Officer Names (CH/EN): Shu Officers

Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Shu Kingdom

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Shu Kingdom: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Pao Sanniang 鲍三娘
Guan Suo’s wife. Both beautiful and skilled in combat. Fictional.
Pao Su 鲍素
Fictional officer of Jiang Wei. Acted as a decoy but was defeated and killed by Chen Tai.
Po Shou 白寿
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Ts‘ao Pao 曹豹
Beaten and later slain by Zhang Fei. He caused Lü Bu’s attack on Xuzhou.
陳到 (叔至)
Ch‘ên Tao (Shu-chih) 陈到 (叔至)
Served Liu Bei since he held Yizhou. Held office just under Zhao Yun.
陳登 (元龍)
Ch‘ên Têng (Yüan-lung) 陈登 (元龙)
Spied on Lü Bu with his father, Gui, for Cao Cao. Joined Liu Bei, then surrendered to Cao.
Ch‘ên Fêng 陈凤
Captured by Xie Jing and Li Yi, he surrendered to Wu.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
Ch‘ên Hu 陈曶
Sent by Zhuge Liang to attack Huang Yuan.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈济
Served Shu. Chen Zhen’s son.
陳群 (長文)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün (Ch‘ang-wên) 陈群 (长文)
Served Wei. Imperial Censor under Cao Cao. Supreme Commander under Cao Pi.

Notes: Sometimes his style is referenced incorrectly as ‘Zhangwen’.

Ch‘ên Shih 陈式
Rumored father of Chen Shou. Traded for Xiahou Shang at Hanzhong. Executed.
陳壽 (承祚)
Ch‘ên Shou (Ch‘êng-tso) 陈寿 (承祚)
Served Shu and later Jin. Author of the highly-respected Three Kingdoms history, Sanguozhi.
陳震 (孝起)
Ch‘ên Chên (Hsiao-ch‘i) 陈震 (孝起)
Local official, was sent as emissary to Wu, swearing oath of alliance with Sun Quan.
Ts‘uan Ku 爨谷
Governor of Jiaozhi. Allied with Jin and became powerful in the region.
Ts‘uan Hsi 爨习
A resident of Nanzhong. He later surrendered to Zhuge Liang, and his clan became powerful.
鄧方 (孔山)
Têng Fang (K‘ung-shan) 鄧方 (孔山)
Followed Liu Bei into Shu and was later given command of the south.
Têng Fu 邓辅
In 219, he was attacked and defeated by Lu Xun.
Têng K‘ai 邓凯
Raised non-Chinese people to resist Sun Quan. Lost to Xie Jing and fled to Shu.
Têng Liang 邓良
Served Liu Shan. Surrended to Deng Ai on behalf of Liu Shan.
Têng T‘ung 邓铜
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
One of the many generals that fights Liu Bei. Is killed by Huang Zhong in the novel.
鄧芝 (伯苗)
Têng Chih (Po-miao) 邓芝 (伯苗)
Served Zhuge Liang. Was responsible for restoration of alliance with Wu.
Tilu Horse [Hex Mark] 的卢马
Liu Bei’s horse. Saved Liu Bei at the river Tan. Killed at Fallen Phoenix Slope, along with Pang Tong.

Notes: Called ‘Hex Mark’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Ting Li 丁立
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
董和 (幼宰)
Tung Ho (Yu-tsai) 董和 (幼宰)
Suggested asking Zhang Lu for aid against Liu Bei. Admired for his honesty and plain living.
董恢 (休緒)
Tung Hui (Hsiu-hsü) 董恢 (休绪)
As an ambassador to Wu, advised Fei Yi on how to reply to Sun Quan.
董厥 (龔襲)
Tung Chüeh (Kung-hsi) 董厥 (龚袭)
Brought troops to defend Saber Pass from Deng Ai and Zhong Hui.
董允 (休昭)
Tung Yün (Hsiu-chao) 董允 (休昭)
Served Shu as a High Minister during Liu Shan’s reign.
Tu P‘u 杜普
Advance guard against Yue Jin in Xiangyang but was driven back.
Tu Ch‘i 杜祺
Subordinate of Wang Lian, he rose up to become a high ranking officer.
杜瓊 (伯瑜)
Tu Ch‘iung (Po-yü) 杜琼 (伯瑜)
A teacher of Qiao Zhou and famed scholar, generally avoided public affairs despite rank.
杜微 (國輔)
Tu Wei (Kuo-fu) 杜微 (国辅)
Faked illness, even faked being deaf, to avoid serving Liu Bei.
O Huan 鄂焕
General under Gao Ding. Captured by Shu forces.
Empress Kan 甘皇后
Concubine and later Empress of Liu Bei. She was a native of Pei.
Empress Mu 穆皇后
Consort and later Empress of Liu Bei. From Chenliu. Wu Yi’s sister.

