Officer Names (CH/EN): Wei Officers

Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Wei Kingdom

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Wei Kingdom: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Pao Jung 鲍融
Son of Bao Shao, to whom the inheritance went after Bao Shao’s death.
Pao Shao 鲍邵
Enfeoffed in memory of the loyalty of his father Bao Xin.
Pao Hsin 鲍信
Urged Yuan Shao to attack Dong, invited Cao Cao to govern Yan. Died fighting Turbans.
鮑勛 (叔業)
Pao Hsün (Shu-yeh) 鲍勋 (叔业)
Strict morality meant Xun had conflicts with Cao Pi, was eventually executed.
Pi Ch‘ên 毕谌
Aide to Cao Cao, his family was captured and he left only to be captured later.

Notes: Also called Bi Cheng in the SGZ.

畢軌 (昭先)
Pi Kuei (Chao-hsien) 毕轨 (昭先)
Officer of Cao Shuang’s faction, executed by Sima Yi after Sima Yi’s coup.
Pien Ping 卞秉
Served Wei. Brother of Empress Bian.
Pien Lan 卞蘭
Close to both Cao Pi and Cao Rui, an honest advisor. Suffered from diabetes.
Pien Hsi 卞喜
Met Guan Yu with mock hospitality at Sishui Pass, and died for his trouble.
? Ping ?昺
General who took part in a stele about Cao Pi’s rise to the Imperial Throne.
邴原 (根矩)
Ping Yüan (Kên-chü) 邴原 (根矩)
Friend of Hua Xin. Belly of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars.
Po Hsiaoch‘ang 柏孝长
An officer of Merit who first hid when Liu Biao attacked, but took part in fighting after 5 days.
Ts’ai Fang 蔡方
Rebel who killed Licheng county’s governor Xu Zhi.
Ts‘ai Ho 蔡和
Cai Mao’s brother. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but executed by Zhou Yu.
Ts‘ai Lin 蔡林
Officer of Zhuge Ke, he defected to Wei with his entire company at Xincheng.
蔡瑁 (德珪)
Ts‘ai Mao (Tê-kuei) 蔡瑁 (德圭)
Assisted Liu Biao in taking control of Jingzhou, prevented Liu Qi from visiting father.
Ts’ai Hsün 蔡埙
Relative of Cai Mao, killed with an arrow by Gan Ning in a navy battle.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

Ts‘ai Yang 蔡扬
Sent to take Runan from Liu Bei and Liu Pi but failed and was killed.

Notes: His given name may be either ’揚’ or ’陽’.

Ts‘ai Chung 蔡中
Cai Mao’s cousin. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but was killed by Gan Ning.
倉慈 (孝仁)
Ts‘ang Tz‘ŭ (Hsiao-jên) 仓慈 (孝仁)
Governor of Dunhuang, his handling of foreign affairs gave him a great reputation.
Ts‘ang Hsün 仓恂
Son of Cang Ci. Served as a military official in Jinping.
曹昂 (子脩)
Ts‘ao Ang (Tzŭ-hsiu) 曹昂 (子脩)
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s first son. Died to save his father.
Ts‘ao Anmin 曹安民
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s nephew. Died in the battle against Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Cao Amin’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

曹彪 (朱虎)
Ts‘ao Piao (Chu-hu) 曹彪 (朱虎)
Cao Zhi wrote a poem about him. Cao Biao would later be found guilty of treason.
曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

Ts‘ao Ch‘an 曹阐
Replaced his deceased brother as Cao Zheng’s descendant.
Ts‘ao Ch‘ên 曹谌
Grandson of Cao Jun, inherits his father’s rank.
Ts‘ao Ch‘êng 曹乘
Prince, died without issue.
曹沖 (倉舒)
Ts‘ao Ch‘ung (Ts‘ang-shu) 曹冲 (仓舒)
One of Cao Cao’s sons. Possessed an adult’s intelligence at age 5, but died young.
曹純 (子和)
Ts‘ao Ch‘un (Tzŭ-ho) 曹纯 (子和)
Cao Ren’s younger brother. Defeated by Zhou Yu in the southern cities.
Ts‘ao Tê 曹德
Brother of Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Kai with his father Cao Song.
Ts‘ao Fan 曹范
Adopted to continue the line of the deceased Cao Zheng. Died without issue.
曹芳 (蘭卿)
Ts‘ao Fang (Lan-ch‘ing) 曹芳 (兰卿)
Cao Rui’s crown prince. Became Emperor at age eight. Deposed by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Fu 曹馥
Son of Cao Hong. Inherited his father’s fief and title.
Ts‘ao Kan 曹干
Son of Cao Cao, contemplated revolt against Cao Rui.
Ts‘ao Kun 曹衮
Noted for his scholarship and quiet conduct. Wrote essays when young.

Notes: Called Cao Kun in the ZZTJ.

曹洪 (子廉)
Ts‘ao Hung (Tzŭ-lien) 曹洪 (子廉)
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s cousins and a vital element of his army.
曹奐 (景明)
Ts‘ao Huan (Ching-ming) 曹奂 (景明)
Son of Cao Yu. Last Emperor of the Wei Dynasty. Abdicated to Sima Yan.

Notes: Originally named Cao Huang (曹璜). An Emperor’s given name was ineffable. As such, it was stricken from use (sometimes changing city names and re-writing literature). Cao Huang changed his name to Huan to lessen the impact of this practice (learn more).

Ts‘ao Hui 曹徽
Maintained Cao Yu’s line. When Cao Cao died, he went hunting until reigned in.
Ts‘ao Chi 曹棘
Died early and was later made a Prince.
Ts‘ao Ching 曹京
Son of Cao Cao. Died young. Posthumously enfeoffed as a duke.
Ts‘ao Chiung 曹冏
First son of Cao Rui. Prince of Qinghe. Died the year he was born.
Ts‘ao Chü 曹据
Punished for having his men produce illegal goods. Lived in south for his health.
Ts‘ao Chün 曹均
Transferred to the line of his uncle, had a child.
Ts‘ao K‘ang 曹犺
Wei Duke, had son.
Ts‘ao Mao 曹茂
Arrogant, vicious and sinful, he had to wait a long time to be King, had large family.
曹髦 (彥士)
Ts‘ao Mao (Yen-shih) 曹髦 (彥士)
Grandson of Cao Pi. Was made Emperor after Cao Fang’s abdication by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Mu 曹穆
Second son of Cao Rui. Prince of Fanyang. Died young.
曹丕 (子桓)
Ts‘ao P‘i (Tzŭ-huan) 曹丕 (子桓)
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
曹仁 (子孝)
Ts‘ao Jên (Tzŭ-hsiao) 曹仁 (子孝)
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
曹儒 (俊林)
Ts‘ao Ju (Chün-lin) 曹儒 (俊林)
Served under Cao Zhang and then later against Wu. Became a Minister.
Ts‘ao Jui 曹蕤
Son of Cao Pi.
曹叡 (元仲)
Ts‘ao Jui (Yüan-chung) 曹睿 (元仲)
Emperor of Wei, he defended the dynasty from Shu and Wu, but was criticized for his spending.
Ts‘ao Ch‘in 曹勤
Died early without issue.
曹肇 (長思)
Ts‘ao Shao (Ch‘ang-ssŭ) 曹肇 (长思)
Son of Cao Xiu.
Ts‘ao Shu 曹淑
Cao Rui’s daughter and fourth child. Died in infancy.
曹爽 (昭伯)
Ts‘ao Shuang (Chao-po) 曹爽 (昭伯)
Regent of Cao Fang. Underestimated Sima Yi, was stripped of power, and executed.
Ts‘ao Shuo 曹铄
Served Wei. The Prince of Xiangshang. Died at a young age.
曹嵩 (巨高)
Ts‘ao Sung (Chü-kao) 曹嵩 (巨高)
Adopted son of Cao Teng and father of Cao Cao. Also called Xiahou Song.

Notes: Occasionally listed as, and once named, Xiahou Song (夏侯嵩).

Ts‘ao T‘ai 曹泰
Son of Cao Ren. Succeeded his father’s fief and later became a general of Wei.
Ts‘ao Hsi 曹羲
Warned his brother about his excesses but was ignored. Recommended surrender.
Ts‘ao Hsiung 曹熊
Fourth son of Cao Cao from second wife Lady Bian.
曹休 (文烈)
Ts‘ao Hsiu (Wên-lieh) 曹休 (文烈)
Performed well against Shu and Wu but fell for Zhou Fang’s ploy at Shiting.
Ts‘ao Hsün 曹训
Cao Zhen’s third son. Younger brother of Cao Shuang. Executed by Sima Yi.
Ts‘ao Yen 曹演
Held military rank. In the 240’s, the fief he inherited was raised in rank.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹殷
Third son of Cao Rui. Posthumously Prince Ai of Anping. Died the year after he was born.
Ts‘ao Yung 曹永
General of Cao Ren. Killed by Pang De, who also took his horse.
曹宇 (彭祖)
Ts‘ao Yü (P‘êng-tsu) 曹宇 (彭祖)
Son of Cao Cao. Refused to be Regent to Cao Fang due to his modest nature.
曹彰 (子文)
Ts‘ao Chang (Tzŭ-wên) 曹彰 (子文)
Cao Cao’s second son by Empress Bian. Fond of martial arts. Died not long after Cao Cao.
曹真 (子丹)
Ts‘ao Chên (Tzŭ-tan) 曹真 (子丹)
Served Wei. Adopted into Cao family. Managed affairs after Cao Pi’s death.

Notes: Cao Zhen’s original family name was Qin. He was adopted into the Cao clan.

Ts‘ao Chêng 曹整
Adopted into the Cao Shao line but died without issue.
曹植 (子建)
Ts‘ao Chih (Tzŭ-chien) 曹植 (子建)
Cao Cao’s third son by Empress Bian. Originally favored as heir over Cao Pi. Famous poet.
Ts‘ao Tsun 曹遵
Relative of Cao Zhen. Appointed as vanguard against Zhuge Liang. Killed by Wei Yan.
Ts‘ên Wei 岑威
Escort for the captured Wooden Horses but was killed by Wang Ping.
Ch‘ai Yü 柴玉
Well known bell maker, argued with Du Kui over a pair of them. Cao Cao made him a horse herder.
Ch‘ang Tiao 常雕
Led an attack on Ruxu but was ambushed and killed by Zhu Huan.
常林 (伯槐)
Ch‘ang Lin (Po-huai) 常林 (伯槐)
Advised Cao Pi to not lead the army against Su Bo and Tian Yin but to leave it to a vassal.
Ch‘ang Hsi 昌豨
One of the Taishan Bandits. Joined and rebelled against Cao Cao several times.
Ch‘ê Chou 车胄
Served Cao Cao. Provisional Protector/Imperial Inspector of Xuzhou.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ung 陈琮
Son of Chen Qiu, became an administrator under Cao Cao.
陳登 (元龍)
Ch‘ên Têng (Yüan-lung) 陈登 (元龙)
Spied on Lü Bu with his father, Gui, for Cao Cao. Joined Liu Bei, then surrendered to Cao.
陳宮 (公臺)
Ch‘ên Kung (Kung-t‘-ai) 陈宫 (公臺)
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
陳紀 (元方)
Ch‘ên Chi (Yüan-fang) 陈纪 (元方)
A highly respected minister, opposed Dong Zhuo’s plan to move the capital.
陳矯 (季弼)
Ch‘ên Chiao (Chi-pi) 陈矫 (季弼)
Known as a righteous, happy yet calm person. Highly respected governor.
Ch‘ên Chün 陈俊
General of Sima Zhao. Participated in Sima Zhao’s campaign against Zhuge Dan.
陳琳 (孔璋)
Ch‘ên Lin (K‘ung-chang) 陈琳 (孔璋)
Served under Emperor Ling, then under Yuan Shao. A superior writer.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
Officer of Chen Yu, he was killed by Lü Fan.
陳騫 (休淵)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ien (Hsiu-yüan) 陈骞 (休渊)
A key Wei officer in the suppression of Zhuge Dan. Brigadier General of Jin.

