for fine morality.
徐璆 (孟玉)
Hsü Ch‘iu (Mêng-yü) 徐璆 (孟玉)
A scholarly man of utmost honesty, he refused to serve Yuan Shu and returned the imperial seal.

Notes: Also Xu Jiu. Styled Mengyu (孟玉), Mengben (孟本), or Mengping (孟平). Sometimes found as Xu Liu.

Hsü Jung 徐荣
Defeated Cao Cao and Sun Jian in battle, but never able to press it home.
許劭 (子將)
Hsü Shao (Tzŭ-chiang) 许劭 (子将)
A specialist of personalities living in Runan. Praised Cao Cao. Later served Liu Yao.

Notes: Appears in Destiny of an Emperor by the name of Xu Shou. If you say this person’s surname followed by style name it would become “Xu2 Zi3jiang1” because of the third tone after the Xu3.

徐盛 (文嚮)
Hsü Shêng (Wên-hsiang) 徐盛 (文向)
Served in Chibi and Wu’s invasions into Wei. Tricked Cao Pi with a fake wall.
徐庶 (元直)
Hsü Shu (Yüan-chih) 徐庶 (元直)
One of Sima Hui’s students. Served Liu Bei, then later, through trickery, Cao Cao.

Notes: Also went by the name Shan Fu (單福).

徐宣 (寶堅)
Hsü Hsüan (Pao-chien) 徐宣 (宝坚)
Refused Sun Ce, handled all state affairs for Cao Rui. Held a number of posts.
Hsü I 许仪
Led the attack on Nanzheng, but was defeated by Shu’s Lu Xun. Executed by Zhong Hui.
Hsü I 徐逸
An officer of Sun Ce. Participated in battle against Chen Yu.
Yang Feng 杨凤
Appointed by Emperor Ling to lead the various bandit forces.
徐奕 (季才)
Hsü I (Chi-ts‘ai) 徐奕 (季才)
Slandered by Ding Yi but Huan Jie called him a man of loyalty. Took part against Ma Chao.
許攸 (子遠)
Hsü Yu (Tzŭ-yüan) 许攸 (子远)
Childhood friend of Cao Cao. Betrayed Yuan Shao to Cao, but was killed by Xu Chu.
Hsü Chao [Shao] 许昭[韶]
Son of Xu Chang. Killed by Sun Jian along with his father.

Notes: Xu Hao in the online novel version. Xu Zhao’s name is a bit of a mystery. Xu Chang (probably Xu Zhao’s) staged a rebellion in Kuaiji (or Xu Zhao did) and Xu Zhao was either leader (HHS 102), sole son by the name of Xu Shao, associated leader by the name of Xu Shao (SGZ Wu 1), or two sons named Zhao and Shao. In any case, Xu Zhao 昭 seems most likely as Shao 韶 may have been used in Sanguozhi to avoid a taboo on Sima Zhao’s name.

Hsü Chên 徐真
Close friend of Sun Jian, married Jian’s younger sister.
Hsü Chih 许芝
Minister of Wei. Reccomended Guan Lu to Cao Cao. Later convinced Cao Pi to take the throne.
Hsü Chih 徐质
A general defeated by Jiang Wei, in the novel he defeats Liao Hua and Zhang Yi in duels.

Notes: Called Xu Zi in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

Hsü Chih 徐质
Governor of Licheng who was killed by the rebel Cai Fang.
Hsüeh Hung 薛洪
Formally took over on the death of Zhang Yang but had very little power. Surrendered to Cao Cao.
Hsüeh Lan 薛兰
Defeated and killed Li Qian but was defeated and executed himself by Cao Cao a year later.
Hsüeh Li 薛礼
Served Liu Yao with Zhang Ying. Killed by his former ally Ze Rong.
Hsüeh Hsü 薛珝
An envoy to Shu, warned Sun Xiu that Shu was doomed. Led armies against Jin.
薛瑩 (道言)
Hsüeh Ying (Tao-yen) 薛莹 (道言)
One of the collaborative authors behind the Wu shu (Wu History).
薛綜 (敬文)
Hsüeh Tsung (Ching-wên) 薛综 (敬文)
Took part in conquering Vietnam, skilled in debate and composition.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Xue Yong’ in chapter 38 of the online Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

荀諶 (友若)
Hsün Ch‘ên (Yu-jo) 荀谌 (友若)
Younger brother of Xun Yu. Advised Han Fu on administration. Later served Yuan Shao.

Notes: Xun Chen’s name is misrepresented in numerous sources, including: Pinyin Brewitt-Taylor chapter 7 as Xun Chang, chapters 22 and 26 as Xun Shen; Moss Roberts chapter 7 as Xun Chan, chapters 22 and 26 as Xun Shen; Zizhi Tongjian as Xun Shen. And in hoards of sites and games. You will see these mistakes wherever you see the 諶 character.

Hsün Kun 荀绲
Served Yuan Shao then Cao. Son of Xun Shu, father of Xun Yu. One of the ‘Eight Dragons’.
Hsün Chien 荀俭
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
荀靖 (叔慈)
Hsün Ching (Shu-tz‘ŭ) 荀靖 (叔慈)
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
Hsün K‘ai 荀恺
Saved Zhong Hui at Nanzheng by shooting Lu Xun. Popular with the Sima’s.
Hsün Shên 荀诜
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
荀淑 (季和)
Hsün Shu (Chi-ho) 荀淑 (季和)
Grandfather of Xun Yu.
荀爽 (慈明)
Hsün Shuang (Tz‘ŭ-ming) 荀爽 (慈明)
Fast tracked by Dong Zhuo, he calmed Zhuo down when Yang Biao angered him.

Notes: Also known as Xun Xu.

Hsün Su 荀肃
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
Hsün T‘ao 荀焘
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
荀勗 (公曾)
Hsün Hsü (Kung-ts‘êng) 荀勗 (公曾)
Child prodigy, warned against Zhong Hui and opposed invasion of Wu. A jealous man.
荀衍 (休若)
Hsün Yen (Hsiu-jo) 荀衍 (休若)
Brother of Xun Yu, he defeated Gao Gan’s surprise attack.
荀顗 (景倩)
Hsün I (Ching-ch‘ien) 荀顗 (景倩)
Was sent by Sima Zhao to fetch Chen Tai after Cao Mao’s death. Senior minister.
荀攸 (公達)
Hsün Yu (Kung-ta) 荀攸 (公达)
Advisor of Cao Cao. Xun Yu’s cousin. Died grieving Cao Cao’s interest in being Duke.

Notes: His name is pronounced differently from Xun Yu’s.

荀彧 (文若)
Hsün Yü (Wên-jo) 荀彧 (文若)
Cousin of Xun You, a very talented advisor under Cao Cao. Commited suicide.

Notes: The reason we have Xun Yu and Xun “You” is because, though the sounds are the same (both Yu), they’re pronounced Yu4 and Yu1, the You idea, I suppose, comes in for foreign readers who cannot see the tones.

Hsün Chuan 荀专
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
Yatan 雅丹
Fictional. Prime Minister to King Cheliji of the Western Qiang.

Notes: Frequently written ‘Ya Dan’.