Notes: Empress Mu (穆皇后) is her traditional name. Informally, you will find her referenced as Empress Wu (吳皇后).

Empress Chang 張皇后
Sister to Lady Zhang, second wife of Liu Shan.
Empress Chang [Hsingts‘ai] 张皇后[星彩]
Zhang Fei’s daughter. Empress Zhang married to Liu Shan. Zhang Xingcai in Koei games.

Notes: ‘Empress Zhang’ or ‘Lady Zhang’ in the novel and other historic sources, she has been given a fictional personality by Koei under the name ‘Zhang Xingcai’ or simply ‘Xing Cai’. Both names refer to the same person, but the story given her in Koei games is fictional. I’ve recorded this as the English translation presents itself (so, Huanghou Zhang (empress Zhang) and Xing1cai3 as her given name)

Fa Miao 法邈
Served Shu. Son of Fa Zheng.
法正 (孝直)
Fa Chêng (Hsiao-chih) 法正 (孝直)
Served Liu Zhang then Liu Bei. Was integral to the foundation of Shu.
樊建 (長元)
Fan Chien (Ch‘ang-yüan) 樊建 (长元)
Secretary under Jiang Wei. Went with Liu Shan when Shu fell.
Fan Chiang 范强
Assassinated Zhang Fei with Zhang Da and then fled to Wu.
Fan Yu 樊友
Governor of Yidu, fled his post to Lu Xun during Wu’s invasion of Jing.
Fan Chou 樊怞
From prestigious family, tried to raise forces for Liu Bei but was defeated by Pan Jun.
Fei Ch‘êng 费承
Served Shu. Son of Fei Yi, and his heir. Older brother to Fei Gong.
Fei Kung 费恭
Noted throughout the land but died young.
費觀 (賓伯)
Fei Kuan (Pin-po) 费观 (宾伯)
Relative of Liu Zhang, he recommended Li Yan and later surrendered to Liu Bei.
費詩 (公舉)
Fei Shih (Kung-chü) 费诗 (公举)
Gave refuge to Liu Zhang’s officers. Protested against Liu Bei becoming Emperor.
費禕 (文偉)
Fei I (Wên-wei) 费祎 (文伟)
Shu official. Took over affairs of state after Jiang Wan’s death.
馮習 (休元)
Fêng Hsi (Hsiu-yüan) 冯习 (休元)
Officer of Shu. Died fighting at the battle of Yiling.
輔匡 (元弼)
Fu K‘uang (Yüan-pi) 辅匡 (元弼)
Leader of the vanguard against Wu. Fought under Zhuge Liang against the Nanman.
Fu Ch‘ien 傅佥
Fu Tong’s son, served Shu. Captured Li Peng and Wang Zhen. Died in battle.
傅士仁 (君義)
Fu Shihjên (Chün-i) 傅士仁 (君义)
Persuaded by Lü Meng to betray Guan Yu. Killed by Guan Xing after trying to return to Shu.

Notes: Just known as Shi Ren in ZZTJ and Generals of the South.

Fu T‘ung 傅彤
Central military advisor for the Shu forces. Died during the battle of Yiling.

Notes: Called Fu Rong by SGZ.

Kao Ting (Yüan) 高定
Shu vassal that revolted in the southern Man region.
Kao Hsiang 高翔
Officer of Shu. Participated in many of Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kung Tu 龚都
Joined Liu Bei. Former Yellow Scarve. Killed by Xiahou Yuan at Ru Nan.
Kung Chih 巩志
Advised Jin Xuan to surrender. When Jin Xuan returned defeated, Gong Zhi shot him.
Kou An 句安
Drunkard officer under Li Yan. Beaten for arriving late with supplies, and fled to Wei.
Kuan P‘ing 关平
Served Shu. Guan Yu’s son (adopted in novel). Executed with Guan Yu by Sun Quan.
Kuan So 关索
Fictional son of Guan Yu. Greatly involved in Shu’s Southern Campaigns in the novel.
Kuan T‘ung 关统
Son of Guan Xing. Succeeded his father’s position as Marquis of Hanshou.
關興 (安國)
Kuan Hsing (An-kuo) 关兴 (安国)
Son of Guan Yu. Served in Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kuan I 关彝
Son of Guan Xing by concubine. Died fighting Wei troops during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.
Lady Kuan [Yinp‘ing] 関夫人[银屏]
Daughter of Guan Yu. Sun Quan wanted to arrange a marriage between her and Sun Deng.