Notes: Appears in some sources under the name Chen Xuan (陳鶱).

Ch‘ên Ch‘ün 陈群
Served Cao Rui. Captain under Sima Yi in his campaign against Gongsun Yuan.
陳群 (長文)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün (Ch‘ang-wên) 陈群 (长文)
Served Wei. Imperial Censor under Cao Cao. Supreme Commander under Cao Pi.

Notes: Sometimes his style is referenced incorrectly as ‘Zhangwen’.

Ch‘ên Su 陈肃
Made an imperial courtier by Cao Pi in honour of Chen Gui’s accomplishments.
陳泰 (玄伯)
Ch‘ên T‘ai (Hsüan-po) 陈泰 (玄伯)
Defended Wei against Jiang Wei. Wept at Cao Mao’s death, and died soon after.
Ch‘ên I 陈祎
Protected Empress Bian but joined in Wei Feng’s plot. Then revealed the plot out of fear.
Ch‘ên Yü (Kung-wei) 陈禹
Tried to destroy Sun Ce by getting lords in the south to ally against him.
Ch‘ên Tsao 陈造
Vanguard of Cao Zhen’s army. Slain by Ma Dai.
Ch‘êng Kungying 成公英
Served Han Sui as a strategist. Suggested hiding among the Qiang. Submitted to Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng K‘o 程克
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
Ch‘êng Liang 程良
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
Ch‘êng Wu 程武
Served Wei. Son of Cheng Yu. Advised Xiahou Mao against Zhao Yun.
Ch‘êng Yin 程银
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Died fighting Cao Cao at Wei Nan.
程昱 (仲德)
Ch‘êng Yü (Chung-tê) 程昱 (仲德)
Served Wei as an advisor. From Dong’e in Dongjun.

Notes: Cheng (程) Li (立) was his original name, he dreamed about the mount Tai Shan when he was young, holding the sun (日) with both hands. Hence Cao Cao changed his name to Yu (昱) [Cheng Yu]. As you can see the word of Yu is composed with the word ‘sun’ (日) and the word ‘stand’ Li (立), together they form the word of Yu (昱).

郗慮 (鴻豫)
Ch‘ih Lü (Hung-yü) 郗虑 (鸿豫)
Slandered Kong Rong leading to his death and took away the Empress’ seal.
Wuhuan Ch‘u [Ch‘u of Wuhuan] 乌桓触
Tribal chief, swore fealty to Cao Cao rather then help the Yuan sons.

Notes: The characters of 烏桓 (wuhuan) are the same as those used for the Wuhuan tribe, thus ‘Chu of Wuhuan’ in many respected sources.

Ts‘ui Liang 崔谅
Governor of Anding, tried to lure Shu army into trap but was killed by Zhang Bao.
崔林 (德儒)
Ts‘ui Lin (Tê-ju) 崔林 (德儒)
Cui Yan’s younger cousin, discussed the scholars of Ji province with Chen Qun.
崔琰 (季珪)
Ts‘ui Yen (Chi-kuei) 崔琰 (季珪)
Scholar who served Yuan Shao then Cao Cao, who executed him for his opposition.
Tai Kan 戴干
Recommended by Chen Qun to Cao Cao. Died fighting against Wu.
Tai Ling 戴陵
Served as assistant general to Zhang He during battle against Zhuge Liang.
Tai Yüan 戴员
Killed Sun Yi, Bian Hong and Sun He before he was assassinated.
Tang Chün 党均
Served as advisor to Deng Ai. Spread false rumours about Jiang Wei.
鄧艾 (士載)
Têng Ai (Shih-tsai) 邓艾 (士载)
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
Têng Ching 邓靜
An expert vocalist, he served the Han orchestra under Cao Cao.
Têng Hsi 邓羲
Resigned in protest at Liu Biao’s continued alliance with Yuan Shao.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
Meng Da’s nephew. Under orders from Sima Yi, he betrayed Meng Da.
Têng I 邓义
Served under Liu Cong with Liu Xian. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.
Teng Chan 邓展
A noted weapons expert who discussed swordplay with Cao Pi.
Têng Chung 邓忠
Served Wei. Deng Ai’s talented son. Died attempting to aid his father.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Deng Zong’ in some online historical sources.

Tien Man 典满
Served Wei. Dian Wei’s son, became a member of Cao Cao’s bodyguard.
Tien Wei 典韦
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.

Notes: We originally listed Dian Wei’s style as Ziman (子曼). As we are no longer able to locate the source, and a few possible causes for error have turned up, we no longer have reason to believe he had the name.

Ting Ch‘ung 丁冲
Early advisor to Cao Cao and Yang Feng, he died of overdrinking.
Ting Fei 丁斐
Magistrate of Weinan. Set free animals at Tong Gate to confuse Ma Chao’s army.
丁謐 (彥靖)
Ting Mi (Yen-ching) 丁谧 (彦靖)
Supporter of Cao Shuang, part of the clever four club led by Xiahou Xu.
丁廙 (敬礼)
Ting I (Ching-li) 丁廙 (敬礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi, a man of literary talent. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yì (丁儀). Sometimes incorrectly translated (perhaps in the name of disambiguation) as Ding Yin.

丁儀 (正禮)
Ting I (Chêng-li) 丁仪 (正礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi after Cao Pi slandered him. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yí (丁廙).

Tung Pa 董巴
Historian who wrote several works on the Han. Linked Cao Pi to Yellow Emperor.
Tung Ch‘ao 董朝
Objected to Pang De as leader for battle against Guan Yu.
Tung Ch‘êng 董承
Served Han as General of Cavalry and Chariots. Plots to assassinate Cao Cao.
Tung Fang 董访
His service to Zhang Miao led to Dong Zhao losing favour with Yuan Shao.
Tung Fên 董芬
Tried to copy Gan Shi’s breathing style but failed, almost killing himself in the attempt.
Tung Ho 董和
Captured in 214 by Sun Quan with Zhu Guang.
Tung Meng 董蒙
Petitioned Cao Cao to become Duke.
Tung Ssŭ 董祀
Sentenced to death for some crime, Cai Yan appealed to Cao Cao and saved him.
董遇 (季直)
Tung Yü (Chi-chih) 董遇 (季直)
Loved to study and a quiet man, highly venerated Confucian scholar.
董昭 (公仁)
Tung Chao (Kung-jên) 董昭 (公仁)
Served Han then Wei. Advised Cao Cao to move the capital to Xuchang.
Tungkuo Yennien (Kung-yu) 东郭延年
Noted for long life and youthful appearance, obtained by various methods.
Tungli Kun 東里袞
He fought bravely to escape when Wan rebelled. Later aided Cao Ren in retaking the city.
Tou Fu 窦辅
Grandson of Dou Wu, escaped being executed due to family friends.
杜畿 (伯侯)
Tu Chi (Po-hou) 杜畿 (伯侯)
Judged the best administrator in the empire, kept the people of Hedong loyal to Wei.
杜夔 (公良)
Tu K‘uei (Kung-liang) 杜夔 (公良)
Gentleman of the Court Music. Reprimanded Liu Biao for creating an orchestra for his court.
Tu Sung 杜松
Garrisoned in Donghai, his men mutinied and Song was replaced by Lü Qian.
Tu T‘ung 杜通
In 220, was arrested by Zhang Jin and his position usurped. Restored by Su Ze.
杜襲 (子緒)
Tu Hsi (Tzŭ-hsü) 杜袭 (子绪)
Proposed to the troops that Zhang He take command after Xiahou Yuan was killed.
杜預 (元凱)
Tu Yü (Yüan-k‘-ai) 杜预 (元凯)
Served Jin to unification. The Field Marshal that led the invasion of Wu.
Tuan Wei (Chung-ming) 段煨
Supplied Emperor Xian’s court despite being attacked. Destroyed Li Jue.
Tuan Chao 段昭
Defeated the rebel Cai Fang.
Tuhu 杜濩
Tribe leader, took in Zhang Lu and later surrendered to Cao Cao.
Empress Pien 卞皇后
Wife of Cao Cao and mother of Cao Pi. Made empress dowager when Cao Pi became emperor.

Notes: Called ‘Bian Shi’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Kuo (Nü-wang) 郭皇后
One of Cao Pi’s wives, said to have spread doubts about Cao Rui’s birth.

Notes: Guo Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Chang 张皇后
Daughter of Zhang Qi. Empress to Cao Fang. Ordered executed by Sima Shi.
Empress Chang 張皇后
Sister to Lady Zhang, second wife of Liu Shan.
Empress Chên [Chên Chi] 甄皇后[甄姫]
Formerly Yuan Xi’s wife. Later married to Cao Pi. Became Empress.

Notes: Empress Zhen is frequently called Zhen Ji, as she is named by Koei. Referenced elsewhere as Zhen Luo (甄洛) or Empress Wenzhao (文昭皇后). I’ve recorded this as Huang2hou4 Zhen1 (Empress Zhen), with Ji1 as her given name. To say her name as Koei suggests, use Zhen (surname) and Ji1 (given name) together.