Yen Paihu [White Tiger Yen] 严白虎
Fought with Sun Ce, but was defeated. Killed by Dong Xi.

Notes: ‘白虎’ translates to ‘White Tiger’, thus his alleged Chinese name of Yan Baihu actually reads ‘White Tiger of Yan’, as he appears in several English books. Yan Baihu was recorded in history by his nickname. His real name, if he actually had one, is unknown.

Yen Kang 严纲
Officer of Gongsun Zan. Led Zan’s army at Jieqiao, but was killed by Qu Yi.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Yan Guang’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

嚴畯 (曼才)
Yen Chün (Man-ts‘ai) 严畯 (曼才)
Refused appointment as Lu Su’s successor. He was unable to ride a horse.
Yen K‘uang 严匡
In charge of the colonies around Xu city, he led reinforcements to put down Jin Yi’s revolt.
Yen Liang 颜良
A fierce general in service under Yuan Shao. Beheaded by Guan Yu.
Yen P‘u 阎圃
Advised Zhang Lu on the defence against Cao Cao, stopped Lu becoming King.

Notes: Also called Yan Fu.

Yen Jou 阎柔
Lived among the tribes as a child. Campaigned with Cao Cao against the Wuwan.
閻溫 (伯儉)
Yen Wên (Po-chien) 阎温 (伯俭)
Captured by Ma Chao, when dragged before the walls, he urged the defenders to fight on.
Yen Hsiang 阎象
Senior member of Yuan Shu’s staff. Objected to Yuan Shu’s plans to assume the imperial title.
Yen Yen 严颜
Served Liu Zhang, but surrendered to Zhang Fei after being defeated by him.
Yen Yü 严舆
Killed by an enraged Sun Ce after suggesting that Sun Ce join Yan Baihu.

Notes: Also said to be Yan Xing in Dynasty Tactics 2.

閻宇 (文平)
Yen Yü (Wên-p‘ing) 阎宇 (文平)
A respected figure in Shu, given command of the south. In novel, becomes Huang Hao’s man.

Notes: Yan Yu’s name is incorrectly translated in the Brewitt-Taylor as ‘Yan Yun’.

Yen Chêng 严政
Officer of Zhang Bao. Killed Bao when defeat was inevitable.
Yen Chih 阎芝
Reinforced Liu Bei after Yiling, died at Hanzhong when at service with Zhuge Liang.
Yang Ang 杨昂
Fought under Ma Chao and aided Zhang Wei in building strong defences against Cao Cao.
Yang Piao 杨彪
Stripped of rank and banished by both Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao. Drove Li Jue and Guo Si apart.
Yang Po 杨柏
Jealous of Ma Chao, prevented marriage alliance between Zhang Lu and Ma Chao.
Yang Ch‘ou 杨丑
Killed his former lord Zhang Yang, for Cao Cao, but in turn was killed by Sui Gu.
Yang Tao 羊道
Helped Cai Yong escape the eunuchs and find safety in the south-east.
Yang Fêng 杨奉
Betrayed Li Jue to help Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu then Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
Yang Fêng 杨锋
Man chieftain. Ally of Meng Huo, who later betrayed to help Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Yang Fang’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

楊阜 (義山)
Yang Fu (I-shan) 杨阜 (义山)
Helped defeat Ma Chao. Criticized Cao Rui’s extravagance in clothing, buildings and woman.
楊洪 (季休)
Yang Hung (Chi-hsiu) 杨洪 (季休)
Argued with Li Yan, urged Zhuge Liang to follow orders and raise all forces for Hanzhong.
羊祜 (叔子)
Yang Hu (Shu-tzŭ) 羊祜 (叔子)
A talented Jin officer. Held Xiang Yang. Formed a friendship with Lu Kang of Wu.
Yang Huai 杨怀
Officer of Liu Zhang. Executed after an attempt to assassinate Liu Bei.
Yang Chi 杨济
Champion General under Jin. Controlled the field armies during the invasion of Wu.
Yang Chi 杨稷
Close offical of Cao Rui, respected Liu Ye. Opposed camapign against Shu.
楊俊 (季才)
Yang Chün (Chi-ts‘ai) 杨俊 (季才)
A widely admired offical, he established schools in area’s he governed and helped bring talent to Wei.
楊慮 (威方)
Yang Lü (Wei-fang) 杨虑 (威方)
Served Shu. Yang Yi’s brother, died at 17 but was known for virtue.
Yang Mi 杨密
Imperial Corps Commander. Persuaded Guo Si not to kill Yang Biao.
Yang P’u 杨仆
King of Di at Wudu.
Yang Ch‘i 杨琦
Advised through Li Jue and Guo Si’s abuse, recommended Jia Xu. Plotted against Li Jue.
Yang Ch‘iu 杨秋
Sent by Han Sui to Cao Cao as an envoy of peace. Surrendered when under siege.
Yang Ch‘ün 阳群
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Yang Jên 杨任
Fought well against Cao Cao’s forces at Yangping, lured out and killed in battle.

Notes: He is called Yan Ren in the online version of the novel and possibly in other sources.

Yang Sung 杨松
Vassal of Zhang Lu. Known to be greedy, he betrayed Zhang Lu.
楊偉 (世英)
Yang Wei (Shih-ying) 杨伟 (世英)
Military advisor to Cao Shuang. During Cao Shuang’s campaign in 244, he urged retreat, warning that the army would suffer a huge defeat otherwise.
楊戲 (文然)
Yang Hsi (Wên-jan) 杨戏 (文然)
Respected for his honesty but was sacked and died a commoner. Wrote the Ji-Han fuchen zan.
Yang Hsin 杨欣
Served Wei. District Governor of Jincheng before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
楊修 (德祖)
Yang Hsiu (Tê-tsu) 杨修 (德祖)
A talented scholar and friend of Cao Zhi, helped Zhi cheat Cao Cao’s tests.
Yang I 杨稷
Grand Administrator of Jiaozhi in Jin Dynasty.
楊儀 (威公)
Yang I (Wei-kung) 杨仪 (威公)
Opposed old enemy Wei Yan. Later later stripped of rank for dissensitoius words.
Yang Chao (Hsiu-ch‘u) 杨肇
Sent to rescue Bu Chan, suffered horrendous defeat, retreat was a disaster. Sacked.
Yang Tso 杨祚
Goes with Bei Yan and makes strong camp, suggests waiting for Sima Yi to retreat.
I Yin 伊尹
Honored official of the Shang Dynasty. Helped Tang of Shang to defeat King Jie of Xia.
Yin Tamu 尹大目
Tried to stop Wen Qin during Guanqiu Jian’s rebellion, but failed.
Yin Teng 殷登
Recorded Shan Yang’s prediction that Cao Pi would take the throne. Was rewarded by Cao Pi.
Yin Fan 隐蕃
A false defector to Wu, charmed many people but revolt failed, died bravely.
Yin Fêng (Tzŭ-tsêng) 尹奉
A man of respected family, he played a part in driving away Ma Chao.
Yin K‘ai 尹楷
Mantained supplies for Yuan Shang. Killed by Xu Chu in the novel.
Yin K‘uei 殷馗
An expert in astrology, he predicted a Perfect Man would rise, later thought to mean Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Yin Ku’ in chapter 32 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation; likely a typo as he is Yin Kui elsewhere.