Notes: Guan Yinping is a fictional name given to her by Koei.

關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

郭攸之 (演長)
Kuo Yuchih (Yen-ch‘ang) 郭攸之 (演长)
Described by Zhuge Liang as loyal and honest, advised Liu Shan on palace matters.
韓? (士元)
Han ? (Shih-yuan) 韩? (士元)
Noted by Chen Shou that no name, achievements or place of origin were available.
Han Hsüan 韩玄
Magistrate of Changsha. Wei Yan killed him and surrendered to Liu Bei.
Hu Pan 胡班
Son of Hu Hua. Helped Guan Yu during his 1,000 li journey from Cao Cao.
胡濟 (偉度)
Hu Chi (Wei-tu) 胡济 (伟度)
Based in Hanshou, went to Chengdu to get help to repel Wei’s invasion.
Hua Man 花鬘
Hua Man is the fictional daughter of Meng Huo, as found in Koei games.
Huang Ch‘ung 黄崇
Advised Zhuge Zhan to seize the high ground but was ignored. Killed by his soldiers.
Huang Hao 黄皓
Eunuch in service to Liu Shan. His advice helped to destroy Shu.
黃權 (公衡)
Huang Ch‘üan (Kung-hêng) 黄权 (公衡)
Served Liu Zhang and later Liu Bei. Surrendered to Wei out of necessity.
Huang Hsü 黄叙
Served Shu. Huang Zhong’s son, died young without children.
Huang Yung 黄邕
Son of Huang Quan, who served Liu Zhang then Shu. Died without issue.
Huang Yüan 黄元
When Liu Bei became ill after Yiling, he rebelled. Defeated by Chen Hu.
Huang Yüehying 黄月英
Zhuge Liang’s wife. Huang Chengyan’s daughter. Was very smart, but not beautiful.
黃忠 (漢升)
Huang Chung (Han-shêng) 黄忠 (汉升)
Joined Liu Bei after Han Xuan’s defeat. One of the Five Tiger Generals.
Huang Chu 黃柱
Employed at Guiyang. Chen Shou recorded that most other information had been lost.
霍峻 (仲邈)
Huo Chün (Chung-miao) 霍峻 (仲邈)
Held Jiameng against Liu Zhang’s generals before his countering and defeating them.
霍弋 (紹先)
Huo I (Shao-hsien) 霍弋 (绍先)
Son of Huo Jun, was concerned about lack of defences at Chengdu.
簡雍 (憲和)
Chien Yung (Hsien-ho) 简雍 (宪和)
Trusted friend of Liu Bei, a wit and often used as envoy. Persuaded Liu Zhang to surrender.

Notes: Jian Yong’s family name may have originally been ‘Geng’ (耿), but in the Youzhou dialect ‘Geng’ it was pronounced ‘Jian’, so he changed it.

Chiang Pin 蒋斌
Served Shu as a general under Liu Shan. Later surrendered to Zhong Hui.
Chiang Shu 蒋舒
Jiang Wei highly prized his talent, was disgruntled and defected in Wei’s invasion.
蔣琬 (公琰)
Chiang Wan (Kung-yen) 蒋琬 (公琰)
Served Shu starting with the Yi invasion. Trusted and influential. Died as Regent.
姜維 (伯約)
Chiang Wei (Po-yüeh) 姜维 (伯约)
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
Chiang Hsien 蒋显
Sent by Liu Shan to order Jiang Wei to surrender.
伊籍 (機伯)
Yin Chi (Chi-po) 伊籍 (机伯)
Received favour comparable to Mi Zhu, helped compile the administrative code.

Notes: ‘Yi Ji’ in novel translations and games. ’伊’, Romanized, is Yin, as is the case in Rafe de Crespigny’s works and is the standard Romanization of other instances in names. As such, Yin Ji instead of Ji Yi [Wade-Giles: I Chi].

金旋 (元機)
Chin Hsüan (Yüan-chi) 金旋 (元机)
Served as Governor of Wuling. Defeated by Zhang Fei.

Notes: Called Jin Shun in Liu Bei’s SGZ.

King Shamok‘o 沙摩柯大王
Originally a tribal leader, he helped Liu Bei at Yiling but died fighting Wu.
Lady Li 李夫人
Killed herself when her husband Ma Miao surrendered to Wei.