Fan Ch‘êng 范成
Appointed a prefect of Luoyang when Cao Cao moved the capital to Xuchang.
Fan Ling 范陵
Sent by Guanqiu Xing as diplomat to the Qiang but Fan abused his position.
Fan Hsien 范先
Aided Gao Gan against Cao Cao but Du Ji’s work ensured their failure.
Fei Yao 费曜
Officer of Wei. Reached rank of Grand Commander, but died in battle.
Fei Chan 费栈
Served the Shanyue. Later submitted to Wei, and rebelled against Sun Quan.
One of many that sponsored a stele commemorating Cao Pi becoming Emperor.
Fêng K‘ai 冯楷
One of the commanders in Nanyang under Zhao Yan.
Fêng Li 张礼
Served Yuan Shang. Punished for intoxication. Betrayed to Wei. Killed by Shen Pei.
Fêng Jên 封仁
Around 215, Cao Cao told Feng of his confidence in the loyalty of Jiang Ji.
Fêng Su 冯肃
A dancer who helped keep the Han traditions alive.
傅幹 (彦材)
Fu Kan (Yen-ts‘ai) 傅幹 (彥材)
Advised Cao Cao to concentrate on civil affairs rather then campaign against Wu.
傅嘏 (蘭石)
Fu Ku (Lan-shih) 傅嘏 (兰石)
Chair of the Secretariat, he opposed Sima Shi’s invasion of Wu.
Fu Ch‘ün 傅羣
Inspector of Jing in 210.
Fu Hsüan 傅玄
Wrote the Fuzi and helped compile Wei’s history, a famed poet in his day.
傅巽 (公悌)
Fu Hsün (Kung-t‘i) 傅巽 (公悌)
Advised Liu Cong to surrender, urged Cao Cao to become a Duke and Cao Pi to become Emperor.

Notes: Incorrectly Romanized as ‘Fu Xuan’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Fu Yang 服养
A dancer who helped keep the Han traditions alive.
Fuhu 朴胡
Chieftain who shielded Zhang Lu, latter surrendered to Wei. Defeated by Huang Quan.
Kan Shih 甘始
Claimed to Cao Zhi, that he had been alive during the reign of the First Emperor.
Kao Lan 高览
Originally a talented officer of Yuan Shao. Defected with Zhang He to Wei.
高柔 (文惠)
Kao Jou (Wên-hui) 高柔 (文惠)
Minister of the Interior. Given provisional command of the army to seize Cao Shuang’s camp.
Kao Yu 高诱
Noted scholar and student of Lu Zhi, held a number of middle-range appointments under Cao Cao.
Kao (Yüan-lü) (元吕)
An expert physiognomist, about 217 he reassured Cao Pi about his prospects as a future ruler.
Kao Tso 高祚
Sent with others to launch a sneak attack, they took Yang Ren’s head.
高棠隆 (升平)
Kaot‘ang Lung (Shên-p‘ing) 高棠隆 (升平)
A valued officer, created a calender for Wei, was Tutor to Cao Rui.
耿紀 (季行)
Kêng Chi (Chi-hsing) 耿纪 (季行)
Launched a coup against Cao Cao. Wounded Wang Bi. Executed after his failure.
Kungsun Fang 公孙方
Studied under Zheng Xuan with his friend Cui Yan. He died young.
Kungsun Kung 公孙恭
Advised Kang to kill Yuan Xi and Shang. Impotent and weak, he was deposed by Gongsun Yuan.
Kungsun Yüan 公孙渊
Originally subject to Wei. Declared himself King of Yan, but was executed by Sima Yi.
Kou An 句安
Drunkard officer under Li Yan. Beaten for arriving late with supplies, and fled to Wei.
Kuan Ch‘êng 管承
Pirate, he was defeated by combined attacks from Li Dian, Yue Jin and Zhang He.
Kuan Chün 灌均
Criticized Cao Zhi for drunkenness and irreverence.
管輅 (公明)
Kuan Lu (Kung-ming) 管辂 (公明)
A soothsayer able to foresee the coming deaths of others.
關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

毌丘甸 (子邦)
Kuanch‘iu Tien (Tzŭ-pang) 毌丘甸 (子邦)
Son of Guanqiu Jian, he advised his father to rebel.
毌丘儉 (仲恭)
Kuanch‘iu Chien (Chung-kung) 毌丘俭 (仲恭)
Officer of Wei. Revolted against Sima Shi when he deposed Cao Fang.

Notes: Sometimes mistranslated in Koei games as Wuqiu Jian.

Kuanch‘iu Hsing 毌丘兴
Warned by Cao Cao not to send anyone to the Qiang but ignored the advice.
Kuanch‘iu Hsiu 毌丘秀
Younger brother of Guanqiu Dian.
郭淮 (伯濟)
Kuo Huai (Po-chi) 郭淮 (伯济)
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
郭嘉 (奉孝)
Kuo Chia (Fêng-hsiao) 郭嘉 (奉孝)
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
郭奕 (伯益)
Kuo I (Po-i) 郭奕 (伯益)
Son of Guo Jia, became Imperial Tutor. Well educated.
國淵 (子尼)
Kuo Yüan (Tzŭ-ni) 国渊 (子尼)
Student of Zheng Xuan who described Zini as a state treasure. Impressed with honest counsel.
Han Tê 韩德
Served Wei. Father to Han Ying, Yao, Qiong, and Qi. Died at Changshan facing Zhao Yun.
Han Fan 韩范
Feigned surrender to Cao Cao but was persuaded by Xu Huang to genuinely surrender.
Han Fu 韩福
Governor of Luoyang, killed by Guan Yu while guarding the passes. Related to Wang Zhi.

Notes: ‘Han Qu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation (to differentiate from the historic Han Fu), and in some Koei games.

韓浩 (元嗣)
Han Hao (Yüan-ssŭ) 韩浩 (元嗣)
Rescued Xiahou Dun from being held hostage. Supported the farm reforms.
韓暨 (公至)
Han Chi (Kung-tzŭ) 韩暨 (公至)
Sent by Cao Rui to tell Cao Zhen not to give battle against Zhuge Liang.
韓遂 (文約)
Han Sui (Wên-yüeh) 韩遂 (文约)
Worked with Ma Chao, before defecting to Cao Cao. Lost his hand to Ma Chao.
Han Hsüan 韩玄
Magistrate of Changsha. Wei Yan killed him and surrendered to Liu Bei.
郝昭 (伯道)
Hao Chao (Po-tao) 郝昭 (伯道)
A talented officer of Wei. Successfully defended against Zhuge Liang at Chencang.
Hao Chou (K‘ung-i) 浩周
Captured at Fan, he would later assure Cao Pi that Sun Quan would keep his promise.
何夔 (叔龍)
Ho K‘uei (Shu-lung) 何夔 (叔龙)
Claimed Yuan Shu lacked support if he declared himself Emperor. Noted for proper behaviour.
和洽 (陽士)
Ho Hsia (Yang-shih) 和洽 (阳士)
Rescued Mao Jie from jail but unable to restore his rank. Supported Cao Pi’s succession and ascension.

Notes: Also known as He Qia. Appears as He He in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

何晏 (平叔)
Ho Yen (P‘ing-shu) 何晏 (平叔)
Was a trusted friend of Cao Shuang, a leading writer and philosopher. Took drugs.
何曾 (穎考)
Ho Tsêng (Ying-k‘-ao) 何曾 (颖考)
Son of He Kui. Advised Sima Zhao to make his eldest son Sima Yan his heir.

Notes: Occasionally turns up as He Ceng.

Hou Ch‘êng 侯成
Cavalry commander under Lü Bu. Defected to Cao Cao.
Hou Hsüan 侯选
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Surrendered to Cao Cao along with Han Sui.
Hou Yin 侯音
Led a revolt in Wan, capturing Dongli Gun but was defeated by Cao Ren.
胡奮 (玄威)
Hu Fên (Hsüan-wei) 胡奋 (玄威)
Killed Zhuge Dan of Wu. Advised Du Yu to wait before attacking Jianye.
胡烈 (武玄)
Hu Lieh (Wu-hsüan) 胡烈 (武玄)
Took part in invasion of Shu, got former a vassal to warn his son about Zhong Hui’s revolt.
胡淵 (世元)
Hu Yüan (Shih-yüan) 胡渊 (世元)
Son of Hu Lie, his army killed Zhong Hui and defeated Jiang Wei’s revolt.
胡質 (文德)
Hu Chih (Wên-tê) 胡质 (文德)
Governor of Dongwan, took part in Cao Xiu’s invasion of Wu.
Hu Tsun 胡遵
Led the van against Gongsun Yuan then led the van in an invasion of Wu’s Dongxing.
華歆 (子魚)
Hua Hsin (Tzŭ-yü) 华歆 (子鱼)
Head of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars. Promoted Emperor Xian’s abdication.
桓範 (元則)
Huan Fan (Yüan-tsê) 桓范 (元则)
Known as “Bag of Wisdom”, his advice was not heeded by Cao Shuang. Jailed by Sima Yi.
桓階 (伯緒)
Huan Chieh (Po-hsü) 桓阶 (伯绪)
Negotiated the return of Sun Jian’s body. Involved with Xian’s abdication.

Notes: ‘Huan Jie’ 桓階 in novel chapters 7 and 8; ‘Huan Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition chapters 7 and 8. ‘Huan Jie’ (桓楷) in chapters 79 and 80. We recognize them as the same person; see ‘Fact vs. Fiction’ for more information.

Huang Hua 黄华
Warlord of Jiuquan, due to the death of another warlord, he surrendered to Wei.
黃權 (公衡)
Huang Ch‘üan (Kung-hêng) 黄权 (公衡)
Served Liu Zhang and later Liu Bei. Surrendered to Wei out of necessity.
Huang Yung 黄邕
Son of Huang Quan, who served Liu Zhang then Shu. Died without issue.
Huangfu K‘ai 皇甫闓
Officer of Wei and, later, Jin. Joined Zhong Hui in his conquest of Hanzhong.
Huch‘uch‘üan 呼厨泉
Helped Gao Gan against Zhong Yao then kept hostage by Wei after 216. Title died with him.
Huo Hsing 霍性
Petitioned against Cao Pi’s inspection of the south. Tortured and executed before Pi changed his mind.
Ch‘i Chi 戚寄
Persuaded by Liu Fu to defect around the year 197.
嵇康 (叔夜)
Chi K‘ang (Shu-yeh) 嵇康 (叔夜)
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was exeuted by Sima Zhao.

Notes: Sometimes translated incorrectly as Xi Kang.

吉邈 (文然)
Chi Miao (Wên-jan) 吉邈 (文然)
Son of Ji Ping. Joined Geng Ji’s coup to avenge his father but was killed in the fighting.

Notes: Ji Miao sometimes appears as Ji Mao. The correct translation of 邈 is Miao.

吉穆 (思然)
Chi Mu (Ssŭ-jan) 吉穆 (思然)
Son of Ji Ping. Fled the capital but returned secretly. Died in Geng Ji’s coup.
賈充 (公閭)
Chia Ch‘ung (Kung-lü) 贾充 (公闾)
Suggested usurpation of the throne to Sima Yan and opposed invasion of Wu.
Chia Fan 贾范
Officer of Gongsun Yuan. Was executed by Yuan for opposing his declaration of independence.
賈逵 (梁道)
Chia K‘uei (Liang-tao) 贾逵 (梁道)
Served as strategist to Cao Xiu, seeing through Zhou Fang’s plot.
Chia Hsin 贾信
Left to guard Liyang while Cao Cao went to fight Liu Biao. Defeated two rebels.
賈詡 (文和)
Chia Hsü (Wên-ho) 贾诩 (文和)
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.