Yin Li [Lu’êrh] 尹礼[卢儿]
A bandit leader, he later helped Zang Ba against the Yuan’s. Called Black Boy.

Notes: Lu’er, which translates to ‘Black Boy’, was his nickname.

尹默 (思潛)
Yin Mo (Ssŭ-ch‘ien) 尹默 (思潜)
Learnt from Sima Hui, had great knowledge of the classics, appointed tutor of Liu Shan.
Yin Shang 尹赏
Friend of Jiang Wei in Tianshui. Surrendered Tianshui to Shu, made Prefect of Jicheng.
應劭 (仲瑗)
Ying Shao (Chung-yüan) 应劭 (仲瑗)
His historical work remain an important source of information on Later Han.

Notes: Called Ling Shao in the Shi Yu.

Yung K‘ai 雍闓
Along with Gao Ding and Zhu Bao, rebelled in Southern Yizhou.
Yu T‘u 尤突
Commoner of Poyang, asked by Cao Cao to lead men against Wu. He Qi and Lu Xun beat him.
Yü Tu 于毒
A leader of the Black Mountain Bandits, he was defeated by Cao Cao then later by Yuan Shao.

Notes: Commonly displayed as Yu Du. His name, a title, is properly displayed as Poison Yu.

虞翻 (仲翔)
Yü Fan (Chung-hsiang) 虞翻 (仲翔)
Advisor to Wang Lang. Surrendered to Sun Ce. Convinced Mi Fang, Fu Shiren to defect to Wu.
于禁 (文則)
Yü Chin (Wên-tsê) 于禁 (文则)
Served Cao Cao. Surrendered to Guan Yu. Shamed by Cao Pi into suicide.
Yü Mi 于麋
An officer of Liu Yao. Defeated in a duel with Sun Ce and died.
Yü Ch‘üan 于诠
Served as commander in Wu during Sun Liang’s reign. Helped support Zhuge Dan.
Yü Jang 豫让
Assassin from the Warring States period. Disfigured himself to avenge Zhi Yao.
Yü Shê 俞涉
Served as a commander under Yuan Shu. Killed by Hua Xiong.
Yü Ssŭ 虞汜
Son of Yu Fan.
Yüan Pa 袁覇
Advised Cao Cao to become Duke and Cao Pi to become emperor.
袁逢 (周陽)
Yüan Fêng (Chou-yang) 袁逢 (周阳)
Father of Yuan Shu and possibly Yuan Shao. Minister of Agriculture in service to Han.
袁閎 (夏輔)
Yüan Hung (Hsia-fu) 袁闳 (夏辅)
Rebuked his relatives for prospering when the Han was in disorder, the Turbans respected him.
袁渙 (曜卿)
Yüan Huan (Yao-ch‘ing) 袁涣 (曜卿)
A man of courtesy, generosity and restraint, he refused to rebuke Liu Bei.
Yüan Hui 袁徽
Refused appointment from Cao Cao but praised Shi Xie and Xu Jing.
Yüan Chi 袁基
A member of the Yuan family, he was executed due to Yuan Shao’s revolt.
Yüan Min 袁敏
Discussed matters with Xian and an expert with a sword, he was interested in hydrology.
Yüan P‘ang 袁滂
Father of Yuan Huan, who served Wei.
袁尚 (顯甫)
Yüan Shang (Hsien-fu) 袁尚 (显甫)
A handsome man, won his father’s favor but lost to Cao Cao. Executed by Gongsun Kang.
Yüan Shao 爰邵
Guard of Deng Ai. Versed in the Book of Changes, he predicts Deng Ai’s success and fall.

Notes: Sometimes called Shao Yuan, likely to differentiate from his more famous namesake. Dispite the fact that they are different Han Zi, Yuan Shao of Wei’s name is pronounced exactly the same as the more commonly known Yuan2 Shao4 [Benchu]

袁紹 (本初)
Yüan Shao (Pên-ch‘u) 袁绍 (本初)
Childhood friend, and later enemy of, Cao Cao. Defeated at Guandu.
袁術 (公路)
Yüan Shu (Kung-lu) 袁术 (公路)
Relative of Yuan Shao. Declared himself Emperor, but soon after died.
Yüan Ssŭ 袁嗣
Surrendered to Cao Cao in 196.
袁譚 (顯思)
Yüan T‘an (Hsien-ssŭ) 袁谭 (显思)
A famed general but a poor governor, fought against Shang for the succession.
Yüan Wei (Tz‘ŭ-yang) 袁隗
A famed minister, aided He Jin’s avengers. Killed by a vengeful Dong Zhuo.
袁熙 (顯奕)
Yüan Hsi (Hsien-i) 袁熙 (显奕)
Eventually took in Shang, driven out by revolt. Executed by Gongsun Kang.
Yüan Hsiung 袁雄
Lü Meng, having committed murder, gave himself up to Xiong who told Sun Ce about Meng.
Yüan Yao 袁燿
Son of Yuan Shu. Fled south to Liu Xun, later to Sun Ce.
袁遺 (伯業)
Yüan I (Po-yeh) 袁遗 (伯业)
Admired by Zhang Chao and Cao Cao. Defeated by Yuan Shu and killed by his own men.
Yüan Yin 袁胤
Defended Yuan Shu’s belongings after Shu’s death, but was killed by Cao Cao.
袁忠 (正輔)
Yüan Chung (Chêng-fu) 袁忠 (正辅)
Fled his post during the civil war. Alleged to have been murdered on Cao Cao’s orders,
Yüeh Ch‘ên 乐綝
Served Wei. Son of Yue Jin. Campaigned against Shu with Cao Zhen. Executed by Zhuge Dan.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Yue Shen’ in some Koei games, and on rare occasion referenced as ‘Yue Lin’.

樂進 (文謙)
Yüeh Chin (Wên-ch‘ien) 乐进 (文谦)
Served Cao Cao from the beginning. Shot from his horse by Gan Ning. Small-framed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as Yue Jing in some Brewitt-Taylor editions. Yue Jin is also sometimes translated as Le Jin (and in Destiny of an Emperor they somehow botched it up further to Le Xin).

Yüeh Chiu 乐就
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
Yüeh Sung 乐松
A possible eunuch, he warned against Zhang Jue and defend his critic Yang Ci.
Yüeh I 乐毅
Minister of the states of Zhao and Yan in the Warring States era. Also known as Lord Guojun.

Notes: Also known as ‘Lord Guojun’.

Yüehchi 越吉
Fictional. Marshal under King Cheliji of the Western Qiang. Killed by Guan Xing.

Notes: Frequently written ‘Yue Ji’.