Notes: Appears as ‘Li Shi’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Mi 糜夫人
Consort of Liu Bei. Mi Zhu’s sister. Took her own life so Zhao Yun could save Liu Shan.
Lady Sun [Sun Shanghsiang] 孙妃[孙尚香]
Sun Quan’s sister. Married to Liu Bei by Sun Quan, but later returned to Wu.

Notes: Sun Shangxiang is Lady Sun’s name in most Koei Games. ‘Sun Ren’ (孫仁) in the seventh chapter of Romance of the Three Kingdoms (learn more; not a duplicate mention of Sun Lang). Also appears as Sun Li at times. Both Sun Ren and Sun Li are incorrect and have no bearing on her true name, which is unknown.

Lai Kung 赖恭
Driven away by Wu Ju, he later became a senior minister for Liu Bei.
來敏 (敬達)
Lai Min (Ching-ta) 来敏 (敬达)
Tested Fei Yi over a game of Weiqi, educated Liu Shan but may have been slightly crazy.

Notes: Called Liu Min in poisonpie’s novel listing.

Lei T‘ung 雷铜
Officer of Liu Zhang and, later, Liu Bei. Killed by Zhang He at Baxi.
Lei Hsü 雷绪
Leader of dissidents, driven away by Xiahou Yuan with his many followers.

Notes: May be Lei Bo.

Lêng Pao 冷苞
Fought Wei Yan and Huang Zhong, he was captured twice. He was executed the second time.

Notes: Sometimes erroneously referred to as Ling Bao.

Li Fu (Sun-tê) 李辅
Chief Secretary. Sent by Liu Shan to check on the dying Zhuge Liang.
李恢 (德昂)
Li Hui (Tê’-ang) 李恢 (德昂)
Begged Liu Zhang not to let Liu Bei in, persuaded Ma Chao to surrender to Liu Bei.
李密 (令伯)
Li Mi (Ling-po) 李密 (令伯)
Student of Qiao Zhou, evaluated the abilities of Liu Shan and his works were highly valued.
Li Ch‘iu 李球
Officer of Shu. Died defending Mianzhu during Deng Ai’s attack on the city.
李仁 (德賢)
Li Jên (Têhsien) 李仁 (德贤)
Studied in Nanyang, was widely read and an expert in many fields.
李邵 (永南)
Li Shao (Yung-nan) 李邵 (永南)
Clerical officer, Jiang Wei was later compared to Li Shao by Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Style also known as Weinan.

Li Hsin 李歆
Officer of Shu. Achieved merit in Jiang Wei’s first northern campaign.
李嚴 (正方)
Li Yen (Chêng-fang) 李严 (正方)
A talented officer, exiled after he forged a decree to cover up failure of supplies.

Notes: Li Yan changed his name to Li Ping (李平)after rising in Shu authority.

李譔 (欽仲)
Li Chuan (Ch‘in-chung) 李譔 (钦仲)
Fond of practical jokes, admired by Liu Xuan but not given important tasks. Skilled scholar
Liang Ta 梁大
Vassal of Liu Bei, he was defeated by Yue Jin.
Liang Hsü 梁绪
Originally of Wei, he submitted to Zhuge Liang and was made Governor of Tianshui.
Liao Ch‘un 廖淳
Served at Yiling, Jiang Wan recommended him for rank.
廖化 (元儉)
Liao Hua (Yüan-chien) 廖化 (元俭)
Officer in service of Shu. Served through the full span of the Shu Kingdom.

Notes: Also known as Liao Chun (廖淳).

廖立 (公淵)
Liao Li (Kung-yüan) 廖立 (公渊)
Arrogant officer who neglected his duties, was demoted by Zhuge Liang.
劉巴 (子初)
Liu Pa (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 刘巴 (子初)
Rescued Shu’s economy after Liu Bei’s troops had plundered the treasury.
劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

Liu Ch‘ên 刘谌
Liu Shan’s fifth son. Rather than surrender to Wei, he committed suicide.

Notes: Also known as Liu Chan in some versions of the novel.

Liu Tu 刘度
Governor of Lingling. He surrendered to Liu Bei after his son was defeated.
Liu Fêng 刘封
Liu Bei’s adopted son. Executed after the death of Guan Yu at Zhuge Liang’s suggestion.

Notes: ‘Kou Feng’ (寇封) before Liu Bei adopted him.