Notes: Jia Xu is pronounced Jia2 Xu3 because of the 3rd tone preceeding the second in his normal given name. His name and style name should be pronounced and said as “Jia3 Wen2 He2”, not “Jia2 Wen2 He2”

Chiang Pan 蒋班
Advised Zhuge Dan to force a battle to escape but was rejected. Surrendered to Wei.
蔣幹 (子翼)
Chiang Kan (Tzŭ-i) 蒋干 (子翼)
Friend of Zhou Yu, he was sent to spy on Wu but was tricked, helping to cause Wei’s defeat at Chibi.
蔣濟 (子通)
Chiang Chi (Tzŭ-t‘ung) 蒋济 (子通)
Advised against moving the capital when Guan Yu attacked. Helped Sima Yi deal with Cao Shuang.

Notes: Known as Drunkard Jiang in his early days. Also known as Master Jiang for the works he wrote.

Chiang Shu 蒋舒
Jiang Wei highly prized his talent, was disgruntled and defected in Wei’s invasion.
姜維 (伯約)
Chiang Wei (Po-yüeh) 姜维 (伯约)
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
姜敘 (伯奕)
Chiang Hsü (Po-i) 姜叙 (伯奕)
Helped to drive out Ma Chao, but Ma Chao killed his mother, defeated Ma Chao again later on.
Chiao Ch‘u 焦触
Served Yuan Xi with Zhang Nan. Betrayed to Cao Cao. Killed by Han Dang at Chibi.
Chiao I 焦彝
Advisor of Zhuge Dan, slipped over the walls and surrendered to Wei.
金旋 (元機)
Chin Hsüan (Yüan-chi) 金旋 (元机)
Served as Governor of Wuling. Defeated by Zhang Fei.

Notes: Called Jin Shun in Liu Bei’s SGZ.

金祎 (德禕)
Chin I (Tê-i) 金禕 (德祎)
Descendant of Jin Midi. Advised Geng Ji on killing Wang Bi. Died fighting in the coup.

Notes: May also have been Jin Wei, son of Jin Shang.

孔融 (文舉)
K‘ung Jung (Wên-chü) 孔融 (文举)
A famed scholar who did not always get on with his lords. One of the Seven Masters.
K’ung Hsien 孔羡
Descendant of Confucius who was enfeoffed by Cao Pi for the purpose of offering sacrifice to Confucius.
K‘ung Hsiu 孔秀
One of the defenders of the Passes killed by Guan Yu.
K‘uai Ch‘i 蒯祺
Governor of Fangling. Killed by Meng Da’s troops. Supposedly related to Kuai Yue.
蒯越 (異度)
K‘uai Yüeh (I-tu) 蒯越 (异度)
Younger brother of Kuai Liang. Became a vassal of Wei when Cao Cao took Jing.
Lady Ting 丁夫人
Cao Cao’s first wife, she blamed him for Cao Ang’s death and they divorced.
Lady Tu 杜夫人
Married to Qin Yilu. Guan Yu wished to marry her but Cao Cao took her instead.

Notes: Du Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Hsiahou Lingnü 夏侯夏侯
Married to Cao Wenshu, a relative of Cao Shuang, mutilated herself rather then marry again.
Lei Hsü 雷绪
Leader of dissidents, driven away by Xiahou Yuan with his many followers.

Notes: May be Lei Bo.

Hired Hua Tuo but rejected his warning that his wife carried twins. Lost both children.
Li Ch‘êng 李成
A patient of Hua Tuo, he was cured but was unable to get medicine after a relapse.
李典 (曼成)
Li Tien (Man-ch‘êng) 李典 (曼成)
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
Li Fêng (Hsüan-kuo) 李丰
Famed from a young age, had a habit of faking illness. Plotted against Sima Shi.

Notes: Also styled Anguo

李孚 (子憲)
Li Fu (Tzŭ-hsien) 李孚 (子宪)
Snuck through the Wei lines into Ye and then back out again.

Notes: ‘Li Mu’ in chapter 32 and ‘Li Qu’ in chapters 79 and 80, and ‘Li Zu’ in chapter 97 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish from others named Li Fu.

Li Hu 李虎
Zong chieftain who submitted to Cao Cao. Moved North when Liu Bei took Hanzhong.
Li Chi 李基
Son of Li Tong who inherited his rank.
Li Chin 李进
Defeated Lü Bu’s attack of his home town Shengshi.
Li Chün 李俊
Local lord used by Jiang Xu to defeat Ma Chao. Was later enoffed and became a general.
Li K‘an 李堪
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Accidentally killed by Yu Jin’s arrow.
李立 (建賢)
Li Li (Chien-hsien) 李立 (建贤)
Appointed as Inspector of Jing after Liu Cong’s surrender.
Li Ch‘ien 李乾
Had heroic qualities, served Cao Cao early on but was killed in Lü Bu’s revolt.
李勝 (公昭)
Li Shêng (Kung-chao) 李胜 (公昭)
Member of Cao Shuang’s faction, he was sent to check on Sima Yi’s health.
李通 (文達)
Li T‘ung (Wên-ta) 李通 (文达)
An officer of Wei. Saved Cao Cao’s rearguard in the retreat from Zhang Xiu.
Li Hsü 李绪
Son of Li Tong who was stationed at Fancheng, where he achieved some merit.
Li Chêng 李整
Sent to collect his father’s troops, he defeated Xue Lan and Li Feng.
梁鵠 (孟皇)
Liang Ku (Mêng-huang) 梁鹄 (孟皇)
Famed writer, the Wei Heng’s Siti Shu Shixu accuses him of fraud.
Liang K‘uan 梁宽
Revolted against Ma Chao at Yicheng, executing Ma Chao’s family.
涼茂 (伯方)
Liang Mao (Po-fang) 凉茂 (伯方)
Advised Gongsun Du against attacking Ye while Cao Cao was on campaign elsewhere.
Liang Ch‘i 梁岐
Surrendered his county to Cao Cao in 204.
梁習 (子虞)
Liang Hsi (Tzŭ-yü) 梁习 (子虞)
He pacified the Xiongnu and some of Bing, noted for good governance.
Liang Hsü 梁绪
Originally of Wei, he submitted to Zhuge Liang and was made Governor of Tianshui.
Linghu Yü 令弧愚
Plotted against Sima Yi but died before it could begin.
劉巴 (子初)
Liu Pa (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 刘巴 (子初)
Rescued Shu’s economy after Liu Bei’s troops had plundered the treasury.
劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

Liu Ts‘ung 刘琮
Inherited Liu Biao’s kingdom upon his death, then surrendered it to Cao Cao.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Liu Zong’, but this is incorrect.

劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Fought Liu Bei with Wang Zhong but had no success.
Liu Tu 刘度
Governor of Lingling. He surrendered to Liu Bei after his son was defeated.
劉放 (子棄)
Liu Fang (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘放 (子弃)
Recommended Cao Shuang as joint regent of Cao Fang. A brilliant writer, Han lineage.
劉馥 (元穎)
Liu Fu (Yüan-ying) 刘馥 (元颖)
His farming and defence improvements in Yangzhou allowed Wei to keep control of the area.
Liu Hui 刘徽
Mathematician and cartographer of the Wei Dynasty. He obtained a more precise value of Pi, and edited the “The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art”
Liu Jo 刘若
High on list of petitioners to make Cao Cao a Duke and Cao Pi emperor.
劉禪 (公嗣)
Liu Shan (Kung-ssŭ) 刘禅 (公嗣)
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.

Notes: Also known by his infant name, A-Dou (阿斗). See Liu Shan’s Comprehensive Officer Biography for more information on his name.

劉劭 (孔才)
Liu Shao (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘劭 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Rui to save Jiangxia from Wu. Compiled a considerable number of works.
劉寔 (子真)
Liu Shih (Tzŭ-chên) 刘寔 (子真)
Predicted Shu would fall but also that neither Deng Ai nor Zhong Hui would return.
Liu Hsien (Shih-tsung) 刘先
Served under Liu Cong with Deng Yi. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xin’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Defeated by Xiahou Yuan, took in refugees and was popular with the people.
劉勳 (子臺)
Liu Hsün (Tzŭ-t‘-ai) 刘勋 (子台)
Tricked into abandoning his city by Sun Ce and fled to Cao Cao. Executed for extortion and corruption.

Notes: ‘Liu Xu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Liu Yen 刘延
Grand Administrator of Dong commandery. Yuan Shao sent Yan Liang to attack him.

Notes: ‘Liu Yue’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉曄 (子揚)
Liu Yeh (Tzŭ-yang) 刘晔 (子扬)
With other officials, went to Emperor Xian to petition his abdication to Cao Pi.
劉廙 (恭嗣)
Liu I (Kung-ssŭ) 刘廙 (恭嗣)
Among the officials that petitioned Emperor Xian to abdicate to Cao Pi.
劉楨 (公幹)
Liu Chên (Kung-an) 刘桢 (公干)
A brilliant writer, he admonished Cao Zhi for not listening to Xing Yong.
劉助 (孔才)
Liu Chu (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘助 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Cao to reinforce Zhao Yan, who was having trouble with mutineers.
婁圭 (子伯)
Lou Kuei (Tzŭ-po) 娄圭 (子伯)
A former officer of Jing, assured Cao Cao that Liu Cong’s surrender was real.

Notes: ‘Lou’ and ‘Lu’ are both accepted ways of writing 婁. As such, his name is sometimes written ‘Lu Gui’.

Lou I 楼异
Offers up his horse to the injured Cao Cao, helping him escape from Lü Bu’s troops.
Liu Chan 刘展
Was part of the petition to make Cao Cao Duke.
路粹 (文蔚)
Lu Ts‘ui (Wên-yü) 路粹 (文蔚)
Slandered Kong Rong which resulted in Kong Rong’s execution. Executed by Cao Cao.
Lü K‘uang 吕旷
Served Yuan Shang. Defected to Yuan Tan then Cao Cao. Attacking Liu Bei, killed by Zhao Yun.
呂虔 (子恪)
Lü Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-k‘o) 吕虔 (子恪)
Served Cao Cao, and later Cao Pi, as Military Aide.
Lu Shui-hu 盧水胡
Rebel based in Liangzhou.
Lü Hsiang 吕翔
Younger brother of Lü Kuang, whom he followed everywhere.

Notes: He is known as Lü Xiang in SGZ and SGYY, and Gao Xiang (高翔) in HHS and ZZTJ.