Yüfulo 於夫罗
Chief of the Southern Xiongnu. Aided Yuan Shu and Zhang Yang.
Yün Ying 云英
Concubine of Dong Cheng. Her interactions with Qin Qingtong got Cheng killed.
臧霸 (宣高)
Tsang Pa (Hsüan-kao) 臧霸 (宣高)
Originally served Tao Qian, then Lü Bu. Later joined Cao Cao.
臧洪 (子源)
Tsang Hung (Tzŭ-yüan) 臧洪 (子源)
A loyal man, he was much admired and was the one that proclaimed the oath of the alliance.
Tsang Min 臧旻
Governor of Kuaiji. Recommended Sun Jian to the court after Jian quelled Xu Chang’s rebellion.
Tsao Chih 棗祗
Held out against Lü Bu and kept supplies going. His idea of agricultural colonies was credited with Wei’s success.
Tsê Jung 笮融
Buddhist, fought against Sun Ce, had a record of betrayal and murder.

Notes: Also referred to as Zhai Rong in Generals of the South. As well as To Establish Peace.

棧潛 (彥皇)
Chan Ch‘ien (Yen-huang) 栈潜 (彦皇)
Opposed Cao Pi’s love of hunting and marriage of love to Empress Guo.
Chan Yen 詹宴
Officer of Liu Bei, he was defeated by Lu Xun by the Yangzi Gorges.
Chang Pao 张苞
Turned on Li Jue and launched a surprise attack, he failed to get a fire going.
Chang Pao 张宝
Yellow Scarves leader and Zhang Jue’s brother. Self-titled ‘Lord of Earth’.

Notes: Zhang Ba in the online version of the novel.

Chang Pao 张苞
Fought against Wei and Wu, killing many generals. Died in the Northern Campaigns.

Notes: Sometimes ‘苞’ is translated as Pao, thus Zhang Pao. We continue to use Bao.

Chang Po 张伯
Leader in the Yingchuan region, defeated and killed by Fu Xie.
Chang Pu 张布
With Puyang Xing, enthroned Sun Hao over Wen. Executed Sun Chen with Ding Feng.
張超 (子並)
Chang Ch‘ao (Tzŭ-ping) 张超 (子并)
A man of great literary ability, he assisted Zhu Jun against the Turbans.
Chang Ch‘ao 张超
Was a member of the anti-Dong Zhuo coalition, held out for months against Cao Cao.
張承 (公先)
Chang Ch‘êng (Kung-hsien) 张承 (公先)
Warned Yuan Shu about declaring himself Son of Heaven, served in many ranks.
張承 (仲嗣)
Chang Ch‘êng (Chung-ssŭ) 张承 (仲嗣)
Friend of Zhuge Jin among others. Sent with Sun Shao to Guangling to capture Huaiyang.
Chang Ch‘êng 张晟[白骑]
Bandit leader, famed for his white horse. He was driven out by Du Ji and killed by Ma Teng.

Notes: Zhang Cheng’s nickname, Baiqi, translates to White Rider.

Chang Ch‘ih 张赤
A bandit based in Taoshan, he was defeated by Li Tong.
Chang Ch‘uan 张泉
Took part in Wei Feng’s conspiracy and executed when it failed.

Notes: Rafe calls him Zhang Quan

Chang Ch‘un 张纯
Passed over for promotion, he led the Wuhuan in revolt. After initial success, Liu Yu turned up and Chun was betrayed.
Chang Ch‘unhua 张春华
Wife of Sima Yi, she killed their only maid to protect her husband.
張存 (處仁)
Chang Ts‘un (Ch’u-jen) 张存 (处仁)
Removed from office by Liu Bei for making disrepectful remarks after Pang Tong’s death.
Chang Ta 张达
Officer of Zhang Fei, he was beaten harshly so murdered Zhang Fei then fled to Wu.
Chang Tang 張當
Gave Cao Shuang woman from the Imperial Harem. Implicated others as traitors.
Chang Fan 张泛
Enfeoffed as marquis by Cao Pi in honour of Zhang Liao’s achievements.
張範 (公儀)
Chang Fan (Kung-i) 张范 (公仪)
His generosity got family members returned by bandits, he was a frugal man.
Chang Fang 張方
Son of Zhang Yan who inherited his estate.
張飛 (益德)
Chang Fei (I-tê) 张飞 (益德)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Guan Yu. Second of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Sanguozhi records Zhang Fei’s style as 益 (yi4: ‘benefit’ or ‘increase’) rather than 翼 (yi4: ‘wing’), as used in the novel, games, and most literature.

張綱 (文紀)
Chang Kang (Wên-chi) 张纲 (文纪)
Great-grandfather of Zhang Yi (Bogong), who served Shu.
Chang Kung 张恭
Refused to work with tribes despite his son being held hostage.
張浩 (叔明)
Chang Hao (Shu-ming) 张浩 (叔明)
Great-great-grandfather of Zhang Yi (Bogong), who served Shu.
張郃 (儁乂)
Chang Ho (Chün-i) 张郃 (儁乂)
Originally under Yuan Shao, defected to Wei. Died battling Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Apparently, Zhang He is misspelled ‘Zhang Yue’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Chang Hêng 张横
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights.

Notes: For some reason poor Zhang Heng is listed incorrectly in several sources. Some Chinese versions of the novel have him as ‘長橫’ (‘長’ chang2 instead of ‘張’ zhang1). As if that isn’t enough, some Brewitt-Taylor translations list him as Zhang Han—no idea why.

張紘 (子綱)
Chang Hung (Tzŭ-kang) 张紘 (子纲)
Minister who served Wu. Suggested changing the capital to Sun Quan.
Chang Hu 张虎
Son of Zhang Liao. Defended against Zhuge Liang along with Yue Chen.
Chang Hu [Tiger Chang] 张虎
Marched out with Huang Zu to oppose Sun Jian. Killed by Han Dang after 30 bouts.

Notes: ‘Zhang Hui’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

張華 (茂先)
Chang Hua (Mao-hsien) 张华 (茂先)
Played Go with Sima Yan, approved invasion of Wu. Talented poet, became Prime Minister.
Chang Chi 张济
Junior partner under Li Jue, attacks Liu Biao in bid for supplies but dies due to arrow.
張既 (德容)
Chang Chi (Tê-jung) 张既 (德容)
Persuaded Ma Teng to help Cao Cao, he was a major part in the pacification of Liang.
張儉 (元節)
Chang Chien (Yüan-chieh) 张俭 (元节)
Much admired, thousands of people died helping him flee. Aware of Cao Cao’s ambitions.
Chang Chieh 张节
Minister of Wei who was executed by Sima Yan when he usurped the throne.
Chang Chin 张进
Led a failed rebellion against Wei in AD 220.
張津 (子雲)
Chang Chin (Tzŭ-yün) 张津 (子云)
Practised magic, sent to oppose Liu Biao, he was killed by his officer Ou Jing.
Chang Chiu 张就
Kidnapped by rebels in AD 220. He bravely held out until reinforcements came.
Chang Chü 张举
Led revolt against the Han, he ravaged the northeast and declared himself ruler.
Chang Chüeh or Chiao 张角
Founder of the Yellow Scarves. Self-titled ‘Lord of Heaven’.