盧毓 (子家)
Lu Yü (Tzŭ-chia) 卢毓 (子家)
Lost his family in civil war, he rose up through the ranks to become an Excellency.
Lu Chao 路招
Dispatched with Liu Bei to block Yuan Shu’s attempts to get to Yuan Shao.
Ma Ai 马艾
Held office as Administrator of Dunhuang.
馬鈞 (德衡)
Ma Chün (Tê-hêng) 马钧 (德衡)
Master of Works for Cao Rui. Advised the Emperor to drink Celestial Elixir.
Ma Ch‘iu 马秋
Son of Ma Chao, handed over to Zhang Lu by Cao Cao and was killed.
馬騰 (壽成)
Ma T‘êng (Shou-ch‘êng) 马腾 (寿成)
Governed Xiliang. Descendant of the famous warrior Ma Yuan. Ma Chao’s father.
Ma T‘ieh 马铁
Killed in a volley of arrows as Cao Cao attacks the Ma’s outside Xuchang.
Ma Hsiu 马休
Second son of Ma Teng. Executed by Cao Cao on his way to Xuchang.
Ma Yen 马延
Served Yuan Shang, and later Cao Cao. Killed by Gan Ning.
Ma Tsun 马遵
Was defeated by Shu and fled to Hu, drives Jiang Wei into Shu by his paranoia.
滿寵 (伯寧)
Man Ch‘ung (Po-ning) 满宠 (伯宁)
Served Cao Cao as Military Aide. Helped to repel Shu’s fifth northern campaign.
Mao Chia 毛嘉
A joke among the court, Cao Rui held drinking parties at his house.
毛玠 (孝先)
Mao Chieh (Hsiao-hsien) 毛玠 (孝先)
Served as Military Aide to Cao Cao. Later Staff Supervisor, then Naval Commander.
Mei Ch‘êng 梅成
Bandit lord with Chen Lan, he feigned surrender to Yu Jin and revolted again.
Mei Fu 梅敷
His defection left a hole in the local area that turned into no man’s land.
孟達 (子敬)
Mêng Ta (Tzŭ-ching) 孟达 (子敬)
Refused aid to Guan Yu. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, kills Xu Huang.

Notes: Meng Da was originally styled Zijing (子敬), but later changed his style to Zidu (子度) because the uncle of his lord, Liu Bei, was named Liu Jing.

孟建 (公威)
Mêng Chien (Kungwei) 孟建 (公威)
Friend of Xu Shu and Zhuge Liang. Joined Wei. Became Inspector of Liang Province.

Notes: ‘Meng Gongwei’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

麋芳 (子方)
Mi Fang (Tzŭ-fang) 麋芳 (子方)
Mi Zhu’s brother. Served all three kingdoms. Surrendered to Wu after threat of punishment from Guan Yu.
Miao Shang 缪尚
Was left behind by Zhang Yang’s killer to guard the area.
繆襲 (熙伯)
Miao Hsi (Hsi-po) 缪袭 (熙伯)
One of the historians that worked on the Wei shu.
沐并 (德信)
Mu Ping (Tê-hsing) 沐并 (德信)
A poor orphan, became a man of strong principle, willing to face down powerful opposition.
Niu Tan 牛亶
Sent by the Han to replace Liu Zhang when Zhao Wei rebelled.
Niu Kai 牛盖
Also known as 朱蓋 Zhu Gai. Helped defeat Chen Lan in 209. Accompanied Xu Huang to Fan.
Niu Chin 牛金
Subordinate of Cao Ren. Attacked Zhou Yu’s camp at Nanjun, but was defeated and rescued by Cao Ren.
潘勗 (元茂)
P‘an Hsü (Yüan-mao) 潘勖 (元茂)
Wrote up the the proclamation that made Cao Cao Duke of Wei.
龐德 (令明)
P‘ang Tê (Ling-ming) 庞德 (令明)
Served Ma Chao, Zhang Lu, then Cao Cao. Fought against Guan Yu at Fancheng.
龐宏 (巨師)
P‘ang Hung (Chü-shih) 庞宏 (巨师)
Son of Pang Tong. Joined Wei with Huang Quan after the Shu army’s defeat by Wu.
P‘ang Hui 庞会
Pang De’s son. Had Guan Yu’s clan exterminated after Shu’s surrender.
P‘ang Lin 庞林
Surrendered to Wei with Huang Quan, where Lin was reunited with his wife.
龐淯 (子異)
P‘ang Yü (Tzŭ-i) 庞淯 (子异)
Fillial man, helped avenge grandfather and tried to avenge master.
P‘ei Hui (Wên-chi) 裴徽
Talented scholar and friends with many great men. Settled rivalry between Xun Can and Fu Gu.
裴茂 (巨光)
P‘ei Mao (Chü-kuang) 裴茂 (巨光)
Sent by Xian to give Cao Cao the Golden Seal. Took part in Li Jue’s death.
裴潛 (文行)
P‘ei Ch‘ien (Wên-hsing) 裴潜 (文行)
Refused service with Liu Biao, he dealt with the Shanyu without an army.
Ch‘ien Hung 牵弘
Served Wei. District Governor of Jincheng before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
牽招 (子經)
Ch‘ien Chao (Tzŭ-ching) 牵招 (子经)
Persuaded the Wuhuan to side with Cao Cao over the Yuan’s. Mourned Yuan Shang.
秦朗 (元明)
Ch‘in Lang (Yüan-ming) 秦朗 (元明)
Adopted son of Cao Cao. Led troops to pacify the Xianbei in 233. Close to Cao Rui.
Ch‘in Ch‘i 秦祺
Served Wei under Xiahou Dun. In novel, killed by Guan Yu leaving Cao Cao.
秦召 (伯南)
Ch‘in Shao (Po-nan) 秦召 (伯南)
Saved Cao Cao’s life at the cost of his own, his son was adopted by Cao Cao.
Ch‘in Ilu 秦宜禄
Sent to ask for reinforcements, his wife was taken by Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Fei.
Ch‘iu Pên 丘本
Advisor to Deng Ai, calms him down and advises to try and surprise Zhuge Zhan.
Ch‘iu Chien 丘建
Commander of Zhong Hui, helped warn Wei forces of Zhong Hui’s revolt.
Ch‘ü Yen 麹演
Part of leading clan of Xiping, he helped kill Han Sui. Refused to accept Zou Qi.
Ch‘üan Tuan 全端
Defended Shouchun during Zhuge Dan’s rebellion, but surrendered to Wei.
Ch‘üan Ching 全静
Son of Quan Cong who defected to Wei.
Ch‘üan I 全懌
Quan Cong’s son. Sent to aid Zhuge Dan’s rebellion, but surrendered to Wei.
Ch‘üan I 全懌
Quan Xu’s (perhaps Quan Duan’s) son. Quan Zong’s grandson. Quan Yi’s nephew.
Red Hare [Ch‘iht‘uma] 赤兔[赤兔马]
Lü Bu’s famed horse. “Among men, Lü Bu; among horses, Red Hare.” Novel: Later given to Guan Yu by Cao Cao.
Jen Fu 任福
Wei general who defeated the rebel Cai Fang.
Jên Fan 任籓
Was involved in petitioning for Cao Cao to be made Duke.
任恺 (元褒)
Jên K‘ai (Yüan-pao) 任恺 (元褒)
Minister of both Wei and Jin. He was said to be careful and hardworking with official business, and was widely praised. However his career was hindered by conflict with Jia Chong.
Jên Lan 任览
Friend of Wei Feng, forewarned by Zheng Mao of Wei Feng’s ambitions.
任峻 (伯達)
Jên Chün (Po-ta) 任峻 (伯达)
Looked after military stores with Mao Jie.
Jung Ko 荣邰
Held hostage by Guo Si.
Juan Chi 阮籍
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was also one of the compilers of the Wei shu.
阮瑀 (元瑜)
Juan Yü (Yüan-yü) 阮瑀 (元瑜)
One of the Seven Jian’an Masters, studied under Cai Yong.
Shan T‘ao 山涛
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was the only Sage involved in politics.
邵悌 (元伯)
Shao T‘i (Yüan-po) 邵悌 (元伯)
Advisor of Sima Zhao’s. Warned Sima Zhao about trusting Zhong Hui.
申耽 (義舉)
Shên Tan (I-chü) 申耽 (义举)
Brother of Shen Yi. Governor of Shangyong. Surrendered from Wei to Shu to Wei.
Shên Jung 审荣
Nephew of Shen Pei. Betrayed Jizhou after the family of his friend, Xin Pi, was executed.
Shên I 申仪
Brother of Shen Dan. Friend of Meng Da. Surrendered from Wei to Shu then again to Wei.
石苞 (仲容)
Shih Pao (Chung-jung) 石苞 (仲容)
Sold weapons to make a living, became a leading general of Jin and a popular offical.
Shih Ho 史郃
Surrendered to Wei alongside Huang Quan.
史渙 (公劉)
Shih Huan (Kungliu) 史涣 (公刘)
General of Xu Huang, captured messenger which gave them vital information.
时苗 (德胄)
Shih Miao (Techou) 时苗 (德胄)
Eccentric minister, held a variety of civil posts and was respected for his talent.
石韜 (廣元)
Shih T‘ao (Kuang-yüan) 石韬 (广元)
Old friend of Zhuge Liang. Joined Cao Cao with Xu Shu and worked on agriculture.

Notes: ‘Shi Guangyuan’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

Shih Tsuan 师纂
Joined Deng Ai’s attack on the Riverlands. Was made Imperial Protector of Yizhou.
司馬防 (建公)
Ssŭma Fang (Chienkung) 司马防 (建公)
Sima Yi’s father. An honest hermit who had a sense of public duty.
司馬孚 (叔達)
Ssŭma Fu (Shu-ta) 司马孚 (叔达)
Served Wei loyally to the end, weeping over Cao Mao’s corpse and refusing Jin princedom.
司馬進 (惠達)
Ssŭma Chin (Hui-ta) 司马进 (惠达)
6th son of Sima Fang, he would hold a minor court office under Wei. His son, Ti, would be enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan took the throne.
司馬馗 (季達)
Ssŭma K‘uei (Chi-ta) 司马馗 (季达)
4th Son of Sima Fang, he would be a Chancellor of Lu and later awarded a marquisate.
司馬朗 (伯達)
Ssŭma Lang (Po-ta) 司马朗 (伯达)
Humane offical, his governing was popular with the people.
Ssŭma Ling 司马陵
Son of Sima Tong, he was enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan became Emperor.
Ssŭma Lou 司马楼
Helped Cao Cao onto a horse after he had fallen while fleeing from Lü Bu.
司馬敏 (幼達)
Ssŭma Min (Yu-ta) 司马敏 (幼达)
Youngest son of Sima Fang, he died young and left no heirs.
Ssŭma Ch‘üan 司马权
Son of Sima Kui, he was enfeoffed as a King upon Sima Yan becoming Emperor.
司馬師 (子元)
Ssŭma Shih (Tzŭ-yüan) 司马师 (子元)
Sima Yi’s son. Instrumental in the rise of Jin.
Ssŭma Sui 司马遂
Son of Sima Xun, he was enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan became Emperor.
Ssŭma T‘i 司马悌
Son of Sima Jin, he was enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan became Emperor.
司馬同 (雅達)
Ssŭma T‘ung (Ya-ta) 司马同 (雅达)
7th son of Sima Fang, he served on the staff of the Director of Retainers and was enfeoffed.
司馬望 (子初)
Ssŭma Wang (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 司马望 (子初)
Fought Shu with Deng Ai, ambushed and killed Xiahou Ba.
司馬恂 (顯達)
Ssŭma Hsün (Hsien-ta) 司马恂 (显达)
Son of Sima Fang, was a mid-ranking civil officer under Wei.
司馬炎 (安世)
Ssŭma Yen (An-shih) 司马炎 (安世)
Installed as the first Emperor of the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: Known formally as Emperor Wu of Jin.

司馬懿 (仲達)
Ssŭma I (Chung-ta) 司马懿 (仲达)
A skilled advisor of the Wei kingdom. His efforts laid the foundation of Jin.
司馬攸 (大猷)
Ssŭma Yu (Ta-yu) 司马攸 (大猷)
Second son of Sima Zhao. Known as a kind and warm-natured man.
司馬昭 (子上)
Ssŭma Chao (Tzŭ-shang) 司马昭 (子上)
Son of Sima Yi. Father of Sima Yan. Controlled the Wei army after his brother, Shi’s, death.
司馬芝 (子華)
Ssŭma Chih (Tzŭ-hua) 司马芝 (子华)
Wei civil officer who served three generations of the Cao family.
Sung Chieh 宋阶
Served Wei. Friend of Cui Yan who died young.
Sung Hsien 宋宪
Served Lü Bu, but joined Cao Cao after Hou Cheng was punished. Killed by Yan Liang.
Su Yung 苏顒
Vanguard commander of Guo Huai (who served Cao Zhen). Killed by Zhao Zilong.
Su Yu 苏由
Defended Ji when Yuan Shang went to help his brother against Cao Cao.
Su Yüeh 苏越
Hired to build a new palace for Cao Cao, tree he picks bleeds.
蘇則 (文師)
Su Tsê (Wên-shih) 苏则 (文师)
Considered Wei’s best frontier General, fiercely honest. Died after argument with Cao Pi.

Notes: Called Sun Tse in Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms.

孫禮 (德達)
Sun Li (Tê-ta) 孙礼 (德达)
Fought against Shu under Sima Yi and Cao Zhen. Became an Excellency.
孫諒 (士文)
Sun Liang (Shih-wên) 孙谅 (士文)
T‘ang Tzŭ 唐咨
Served Wu then surrendered to Wei. Collected ships for Zhong Hui.
田疇 (子泰)
T‘ien Ch‘ou (Tzŭ-t‘-ai) 田畴 (子泰)
Acted as guide against Wuhuan for Wei, refused reward as he felt he had failed Liu Yu.
T‘ien Hsü 田续
Slew Deng Ai and his son in revenge for Deng Ai nearly executing him.
田豫 (國讓)
T‘ien Yü (Kuo-jang) 田豫 (国让)
General of Wei under Cao Rui. Dispatched to Xiangyang to counter Wu’s invasion.

Notes: Also referred to erroneously as Tian Du.

T‘ien Chang 田章
Officer of Zhong Hui in Wei’s later days.
Wan Ch‘ien 万潜
Accompanied Bao Xin when he welcomed Cao Cao into Yan. Urged Cao Cao to become Duke of Wei.
Wan Chêng 万政
Fictional lieutenant under Guo Huai in AD 228. Defeated and spared by Zhao Yun.
Wang Pi 王必
In charge of Imperial Guard, warned Cao Xiu of Geng Ji’s revolt but died from his wounds.
Wang Pi 王弼
A noted, if eccentric, philosopher central in the school of mystics.
王粲 (仲宣)
Wang Ts‘an (Chung-hsüan) 王粲 (仲宣)
One of the great literary figures of the time. Urged Liu Cong to surrender to Wei.
王昶 (文舒)
Wang Ch‘ang (Wên-shu) 王昶 (文舒)
Compiled treatises on government and military matters. Leading general against Wu.
王觀 (偉臺)
Wang Kuan (Wei-t‘-ai) 王观 (伟台)
Came up with a plan to trick Jiang Wei but it failed, died valiantly.
Wang Han 王含
Defender of Yuecheng, surrendered on the loss of Hanzhong.
王渾 (玄沖)
Wang Hun (Hsüan-ch‘ung) 王浑 (玄冲)
Warned that Sun Hao’s army was formidable and that they should wait a year.
王基 (伯興)
Wang Chi (Po-hsing) 王基 (伯兴)
Fought against Wu and Guanqiu Jian, fighting in three duels and advising to win hearts.
王經 (彥偉)
Wang Ching (Yen-wei) 王经 (彦伟)
Struggled against Jiang Wei. Supported Cao Mao when Mao tried to remove Sima Zhao.
王朗 (景興)
Wang Lang (Ying-hsing) 王朗 (景兴)
Originally the prefect of Huiji, he later joined Wei. Debated with Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Originally called Wang Yan

王淩 (彥云)
Wang Ling (Yen-yün) 王凌 (彦云)
Plotted against Sima Yi but plan was leaked and he was forced into suicide.
王平 (子均)
Wang P‘ing (Tzŭ-chün) 王平 (子均)
Served Wei but later surrendered to Shu. Served in the northern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as He Ping (何平).

王頎 (孔碩)
Wang Ch‘i (K‘ung-shih) 王颀 (孔硕)
Served Wei. District Governor of Tianshui before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.

Notes: Shi 碩 in Kongshi can also be translated as Shuo.

王沈 (處道)
Wang Shên (Ch‘u-tao) 王沈 (处道)
Compiled Wei-shu, the offical history of Wei. Betrayed Cao Mao’s revolt to Sima Zhao.

Notes: 沈 can also be pronounced Chen, and his name is sometimes translated as such.

王雙 (子全)
Wang Shuang (Tzŭ-ch‘üan) 王双 (子全)
Served Cao Rui. Defeated Zhang Ni, and was later killed by Wei Yan.
王肅 (子雍)
Wang Su (Tzŭ-yung) 王肃 (子雍)
The son of Wang Lang. Aided the Sima’s in creating Jin. Father of Sima Zhao’s wife.
Wang T‘ao 王韬
Civil officer, advised Sima Zhao to pray to the fountain so he could feed the troops.
Wang T’u 王图
Petitioned Cao Cao to become Duke.
王祥 (休徵)
Wang Hsiang (Hsiu-chêng) 王祥 (休徵)
Convinced Sima Zhao to name Sima Yan heir, along with Jia Chong, Pei Xiu and others.
王修 (叔治)
Wang Hsiu (Shu-chih) 王修 (叔治)
Served Yuan Tan loyally. Joined Cao Cao after Yuan Tan’s death in AD 205.
Wang Hsüan 王选
Urged Cao Cao to become Duke of Wei.
Wang Yen 王琰
Captured Gao Gan and was well rewarded. Served as an administrator in many places.
Wang Chao 王照
Mountain bandit who surrendered to Wei.
Wang Chung 王忠
Failed against Liu Bei. Once forced to eat human flesh, Cao Pi made a joke of it.
魏諷 (子京)
Wei Fêng (Tzŭ-ching) 魏讽 (子京)
Thought of as a brilliant talent, he plotted a coup but it was betrayed and he was killed.
Wei Ku (Chung-chien) 魏种
Worked with Gao Gan against Cao Cao but was out-manoeuvred and destroyed.
衛瓘 (伯玉)
Wei Kuan (Po-yü) 卫瓘 (伯玉)
Sent to keep an eye on Zhong Hui and Deng Ai, he played a part in the death of both.
Wei Huang (Tê-wei) 韦晃
Han loyalist. Participated in a coup with Geng Ji and Jin Yi. Captured by Xiahou Dun.
衛覬 (伯儒)
Wei Chi (Po-ju) 卫觊 (伯儒)
A scholarly man. Advised settling the likes of Han Sui, against excess, proposed legal reforms.
Wei K‘ai 卫凯
Rebelled with Hou Yin but Cao Ren defeated and executed them.
Wei Hsü 魏续
At first an officer of Lü Bu, he later joined Cao Cao. Killed by Yan Liang.
衛臻 (公振)
Wei Chên (Kung-chên) 卫臻 (公振)
Served as messenger between Xian and Cao Cao, reminded Cao Pi of the Han’s achievements.

Notes: Called Wei Chen in ZZTJ.

Wei Tzŭ (Tzŭ-hsü) 卫兹
Constantly refused appointment till he met Cao Cao. Gave away property to help raise troops.
Wên Hu 文虎
Son of Wen Qin and brother of Wen Yang. Followed his brother everywhere.
溫恢 (曼基)
Wên Hui (Man-chi) 温恢 (曼基)
Warned that the Wu front was secure but that Cao Ren might have problems against Guan Yu.
文聘 (仲業)
Wên P‘ing (Chung-yeh) 文聘 (仲业)
After Liu Cong’s surrender he secluded himself in shame. Later served Cao Cao

Notes: ‘Wen Pin’ in some books and nearly all games. Wen Ping is the correct Romanization.

文欽 (仲若)
Wên Ch‘in (Chung-jo) 文钦 (仲若)
Lieutenant Governor of Yang. Rebelled against Sima Shi with Guanqiu Jian.
Wen Sheng 温生
Made Marquis Within the Passes following his father Wen Hui’s death. The line was extinguished after his own early death.
Wên Yang 文鸯
Wen Qin’s son. Fought Sima Shi’s army. Later pledged loyalty to Zhuge Dan.

Notes: Originally named Wen Chu (文俶).

吳敦 (黯奴)
Wu Tun (An-nu) 吴敦 (黯奴)
Bandit leader who would serve under Zang Ba for Lü Bu and Wei.

Notes: Annu, or Black Slave, was his nickname rather then his style.

Wu 吴押狱
Looked after the jailed Hua Tuo and was given his black bag so he could become a doctor.

Notes: Also called Wu the Gaoler

吳質 (季重)
Wu Chih (Chi-chung) 吴质 (季重)
Helped Cao Pi become heir, used his wits to avoid disaster in the silk hamper affair.
Hsi Chihts‘ai 戏志才
Recommended by Xun Yu, Xi Zhicai became a valuable officer to Cao Cao.
夏侯霸 (仲權)
Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan) 夏侯霸 (仲权)
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
Hsiahou Tê 夏侯德
Dismissed Huang Zhong for seeking battle. Slain by Yan Yan at Tiandang mountain.
夏侯惇 (元讓)
Hsiahou Tun (Yüan-jang) 夏侯惇 (元让)
One of Cao Cao’s original officers, with civil and military talent. Lost an eye in battle.
Hsiahou ên 夏侯恩
Carried Cao Cao’s Blue Blade. Cut down by Zhao Yun at Dangyang as he plundered.
夏侯和 (義權)
Hsiahou Ho (I-ch‘üan) 夏侯和 (义权)
Fourth son of Xiahou Yuan. Fought well against Shu’s Zhuge Liang.
夏侯惠 (稚權)
Hsiahou Hui (Chih-ch‘üan) 夏侯惠 (稚权)
Third son of Xiahou Yuan. Fought alongside his brother He on the front lines.
夏侯楙 (子林)
Hsiahou Mao (Tzŭ-lin) 夏侯楙 (子林)
Friend of Cao Pi, not very good at tactics and enjoyed an easy life. Slandered by family.