Notes: Written ‘Zhang Jiao’ (角 can be pronounced as both Jue and Jiao) at times (particularly by Koei) and as Zhang Jao in Destiny of an Emperor. The audio file says “Zhang Zue”, followed by “Jiao3”

Chang Chün 张钧
Blamed the Yellow Turban revolt on the eunuchs. Arrested and flogged on false charges.
Chang K‘ai 张闿
Entered Tao Qian’s service after the Yellow Scarf uprising. Killed Cao Cao’s family.
Chang K‘uang 章诳
Sent by his commander Xu Dan to invite in Lü Bu to Xu and opened the gates.
Chang Liang 张梁
Advised Sun Quan to move the capital to Jianye. He served Sun Jiao, Sun Huan, Zhang Huan and Lu Xun.

Notes: He has the same name as Zhang Liang of the Yellow Turbans.

Chang Liang 张梁
Yellow Scarves leader and Zhang Jue’s brother. Self-titled ‘Lord of Man’.

Notes: Zhang Lian in the online version of the novel.

張良 (子房)
Chang Liang (Tzŭ-fang) 张良 (子房)
Western Han. Renowned strategist and statesman. One of the “Three Heroes of the early Han Dynasty.”
張遼 (文遠)
Chang Liao (Wên-yüan) 张辽 (文远)
Served in Wei after Cao Cao defeated Lü Bu. Close friend of Guan Yu.
Chang Lung 张龙
He and Zhang Bao changed sides, they took part in Guo Si’s secret attack but it failed.
張魯 (公祺)
Chang Lu (Kung-ch‘i) 张鲁 (公祺)
Controller of Hanzhong before surrendering to Cao Cao in 215.
Chang Manch‘êng 张曼成
Local leader, he killed Chu Gong but three months later, was killed by Qin Jie.
Chang Mao (Yen-ts‘ai) 张茂
Remonstrated with Cao Rui over Rui’s building works, put to death.
張猛 (叔威)
Chang Mêng (Shu-wei) 张猛 (叔威)
Mother told he would die in a certain tower. Killed fellow officer Handan Shang, murdered by avenging troops.
Chang Mi 张弥
Envoy to Gongsun Yuan, an idea Zhang Zhao protested against, executed by Yuan.
張邈 (孟卓)
Chang Miao (Mêng-cho) 张邈 (孟卓)
Friend of Yuan Shao and Cao Cao, rebelled against Cao Cao. Killed by his own men later on.
Chang Min 张旻
Sent by Shi Xie to pay tribute to the Han in 208.
Chang Nan 张南
Claimed ability on the waters, but was just a braggart. Killed by Zhou Tai.

Notes: ‘Zhang Neng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to differentiate from Zhang Nan of Shu.

張南 (文進)
Chang Nan (Wên-chin) 张南 (文进)
Commander of the vanguard against Wu, killed in the defeat that followed.
張嶷 (伯岐)
Chang Ni or Chang I (Po-ch‘i) 张嶷 (伯岐)
Wounded by Wang Shuang. Died rescuing Jiang Wei, suffered from arthritis.

Notes: 張嶷 is commonly translated as both Zhang Yi and Zhang Ni. Zhang Ni is perhaps the most common translation, likely to disambiguate from other Zhang Yis, but both are accepted.

Chang Niu-chiao 张牛角
Bandit leader. After his death from a flying dart, command of his force passed to Zhang Yan.

Notes: Niujiao means “ox horn”.

Chang P‘u 张普
Served under Cao Xiu. Defeated by Xu Sheng, killed by Zhu Huan.
Chang Ch‘i 张岐
Sent by Han Fu and Yuan Shao to get Liu Yu to take up the throne.
張緝 (敬仲)
Chang Ch‘i (Ching-chung) 张缉 (敬仲)
Executed by Sima Shi for plotting to remove Shi with Cao Fang. Predicted Zhuge Ke would die.
Chang Ch‘iao 张乔
Jin general who dealt a heavy defeat to Wu’s troops under Zhang Ti.
Chang Ch‘iu 张球
Served Cao Rui, sent to set a fire trap against Wu, burning many ships.
Chang Ch‘üan 张泉
Took part in Wei Fang’s plot and executed when caught. Family lost marquis.

Notes: Also called Zhang Chuan

Chang Jang 张让
Most influential of the Ten Regular Attendants. Drowned himself to avoid capture.
Chang Jên 张任
Remained loyal to Liu Zhang. Executed by Liu Bei. In novel, Pang Tong died in his ambush.
Chang Jung 张融
Son of Zhang Fang who inherited his estate.
Chang Shang 张尚
General of Jin who killed Lu Jing.
Chang Shao 张绍
Surrendered to Wei after Shu’s collapse.
Chang Shihp‘ing 张世平
Horse trader from Zhongshan with Su Shuang. Supplied Liu Bei’s first armed force.
Chang Shuang 张爽
Took part in pushing Liu Bei to become emperor.
張松 (永年)
Chang Sung (Yung-nien) 张松 (永年)
Officer of Liu Zhang and Shu. Aided Liu Bei in Ba-Shu. Angered Cao Cao in Sanguo Yanyi.
Chang Su 张肃
Governor of Guanghan, discovered the treachery of his brother Zhang Song and warned Liu Zhang.
張特 (子產)
Chang T‘o (Tzŭ-ch‘an) 张特 (子产)
Commanded the defence of Xincheng when it was under attack by Zhuge Ke.
Chang T‘i (Chü-hsien) 张悌
Wu’s last Prime Minister. Refused surrender to Jin and marched out to die on the battlefield.
Chang Wei 张卫
Zhang Lu’s younger brother. Beheaded after a brilliant battle with Xu Chu.
Chang Wei 张微
Of firm character and keen to learn.
張溫 (惠恕)
Chang Wên (Po-shên) 张温 (惠恕)
First ever Han Excellency appointed when out of the capital, struggled to deal with Han Sui.
Chang Wên (Hui-shu) 张温
Was an admired man of moral quality, sacked for recommending an overzealous friend.
Chang Wu 张武
Began pillaging the people of Jiangxia. Zhao Yun killed him with a spear thrust.
Chang Hsi 张喜
Promoted to high office, he was sent to make peace between Li Jue and Guo Si. Sacked by Cao Cao.
Chang Hsi 张憙
Sent to gather up reinforcements and help Hefei, Sun Quan retreated due to rumours of it’s size.
Chang Hsien 张羨
A widely popular magistrate, he revolted against Liu Biao and held him off till Xian died.
Chang Hsiang 张象
Wu Leader of the Van who surrendered to Jin.
Chang Hsin 张歆
Zhang Fan’s grandfather.
Chang Hsiu 张绣
He fought Cao Cao after he took Zhang Ji’s widow as a wife. Served Wei with distinction.
Chang Hsiu 张脩
One of the founders of the Five Pecks of Rice sect, he rebelled against the Han twice, killed by Zhang Lu.
張休 (叔嗣)
Chang Hsiu (Shu-ssŭ) 张休 (叔嗣)
Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan, and Chen Biao. Lost faction struggle.
Chang Hsüan 张宣
Local leader, killed the defeated Han Xian as Xian fled to Bing.
張玄 (處虛)
Chang Hsüan (Ch‘u-hsü) 张玄 (处虚)
Advised Zhang Wen to use his command of the army to reform the Han government.
Chang Hsüan 张玄
Zhang Hong’s son. Administrator of Nan and a member of Sun Quan’s Secretariat.
Chang Hsün 张勋
Fought against Lü Bu but was betrayed by Yang Feng. Escorts Yuan family south.
Chang Yen 张延
Zhang Fan’s father
Chang Yen 张琰
Bandit, took part in pillaging but was defeated and killed by Ma Teng.
張延 (公威)
Chang Yen (Kung-wei) 张延 (公威)
May have paid for rank, Zhang Yan was slandered by the eunuchs and died in jail.
Chang Yen 张燕
Leader of the Black Mountain Bandits. Tried but failed to aid Gongsun Zan.

Notes: His surname at birth was Chu (褚). Many Black Mountain Bandits had nicknames. Zhang Yan‘s was ’Flying Swallow Yan.’ In the past we have noted his style name as Zijie (子節), but have removed the name due to a lack of historic confirmation.

張楊 (稚叔)
Chang Yang (Chih-shu) 张杨 (稚叔)
A good and generous man, attempted to aid Emperor Xian but wasn’t trusted by other generals.
Chang I 张逸
Local officer, went to join Liu Yu in death, using every curse he knew on Gongsun Zan
Chang I 张仪
Strategist from the Warring States period. Born in the State of Wei. See also Su Qin.
張翼 (伯恭)
Chang I (Po-kung) 张翼 (伯恭)
Urged Jiang Wei to concentrate on internal affairs. Strict governor, it caused revolt.
張裔 (君嗣)
Chang I (Chün-ssŭ) 张裔 (君嗣)
Looked after affairs when Zhuge Liang was at war. Held hostage by Wu.
Chang I 张顗
Killed by Gan Ning as he cleared the road ahead for Cao Cao. Historically not at Chibi.

Notes: ‘Zhang Zi’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish among others named Zhang Yi.

Chang Yin 张音
Prepared Emperor Xian’s abdication to Cao Pi.
Chang Ying 张颖
Officer of Wei. Assisted in the defense of Hefei in 234.
Chang Ying 张英
Served Liu Yao with Xue Li. Lost in battle to Sun Ce twice. Killed by Chen Wu.
張裕 (南和)
Chang Yü (Nanho) 张裕 (南和)
Divined Liu Bei’s death nine years after taking Yizhou. Executed by Liu Bei.
Chang Yüeh 张约
Officer who served in Zhuge Ke’s personal police force. Killed by Sun Jun.
Chang Yün 张允
Surrendered to Cao Cao with Cai Mao. Served as Cao’s Vice Admiral at Chibi.
Chang Chang 张璋
Officer under He Jin. Led troops to slaughter the eunuchs after his death.
張昭 (子布)
Chang Chao (Tzŭ-pu) 张昭 (子布)
Served Wu. Highly trusted internal administrator.

Notes: Sometimes written Zhang Zao.

Chang Chungching 张仲景
Also known as Zhang Ji. Famous physician from the Eastern Han Dynasty.

Notes: Also commonly known as Zhang Ji (張機).

趙苞 (威豪)
Chao Pao (Wei-hao) 赵苞 (威豪)
Zhao Zhong’s cousin. Fought Xianbei even though they had captured his wife and children.
Chao Ts‘ên 赵岑
Occupied River Si Pass for Dong Zhuo. Retreated when Dong Zhuo abandoned Luoyang.
Chao Tu 赵犊
Killed the Inspector of Youzhou and Governor of Zhuojun. Defeated and executed by Cao Cao.
Chao O (Chao Och‘in) 赵娥(亲)
Pang Yu’s mother. Killed Li Shou to avenge her father, Zhao Jun’an, then turned herself in.

Notes: Zhao E 趙娥 usually appears by the name Zhao Eqin 趙娥親. Appears as Pang Eqin 龐娥(親) in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Chao Fan 赵范
Offered his sister-in-law to Zhao Yun, who refused as Yun doubted Fan’s loyalty.
Chao Kuang 赵广
Died during an expedition under Jiang Wei.
Chao Kuota 赵国达
Trieu Au’s older brother.

Notes: Known to the Vietnamese as Trieu Quoc Dat (Triệu Quốc Đạt).

Chao Hung 赵弘
Fought with Zhu Jun at Wan, held out for eight months but was killed by Sun Jian.
Chao Lei 赵累
Said to be loyal and trust-worthy, he died fighting Wu with Guan Yu and Guan Ping.
Chao Ch‘ü 赵衢
Shut Ma Chao out of Hanyang and murdered his family, became a general.
Chao T‘ung 赵统
Eldest son of Zhao Yun. Inherited his father’s title.
Chao Wên (Tzŭ-jou) 赵温
Infuriated Cao Cao by nominating Cao Pi. Li Jue twice tried to kill him but Li Ying and Jia Xu saved him.
Chao Yü 赵妪
Trieu Au, female warrior of the Nanyue tribe. Rebelled against Wu. Defeated by Lu Yin.

Notes: Known to the Vietnamese as Trieu Thi Trinh (Triệu Thị Trinh) or Trieu Au (Triệu Ẩu; Lady Trieu). I have pronounced the Chinese Zhao Yu, but dont know how to pronounce the Viet.

趙雲 (子龍)
Chao Yün (Tzŭ-lung) 赵云 (子龙)
Served Shu. Highly trusted by Liu Bei. Fourth of the Five Tiger Generals.
Chao Chung 赵忠
Emperor Ling considered him as a mother, slandered Huangfu Song, Lu Qiang and Fu Xie.
Chao Tzŭ (Tê-tu) 赵姿
A man of wide learning, he was sent to offer thanks for Quan being made king, using it as an occasion to praise Wu.
Chên I 甄逸
Father of Empress Zhen, but died while she was young. Commandery Governor.
Chêng Ch‘ung (Wên-ho) 郑冲
Devoted to scholarship, first served under Cao Pi, became Grand Tutor to Sima Yan.
Cheng Kan 郑甘
Mountain bandit who surrendered to Wei. Rebelled again and was killed by Cao Ren.
鄭渾 (文公)
Chêng Hun 郑浑 (文公)
Encouraged parents not to abandon infants, isolated and defeated Liang Xing.
Chêng Sui 郑遂
Student of Li Gu, compiled record of master’s sayings. Killed by Turbans from Qing.
Chêng Wên 郑文
Officer under Sima Yi. Falsesly surrendered to Kongming. Executed by Kongming.

Notes: Commonly listed as Deng Wen 邓文. Confusion may be the cause: zheng4 鄭/郑 vs deng4 鄧/邓.

鄭玄 (康成)
Chêng Hsüan (K‘-ang-ch‘êng) 郑玄 (康成)
Loved wine, a leading scholar of his day but hated court life. Had many students.
鍾會 (士季)
Chung Hui (Shih-chi) 锺会 (士季)
Close adviser of Sima Zhao. Later plotted rebellion and was killed by mutinous troops.
Chung Chin 钟缙
Used a large axe but was dismounted by Zhao Yun.
Chung Ching 钟进
Went to inspect a gate of Chang’an, he was was cut down by Pang De.

Notes: Called Zhong Jin in some translations of the novel.