Notes: Xiahou Mao’s style name was recorded, historically, as Zilin, but Zixiu (子休) is used in the novel.

Hsiahou Ju (Chün-lin) 夏侯儒
Held variety of posts in northwest and in Jing, later replaced in one by Xiahou Ba.
夏侯尚 (伯仁)
Hsiahou Shang (Po-jên) 夏侯尚 (伯仁)
Captured at Mt. Dingjun, but traded for Chen Shi. Defended against Wu.
Lady Hsiahou 夏侯氏
Wife to Zhang Fei. Xiahou Yuan’s niece and Xiahou Ba’s cousin.
夏侯威 (季權)
Hsiahou Wei (Chi-ch‘üan) 夏侯威 (季权)
Campaigned against both Shu and Gongsun Yuan. Recognised Yang Hu’s talent.
Hsiahou Hsien 夏侯咸
General who assisted Zhong Hui in taking Shu. One of Cao Shuang’s co regents.
夏侯玄 (太初)
Hsiahou Hsüan (T‘-ai-ch‘u) 夏侯玄 (太初)
Served Cao Fang. Killed by Sima Shi for plotting against him with Li Fang and Zhang Qi.
夏侯淵 (妙才)
Hsiahou Yüan (Miao-ts‘ai) 夏侯渊 (妙才)
Xiahou Dun’s brother. Famed for his attacks against the western barbarians.
Hsiang Hsiu 向秀
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. Accepted appointment after Ji Kang’s death.
Hsienyü Fu 鲜于辅
Revolted against Gongsun Zan to avenge Liu Yu, later serving Wei well in the north.
Hsieh Huan 谢奂
When a senior clerical officer, he advised Cao Cao to become Duke.
Hsieh P’iao 解剽
Sent by Cao Cao to attack Zhang Lu, inflicting a large defeat.
辛敞 (泰雍)
Hsin Ch‘ang (T‘-ai-yung) 辛敞 (泰雍)
An follower of Cao Shuang, his sister warned him to stay loyal.
Hsin Chi 辛机
Held rank as Prefect, but his authority was usurped by the rebel Zhang Jin.
辛毗 (佐治)
Hsin P‘i (Tso-chih) 辛毗 (佐治)
Sent as envoy to Cao Cao but instead urged Cao Cao to attack the Yuan’s. Hugged by Cao Pi.
Hsin Hsienying 辛宪英
Advised her brother Chang to go to Cao Shuang’s camp, saving his life. Advised Xin Pi and others.
Hsing Chên 邢贞
Quarrelled with Cheng Yu and later got rebuked by Wu officers when he was envoy.
許褚 (仲康)
Hsü Ch‘u (Chung-k‘-ang) 许褚 (仲康)
One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards and a commander. Leader of the Tiger Guard.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Xu Zhu’, but this is incorrect. His nickname, 虎痴 (Hu3 Chi1), has been translated as Marquis Tiger, Crazy Tiger, Mad Tiger, and other variations. He also appears once in the Brewitt-Taylor translation by the nickname Tiger Lust.

徐晃 (公明)
Hsü Huang (Kung-ming) 徐晃 (公明)
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
徐邈 (景山)
Hsü Miao (Ching-shan) 徐邈 (景山)
Dismissed for drinking privately, a succesful governor noted for fine morality.
徐璆 (孟玉)
Hsü Ch‘iu (Mêng-yü) 徐璆 (孟玉)
A scholarly man of utmost honesty, he refused to serve Yuan Shu and returned the imperial seal.

Notes: Also Xu Jiu. Styled Mengyu (孟玉), Mengben (孟本), or Mengping (孟平). Sometimes found as Xu Liu.

徐庶 (元直)
Hsü Shu (Yüan-chih) 徐庶 (元直)
One of Sima Hui’s students. Served Liu Bei, then later, through trickery, Cao Cao.

Notes: Also went by the name Shan Fu (單福).

徐宣 (寶堅)
Hsü Hsüan (Pao-chien) 徐宣 (宝坚)
Refused Sun Ce, handled all state affairs for Cao Rui. Held a number of posts.
Hsü I 许仪
Led the attack on Nanzheng, but was defeated by Shu’s Lu Xun. Executed by Zhong Hui.
徐奕 (季才)
Hsü I (Chi-ts‘ai) 徐奕 (季才)
Slandered by Ding Yi but Huan Jie called him a man of loyalty. Took part against Ma Chao.
許攸 (子遠)
Hsü Yu (Tzŭ-yüan) 许攸 (子远)
Childhood friend of Cao Cao. Betrayed Yuan Shao to Cao, but was killed by Xu Chu.
Hsü Chih 许芝
Minister of Wei. Reccomended Guan Lu to Cao Cao. Later convinced Cao Pi to take the throne.
Hsü Chih 徐质
A general defeated by Jiang Wei, in the novel he defeats Liao Hua and Zhang Yi in duels.

Notes: Called Xu Zi in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

Hsü Chih 徐质
Governor of Licheng who was killed by the rebel Cai Fang.
Hsüeh Hung 薛洪
Formally took over on the death of Zhang Yang but had very little power. Surrendered to Cao Cao.
Hsün Kun 荀绲
Served Yuan Shao then Cao. Son of Xun Shu, father of Xun Yu. One of the ‘Eight Dragons’.
Hsün Chien 荀俭
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
荀靖 (叔慈)
Hsün Ching (Shu-tz‘ŭ) 荀靖 (叔慈)
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
Hsün K‘ai 荀恺
Saved Zhong Hui at Nanzheng by shooting Lu Xun. Popular with the Sima’s.
Hsün Shên 荀诜
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
荀淑 (季和)
Hsün Shu (Chi-ho) 荀淑 (季和)
Grandfather of Xun Yu.
Hsün Su 荀肃
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
Hsün T‘ao 荀焘
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
荀勗 (公曾)
Hsün Hsü (Kung-ts‘êng) 荀勗 (公曾)
Child prodigy, warned against Zhong Hui and opposed invasion of Wu. A jealous man.
荀衍 (休若)
Hsün Yen (Hsiu-jo) 荀衍 (休若)
Brother of Xun Yu, he defeated Gao Gan’s surprise attack.
荀顗 (景倩)
Hsün I (Ching-ch‘ien) 荀顗 (景倩)
Was sent by Sima Zhao to fetch Chen Tai after Cao Mao’s death. Senior minister.
荀攸 (公達)
Hsün Yu (Kung-ta) 荀攸 (公达)
Advisor of Cao Cao. Xun Yu’s cousin. Died grieving Cao Cao’s interest in being Duke.

Notes: His name is pronounced differently from Xun Yu’s.

荀彧 (文若)
Hsün Yü (Wên-jo) 荀彧 (文若)
Cousin of Xun You, a very talented advisor under Cao Cao. Commited suicide.

Notes: The reason we have Xun Yu and Xun “You” is because, though the sounds are the same (both Yu), they’re pronounced Yu4 and Yu1, the You idea, I suppose, comes in for foreign readers who cannot see the tones.

Hsün Chuan 荀专
Son of Xun Shu, uncle to Xun Yu, one of the ‘Eight Dragons’
Yen K‘uang 严匡
In charge of the colonies around Xu city, he led reinforcements to put down Jin Yi’s revolt.
Yen P‘u 阎圃
Advised Zhang Lu on the defence against Cao Cao, stopped Lu becoming King.

Notes: Also called Yan Fu.

Yen Jou 阎柔
Lived among the tribes as a child. Campaigned with Cao Cao against the Wuwan.
閻溫 (伯儉)
Yen Wên (Po-chien) 阎温 (伯俭)
Captured by Ma Chao, when dragged before the walls, he urged the defenders to fight on.
Yang Piao 杨彪
Stripped of rank and banished by both Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao. Drove Li Jue and Guo Si apart.
Yang Tao 羊道
Helped Cai Yong escape the eunuchs and find safety in the south-east.
楊阜 (義山)
Yang Fu (I-shan) 杨阜 (义山)
Helped defeat Ma Chao. Criticized Cao Rui’s extravagance in clothing, buildings and woman.
Yang Chi 杨稷
Close offical of Cao Rui, respected Liu Ye. Opposed camapign against Shu.
楊俊 (季才)
Yang Chün (Chi-ts‘ai) 杨俊 (季才)
A widely admired offical, he established schools in area’s he governed and helped bring talent to Wei.
楊偉 (世英)
Yang Wei (Shih-ying) 杨伟 (世英)
Military advisor to Cao Shuang. During Cao Shuang’s campaign in 244, he urged retreat, warning that the army would suffer a huge defeat otherwise.
Yang Hsin 杨欣
Served Wei. District Governor of Jincheng before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
楊修 (德祖)
Yang Hsiu (Tê-tsu) 杨修 (德祖)
A talented scholar and friend of Cao Zhi, helped Zhi cheat Cao Cao’s tests.
楊儀 (威公)
Yang I (Wei-kung) 杨仪 (威公)
Opposed old enemy Wei Yan. Later later stripped of rank for dissensitoius words.
Yang Tso 杨祚
Goes with Bei Yan and makes strong camp, suggests waiting for Sima Yi to retreat.
Yin Tamu 尹大目
Tried to stop Wen Qin during Guanqiu Jian’s rebellion, but failed.
Yin Teng 殷登
Recorded Shan Yang’s prediction that Cao Pi would take the throne. Was rewarded by Cao Pi.
Yin Fan 隐蕃
A false defector to Wu, charmed many people but revolt failed, died bravely.
Yin Fêng (Tzŭ-tsêng) 尹奉
A man of respected family, he played a part in driving away Ma Chao.
Yin Li [Lu’êrh] 尹礼[卢儿]
A bandit leader, he later helped Zang Ba against the Yuan’s. Called Black Boy.

Notes: Lu’er, which translates to ‘Black Boy’, was his nickname.

Yin Shang 尹赏
Friend of Jiang Wei in Tianshui. Surrendered Tianshui to Shu, made Prefect of Jicheng.
應劭 (仲瑗)
Ying Shao (Chung-yüan) 应劭 (仲瑗)
His historical work remain an important source of information on Later Han.

Notes: Called Ling Shao in the Shi Yu.

Yu T‘u 尤突
Commoner of Poyang, asked by Cao Cao to lead men against Wu. He Qi and Lu Xun beat him.
于禁 (文則)
Yü Chin (Wên-tsê) 于禁 (文则)
Served Cao Cao. Surrendered to Guan Yu. Shamed by Cao Pi into suicide.
Yüan Pa 袁覇
Advised Cao Cao to become Duke and Cao Pi to become emperor.
袁渙 (曜卿)
Yüan Huan (Yao-ch‘ing) 袁涣 (曜卿)
A man of courtesy, generosity and restraint, he refused to rebuke Liu Bei.
Yüan Min 袁敏
Discussed matters with Xian and an expert with a sword, he was interested in hydrology.
Yüan Shao 爰邵
Guard of Deng Ai. Versed in the Book of Changes, he predicts Deng Ai’s success and fall.