Chung Shên 钟绅
Had half his head cut off by Zhao Yun as Shen pursued the Shu general.
鍾繇 (元常)
Chung Yao (Yüan-ch‘ang) 钟繇 (元常)
Famous calligrapher. Stirred up quarrel between Han Sui and Ma Teng, close to Cao Pi.
鍾毓 (稚叔)
Chung Yü (Chih-shu) 钟毓 (稚叔)
A senior law officer, warned Sima Zhao about his brother’s untrustworthy nature.
Chungli Fei 钟离斐
Officer of Wu. Known for his bold military tactics.
Chou Ang 周昂
Sent to attack Sun Jian, he took the camp and killed Gongsun Yue but was defeated.
周毖 (仲遠)
Chou Pi (Chung-yüan) 周毖 (仲远)
Executed for bad advice, Dong Zhuo later regretted it. Protected Yuan Shao and acted as his agent.
Chou Ts‘ang 周仓
Yellow Scarves leader turned subordinate of Guan Yu. Fictional.
Chou Ch‘ao 周朝
With Guo Shi, ravaged Lingling, Guiyang, and Changsha until destroyed by Sun Jian.
周處 (子隱)
Chou Ch‘u (Tzŭ-yin) 周处 (子隐)
A notorious youth who reformed himself. A popular offical, he died heroically against the Qiang.
周魴 (子魚)
Chou Fang (Tzŭ-yü) 周鲂 (子鱼)
Trapped Cao Xiu, allowing the Wu army to score a great victory.
Chou Ku 周谷
Allowed Sun Quan to use public money. When Quan became ruler, didn’t give Gu office.
Chou Huan (Wên-ming) 周奂
Part of Wang Yun’s government, killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Chou Ching 周旌
Part of Wang Fen’s plot in 188 to kidnap Emperor Ling. Cao Cao refused to be involved.
Chou Chün 周峻
A nephew of Zhou Yu. Was a trusted and capable subordinate of Lu Xun. Captured Shiyang from Wei by causing its citizens to panic.
周浚 (開林)
Chou Chün (K‘-ai-lin) 周浚 (开林)
Governor of Yang province in Jin. Participated in the conquest of Wu.
Chou P‘ing 周平
Went to aid Xia Xun but was disconcerted by his death and slain by Guan Xing.
周群 (仲直)
Chou Ch‘ün (Chung-chih) 周群 (仲直)
Predicted the Han’s fall, Liu Biao’s death, success with pain at Hanzhong among others.
Chou Shan 周善
Took part in the kidnap plot against Liu Shan and Lady Sun but was killed by Zhang Fei.
Chou Shang 周尚
Sent to oversee fight against Liu Yao. Replaced by Yuan Yin.
Chou Shên 周慎
Badly beaten by Han Sui and Bian Zhang due to his failure to listen to advice.
Chou T‘ai 州泰
Wei governor in Yue territory. Helped to secure victory against Zhuge Dan.
周泰 (幼平)
Chou T‘ai (Yu-p‘ing) 周泰 (幼平)
Wu officer who Saved Sun Quan’s life, and was loved dearly in return.
周昕 (大明)
Chou Hsin (Ta-ming) 周昕 (大明)
Well read, he resigned his position rather then have Yuan Shu to harm his people.
周宣 (孔和)
Chou Hsüan (K‘ung-ho) 周宣 (孔和)
Interpretor of dreams, right nine times out of ten. Warned about female rebels.
Chou Hsün 周循
The eldest son of Zhou Yu. Said to have inherited his father’s ability, but died at age 17.
Chou Yin 周胤
The second son of Zhou Yu. Exiled for misdeeds, later pardoned.
周瑜 (公瑾)
Chou Yü (Kung-chin) 周瑜 (公瑾)
Skilled war commander of Wu. Commanded Wu forces at the Battle of Chibi.
Chou Yü (Jên-ming) 周㬂
Helped his brother against Sun Jian and Yuan Shu, he was later killed by Xu Gong.
Chou Chao 周昭
One of the officals that worked on the Wu shu.
Chou Chih 周旨
Fought against Wu. Ambushes and kills Sun Xin then kills Shen Rong in a raid.
Chou Chih 周直
Killed by Li Tong at a meeting whilst drunk. His followers were added to Li Tong’s troops.
周忠 (嘉謀)
Chou Chung (Chia-mou) 周忠 (嘉谋)
Urged Li Jue to call in Zhu Jun, led troops to protect Xian and had some success.
Chu Pao 朱褒
Rebelled against Shu with Yong Kai and Gao Ding. Killed when Gao Ding defected.
Chu Ên 朱恩
Officer who served in Zhuge Ke’s personal police force.
Chu Fang 朱芳
General of Wang Jing, one of four sent to attack Jiang Wei, they are defeated.
Chu Fu 朱抚
Took in refugees from the north, forced to flee as his officers sparked revolts.
Chu Kai 朱盖
Fought under Zhang Liao against Chen Lan and Xu Huang against Guan Yu.
Chu (Kung-tao) (公道)
Rescued Jia Kui from prison of Guo Yuan, later executed for some crime.
Chu Kuang 朱光
Set up farms at Huan and provoked riots against Wu but Sun Quan attacked and took the city.
朱皓 (文明)
Chu Hao (Wên-ming) 朱皓 (文明)
Established excellent government. Attacked Yuan Shu, later killed by Zhai Rong.
Chu Han 朱汉
Treated rudely by Han Fu, got revenge by attacking the house and breaking the legs of Han Fu’s son.
朱桓 (休穆)
Chu Huan (Hsiu-mu) 朱桓 (休穆)
Possibly a little mad, murdered the servants of Quan Yi. Destroyed Cao Ren at Ruxu.
Chu Chi 朱纪
Zhu Zhi’s third son. Married to a daughter of Sun Ce.
朱績 (公绪)
Chu Chi (Kung-hsü) 朱绩 (公绪)
The son of Zhu Ran. He defended Jiangling from the Wei general Wang Chang and was known for his courage and bravery. Sometimes called Shi Ji (施績)
朱據 (子據)
Chu Chü (Tzŭ-chü) 朱据 (子据)
Wu Scholar. Demoted after supporting Sun He. Tricked into committing suicide.
朱儁 (公偉)
Chu Chün (Kung-wei) 朱儁 (公伟)
Han minister who fought against the Yellow Scarves with Liu Bei and Sun Jian.
朱靈 (文博)
Chu Ling (Wên-po) 朱灵 (文博)
Said to be disliked by Cao Cao, his reputation was equal that of Xu Huang’s.
朱然 (義封)
Chu Jan (I-fêng) 朱然 (义封)
Served Wu. Was the son of Zhu Zhi’s sister. Studied together with Sun Quan.
Chu Hsi 朱熹
Using the Zizhi tongjian and other sources, wrote the Tongjian gangmu.
朱異 (季文)
Chu I (Chi-wên) 朱异 (季文)
A general of Wu and the son of Zhu Huan. Executed by Sun Chen for numerous defeats.
Chu Ying 朱应
Went to Funan, in SE Asia, as an envoy. Wrote the Funan yiwu zhi, a record of what he saw.
Chu Tsan 朱讚
Officer of Cao Zhen, sent to raid the Shu camp but failed. Killed by Zhao Yun.
朱治 (君理)
Chu Chih (Chün-li) 朱治 (君理)
Served through three generations of the Sun family. Magistrate in Wu County.
Chuang Tzŭ [Nan Hua] 莊子[南华]
Old Taoist Sage from Mt. Hua that gave Zhang Jue the Way of Peace (太平要術).

Notes: Though frequently presented under the proper name, Zhuang Zi (莊子), the literal text presents his name as “The Nanhua Immortal” (南華真人). This is sometimes simplified to ‘Nanhua’ or ‘Nan Hua’ (南華), which is not correct. Zhuang Zi is none other than the famous Taoist sage from the Warring States period, and with this in mind, you may also see him listed, of course, as Chang Tzu (Wade-Giles), Zhuang Zhou (莊周) (his given name), Meng Official (蒙吏), Meng Zhuang (蒙莊), and Meng Elder (蒙叟). He also appears in some Koei games as ‘Nan Hua’.

Chuko Ch‘o 诸葛绰
諸葛誕 (公休)
Chuko Tan (Kung-hsiu) 诸葛诞 (公休)
Zhuge Liang’s cousin. Tried to rebel against Sima Zhao, but was executed.
諸葛豐 (少季)
Chuko Fêng (Shao-chi) 诸葛丰 (少季)
Commander in the Western Han Dynasty. Ancestor of Zhuge Liang.
諸葛珪 (子貢)
Chuko Kuei (Tzŭ-kung) 诸葛珪 (子贡)
Zhuge Liang’s father. Descended from Zhuge Feng. Governor’s deputy in Taishan.

Notes: His style is entered in the Sanguozhi as Jungong (君貢) but in Sanguo Yanyi as Zigong (子貢). Jungong is likely correct as it stems from Sanguozhi. We are looking into this.

諸葛恢 (道明)
Chuko Hui (Tao-ming) 诸葛恢 (道明)
Chuko Chien 诸葛建
Third son of Zhuge Ke.
諸葛瑾 (子瑜)
Chuko Chin (Tzŭ-yü) 诸葛瑾 (子瑜)
Zhuge Liang’s older brother in service to Wu. Highly trusted by Sun Quan.
Chuko Ching 诸葛京
Zhuge Zhan’s second son. Served Jin following the collapse of Shu.
Chuko Ching (Chung-ssŭ) 诸葛靚
Sent to Wu as a hostage, he became a prominent commander under Sun Hao.
Chuko Chün 诸葛均
Zhuge Liang’s younger brother, worked his way up in Shu.
諸葛恪 (元遜)
Chuko K‘o (Yüan-hsün) 诸葛恪 (元逊)
Served Wu as Imperial Guardian. Son of Zhuge Jin. Murdered by Sun Jun.
諸葛亮 (孔明)
Chuko Liang (K‘ung-ming) 诸葛亮 (孔明)
Mastermind of Shu’s rise as a great power. Also known as ‘Sleeping Dragon’.

Notes: Also known by his nickname, ‘Sleeping Dragon’ or ‘Wo Long’ (臥龍). His original novel introduction, with Pang Tong, comes under this title.

Chuko P‘an 诸葛攀
The son of Zhuge Qiao. After Zhuge Ke’s death, was restored as Zhuge Jin’s heir.
Chuko Ch‘ien 诸葛虔
Subordinate of Chang Diao in an attack on Zhu Huan.
諸葛喬 (伯鬆)
Chuko Ch‘iao (Po-sung) 诸葛乔 (伯松)
Famed in his own time, lacked brother’s talent but had superior disposition.

Notes: Originally styled Zhongshen (仲慎), but after adopting him Zhuge Liang changed it to Bosong (伯松).

諸葛融 (叔長)
Chuko Jung (Shu-ch‘ang) 诸葛融 (叔长)
Not a good scholar but charitable and skilled in art. Killed himself when Zhuge Ke fell.
Chuko Shang 诸葛尚
Died with his father on the battlefield against Deng Ai at only nineteen years old.
Chuko Sung 诸葛竦
The second son of Zhuge Ke.
諸葛靚 (仲思)
Chuko Ching (Chung-ssu) 诸葛靓 (仲思)
Discusses plans of defence but on seeing Jin army, runs away weeping.
Chuko Hsü 诸葛绪
Imperial Inspector of Yongzhou before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
Chuko Hsüan 诸葛玄
Served Yuan Shu as Grand Administrator of Yuzhang. Later driven out by Zhu Hao.
諸葛頤 (道回)
Chuko I (Tao-hui) 诸葛颐 (道回)
The grandson of Zhuge Dan and son of Zhuge Jing.
諸葛瞻 (思遠)
Chuko Chan (Ssŭ-yüan) 诸葛瞻 (思远)
Zhuge Liang’s son. Died along with his son defending Shu from Deng Ai.
Chuko Chih 诸葛直
Voyaged for Wu to find and conquer foreign lands with Wei Wen. Failed and was executed.
Tsung Pao 宗宝
Slain in a few bouts by the Yellow Turban general Guan Hai.
宗預 (德艷)
Tsung Yü (Tê-yen) 宗预 (德艳)
Shu official. Sent to Wu to ask about Wu’s increased border guard after Zhuge Liang died.
Tsung (Tzŭ-ch‘ing) (子卿)
Persuaded the rebelling Hou Yin to let the governor go, joined in attack on Hou Yin.
Tsou Tan 邹丹
Killed by the rebelling Yan Rou, 4,000 of his men are killed as well.
Tsou Ching 邹靖
Served as Commandant under Liu Yan. Fought the Yellow Scarves with Liu Bei.

Notes: ‘Zhou Jing’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor Translation.

Tsou Ch‘i 邹岐
Appointed in AD 220–221 to administrative posts in Liangzhou during times of rebellion.
Tsou T‘a 邹他
Local leader, refused to accept Sun Ce but was defeated and killed.
Tsu Pi 祖弼
Keeper of the Imperial Seal under Emperor Xian. Executed before Xian was deposed.
Tsu Lang 祖郎
Chieftain of Danyang. Defeated Sun Ce but later joined his army.
祖茂 (大榮)
Tsu Mao (Ta-jung) 祖茂 (大荣)
One of Sun Jian’s first four commanders. Tricked Hua Xiong in order to save Sun Jian’s life.
Tso Ch‘êngtsu 左丞祖
Able in planning, ignored by Kong Rong. Later executed for suggesting Rong seek allies.
左慈 (元放)
Tso Tz‘ŭ (Yüan-fang) 左慈 (元放)
Taoist named ‘Master Black Horn’. Trained in the occult at Emei Mountain.

Notes: Rafe de Crespigny calls him Zuo Ce.

Tso Fêng 左丰
Eunuch of Han. Sent to evaluate Lu Zhi. Demanded a bribe, then lied about his merit.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Zhuo Feng’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Tso Ling 左灵
At Li Jue’s orders, with Jia Xu, restrained Emperor Xian. Slandered Duan Wei.
Tso Hsien 左咸
Reminds Sun Quan of how well Cao Cao treated Guan Yu, to no avail.
Tso I 左奕
Participated in the attack on Bu Chan under Lu Kang’s command.



Novel and History

Officers and Kingdoms

Literature and Language


March 7, 2014