Notes: Sometimes called Shao Yuan, likely to differentiate from his more famous namesake. Dispite the fact that they are different Han Zi, Yuan Shao of Wei’s name is pronounced exactly the same as the more commonly known Yuan2 Shao4 [Benchu]

Yüan Ssŭ 袁嗣
Surrendered to Cao Cao in 196.
Yüeh Ch‘ên 乐綝
Served Wei. Son of Yue Jin. Campaigned against Shu with Cao Zhen. Executed by Zhuge Dan.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Yue Shen’ in some Koei games, and on rare occasion referenced as ‘Yue Lin’.

樂進 (文謙)
Yüeh Chin (Wên-ch‘ien) 乐进 (文谦)
Served Cao Cao from the beginning. Shot from his horse by Gan Ning. Small-framed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as Yue Jing in some Brewitt-Taylor editions. Yue Jin is also sometimes translated as Le Jin (and in Destiny of an Emperor they somehow botched it up further to Le Xin).

臧霸 (宣高)
Tsang Pa (Hsüan-kao) 臧霸 (宣高)
Originally served Tao Qian, then Lü Bu. Later joined Cao Cao.
Tsao Chih 棗祗
Held out against Lü Bu and kept supplies going. His idea of agricultural colonies was credited with Wei’s success.
棧潛 (彥皇)
Chan Ch‘ien (Yen-huang) 栈潜 (彦皇)
Opposed Cao Pi’s love of hunting and marriage of love to Empress Guo.
張承 (公先)
Chang Ch‘êng (Kung-hsien) 张承 (公先)
Warned Yuan Shu about declaring himself Son of Heaven, served in many ranks.
Chang Ch‘uan 张泉
Took part in Wei Feng’s conspiracy and executed when it failed.

Notes: Rafe calls him Zhang Quan

Chang Ch‘unhua 张春华
Wife of Sima Yi, she killed their only maid to protect her husband.
Chang Tang 張當
Gave Cao Shuang woman from the Imperial Harem. Implicated others as traitors.
Chang Fan 张泛
Enfeoffed as marquis by Cao Pi in honour of Zhang Liao’s achievements.
張範 (公儀)
Chang Fan (Kung-i) 张范 (公仪)
His generosity got family members returned by bandits, he was a frugal man.
Chang Fang 張方
Son of Zhang Yan who inherited his estate.
Chang Kung 张恭
Refused to work with tribes despite his son being held hostage.
張郃 (儁乂)
Chang Ho (Chün-i) 张郃 (儁乂)
Originally under Yuan Shao, defected to Wei. Died battling Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Apparently, Zhang He is misspelled ‘Zhang Yue’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

張紘 (子綱)
Chang Hung (Tzŭ-kang) 张紘 (子纲)
Minister who served Wu. Suggested changing the capital to Sun Quan.
Chang Hu 张虎
Son of Zhang Liao. Defended against Zhuge Liang along with Yue Chen.
張既 (德容)
Chang Chi (Tê-jung) 张既 (德容)
Persuaded Ma Teng to help Cao Cao, he was a major part in the pacification of Liang.
張儉 (元節)
Chang Chien (Yüan-chieh) 张俭 (元节)
Much admired, thousands of people died helping him flee. Aware of Cao Cao’s ambitions.
Chang Chieh 张节
Minister of Wei who was executed by Sima Yan when he usurped the throne.
Chang Chin 张进
Led a failed rebellion against Wei in AD 220.
張津 (子雲)
Chang Chin (Tzŭ-yün) 张津 (子云)
Practised magic, sent to oppose Liu Biao, he was killed by his officer Ou Jing.
Chang Chiu 张就
Kidnapped by rebels in AD 220. He bravely held out until reinforcements came.
張遼 (文遠)
Chang Liao (Wên-yüan) 张辽 (文远)
Served in Wei after Cao Cao defeated Lü Bu. Close friend of Guan Yu.
張魯 (公祺)
Chang Lu (Kung-ch‘i) 张鲁 (公祺)
Controller of Hanzhong before surrendering to Cao Cao in 215.
Chang Mao (Yen-ts‘ai) 张茂
Remonstrated with Cao Rui over Rui’s building works, put to death.
張邈 (孟卓)
Chang Miao (Mêng-cho) 张邈 (孟卓)
Friend of Yuan Shao and Cao Cao, rebelled against Cao Cao. Killed by his own men later on.
Chang Nan 张南
Claimed ability on the waters, but was just a braggart. Killed by Zhou Tai.

Notes: ‘Zhang Neng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to differentiate from Zhang Nan of Shu.

Chang P‘u 张普
Served under Cao Xiu. Defeated by Xu Sheng, killed by Zhu Huan.
張緝 (敬仲)
Chang Ch‘i (Ching-chung) 张缉 (敬仲)
Executed by Sima Shi for plotting to remove Shi with Cao Fang. Predicted Zhuge Ke would die.
Chang Ch‘iu 张球
Served Cao Rui, sent to set a fire trap against Wu, burning many ships.
Chang Ch‘üan 张泉
Took part in Wei Fang’s plot and executed when caught. Family lost marquis.

Notes: Also called Zhang Chuan

Chang Jung 张融
Son of Zhang Fang who inherited his estate.
Chang Shao 张绍
Surrendered to Wei after Shu’s collapse.
張特 (子產)
Chang T‘o (Tzŭ-ch‘an) 张特 (子产)
Commanded the defence of Xincheng when it was under attack by Zhuge Ke.
Chang Hsi 张憙
Sent to gather up reinforcements and help Hefei, Sun Quan retreated due to rumours of it’s size.
Chang Hsiu 张绣
He fought Cao Cao after he took Zhang Ji’s widow as a wife. Served Wei with distinction.
Chang Yen 张燕
Leader of the Black Mountain Bandits. Tried but failed to aid Gongsun Zan.

Notes: His surname at birth was Chu (褚). Many Black Mountain Bandits had nicknames. Zhang Yan‘s was ’Flying Swallow Yan.’ In the past we have noted his style name as Zijie (子節), but have removed the name due to a lack of historic confirmation.

Chang I 张顗
Killed by Gan Ning as he cleared the road ahead for Cao Cao. Historically not at Chibi.

Notes: ‘Zhang Zi’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish among others named Zhang Yi.

Chang Ying 张颖
Officer of Wei. Assisted in the defense of Hefei in 234.
Chang Yün 张允
Surrendered to Cao Cao with Cai Mao. Served as Cao’s Vice Admiral at Chibi.
Chao Fan 赵范
Offered his sister-in-law to Zhao Yun, who refused as Yun doubted Fan’s loyalty.
Chao Ch‘ü 赵衢
Shut Ma Chao out of Hanyang and murdered his family, became a general.
Chao Wên (Tzŭ-jou) 赵温
Infuriated Cao Cao by nominating Cao Pi. Li Jue twice tried to kill him but Li Ying and Jia Xu saved him.
Chêng Ch‘ung (Wên-ho) 郑冲
Devoted to scholarship, first served under Cao Pi, became Grand Tutor to Sima Yan.
Cheng Kan 郑甘
Mountain bandit who surrendered to Wei. Rebelled again and was killed by Cao Ren.
鄭渾 (文公)
Chêng Hun 郑浑 (文公)
Encouraged parents not to abandon infants, isolated and defeated Liang Xing.
Chêng Wên 郑文
Officer under Sima Yi. Falsesly surrendered to Kongming. Executed by Kongming.

Notes: Commonly listed as Deng Wen 邓文. Confusion may be the cause: zheng4 鄭/郑 vs deng4 鄧/邓.

鄭玄 (康成)
Chêng Hsüan (K‘-ang-ch‘êng) 郑玄 (康成)
Loved wine, a leading scholar of his day but hated court life. Had many students.
鍾會 (士季)
Chung Hui (Shih-chi) 锺会 (士季)
Close adviser of Sima Zhao. Later plotted rebellion and was killed by mutinous troops.
Chung Chin 钟缙
Used a large axe but was dismounted by Zhao Yun.
Chung Ching 钟进
Went to inspect a gate of Chang’an, he was was cut down by Pang De.

Notes: Called Zhong Jin in some translations of the novel.

Chung Shên 钟绅
Had half his head cut off by Zhao Yun as Shen pursued the Shu general.
鍾繇 (元常)
Chung Yao (Yüan-ch‘ang) 钟繇 (元常)
Famous calligrapher. Stirred up quarrel between Han Sui and Ma Teng, close to Cao Pi.
鍾毓 (稚叔)
Chung Yü (Chih-shu) 钟毓 (稚叔)
A senior law officer, warned Sima Zhao about his brother’s untrustworthy nature.
Chou T‘ai 州泰
Wei governor in Yue territory. Helped to secure victory against Zhuge Dan.
周宣 (孔和)
Chou Hsüan (K‘ung-ho) 周宣 (孔和)
Interpretor of dreams, right nine times out of ten. Warned about female rebels.
Chu Fang 朱芳
General of Wang Jing, one of four sent to attack Jiang Wei, they are defeated.
Chu Kai 朱盖
Fought under Zhang Liao against Chen Lan and Xu Huang against Guan Yu.
Chu (Kung-tao) (公道)
Rescued Jia Kui from prison of Guo Yuan, later executed for some crime.
Chu Kuang 朱光
Set up farms at Huan and provoked riots against Wu but Sun Quan attacked and took the city.
朱靈 (文博)
Chu Ling (Wên-po) 朱灵 (文博)
Said to be disliked by Cao Cao, his reputation was equal that of Xu Huang’s.
Chu Tsan 朱讚
Officer of Cao Zhen, sent to raid the Shu camp but failed. Killed by Zhao Yun.
諸葛誕 (公休)
Chuko Tan (Kung-hsiu) 诸葛诞 (公休)
Zhuge Liang’s cousin. Tried to rebel against Sima Zhao, but was executed.
Chuko Ch‘ien 诸葛虔
Subordinate of Chang Diao in an attack on Zhu Huan.
Chuko Hsü 诸葛绪
Imperial Inspector of Yongzhou before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
Tsung (Tzŭ-ch‘ing) (子卿)
Persuaded the rebelling Hou Yin to let the governor go, joined in attack on Hou Yin.
Tsou Ch‘i 邹岐
Appointed in AD 220–221 to administrative posts in Liangzhou during times of rebellion.
左慈 (元放)
Tso Tz‘ŭ (Yüan-fang) 左慈 (元放)
Taoist named ‘Master Black Horn’. Trained in the occult at Emei Mountain.

Notes: Rafe de Crespigny calls him Zuo Ce.



Novel and History

Officers and Kingdoms

Literature and Language


March 7, 2014