Liu Ho 刘郃
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
劉理 (奉孝)
Liu Li (Fêng-hsiao) 刘理 (奉孝)
Third son of Liu Bei. Married to Ma Chao’s daughter.
Liu Min 刘敏
Was of some renown, agreed with Wang Ping’s Hanzhong plan.
Liu Ning 刘宁
Participated in Liu Bei’s attack on Wu, but was defeated and surrendered.
Liu P‘an 刘磐
Attempted guerilla warfare against Sun Ce but was foiled by Taishi Ci.
Liu P‘i 刘辟
After rebelling with the Yellow Scarves, moved to Runan. Later joined Liu Bei.
Liu Ch‘i 刘琦
Eldest son of Liu Biao and legitimate heir of Jing. Became close friends with Liu Bei.
劉禪 (公嗣)
Liu Shan (Kung-ssŭ) 刘禅 (公嗣)
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.

Notes: Also known by his infant name, A-Dou (阿斗). See Liu Shan’s Comprehensive Officer Biography for more information on his name.

Liu Hsien 刘贤
Liu Du’s son. Defended Lingling with Xing Daorong against Liu Bei, but failed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xiang’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

劉璿 (文衡)
Liu Hsüan (Wên-hêng) 刘璿 (文衡)
Son of Liu Shan, and his crown prince. Died during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.

Notes: Called Liu Rui in Moss Roberts and Brewitt Taylor translations of the novel.

劉琰 (威碩)
Liu Yen (Wei-shih) 刘琰 (威硕)
Former Administrator of Yizhou. Executed after accusing Liu Shan of seducing his wife.

Notes: Liu Yan’s style, Weishi, is also translated as Weishuo. Either may turn up in references. Called Liu Yang in the Brewett-Taylor version of the novel.

劉邕 (南和)
Liu Yung (Nan-ho) 刘邕 (南和)
Joined Liu Bei during the Yizhou Campaign. Made Administrator of Jiangyang.
Liu Yüanch‘i 刘元起
Liu Bei’s uncle. Recognized Liu Bei’s ambition, and worked to maintain the family.
劉璋 (季玉)
Liu Chang (Chi-yü) 刘璋 (季玉)
Son of Liu Yan. Governed Ba-shu before Liu Bei took his kingdom out from under his feet.
呂布 (奉先)
Lü Pu (Fêng-hsien) 吕布 (奉先)
Said to be the finest warrior of the Three Kingdoms era. Executed by Cao Cao.
呂凱 (季平)
Lü K‘ai (Chi-p‘ing) 吕凯 (季平)
Served Shu with Wang Kang. Was Kongming’s guide while battling against the Nanman.
Lu Hsün 卢逊
Officer of later-Shu. Defeated Zhong Hui at Nanzheng, but was later killed by Xun Kai.
呂乂 (季阳)
Lü I (Chi-yang) 吕乂 (季阳)
Served Shu as Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time.

Notes: Some Brewitt-Taylor translations incorrectly list Lü Yi as ‘Lu Yin’. Some books, historical or simplified, including some Chinese Moss Roberts translations, list Lü Yi’s name as 呂義 or its simplified variant 呂义. They are presented as the same person because the two names are both used in reference to the same person, a Lü Yi who was Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time, and because there is no reference to another Lü Yi in Shu.

Lo Mêng 罗蒙
Luo Xian (Lingze)’s father. Served in Shu to avoid the chaos in the land.
羅憲 (令則)
Lo Hsien (Ling-tsê) 罗宪 (令则)
Luo Meng’s son. Served in Shu under Liu Shan. Did not support Huang Hao.
Ma Ping 马秉
Son of Ma Liang.
馬超 (孟起)
Ma Ch‘ao (Mêng-ch‘i) 马超 (孟起)
Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
Ma Ch‘êng 马承
Son of Ma Chao, inherited his father’s titles.
Ma Tai 马岱
Ma Chao’s cousin. He surrendered to Liu Bei with Ma Chao.
馬良 (季常)
Ma Liang (Chi-ch‘ang) 马良 (季常)
Administered Jing after Liu Bei took Shu. Nicknamed ‘White Eyebrows’.
Ma Miao 马邈
Surrendered Jiangyou castle prompting his wife to commit suicide.
馬齊 (承伯)
Ma Ch‘i (Ch‘êng-po) 马齐 (承伯)
Became a Minister of Writing, known for his ability.
馬謖 (幼常)
Ma Su (Yu-ch‘ang) 马谡 (幼常)
Ma Liang’s younger brother. Executed by Zhuge Liang after his failure at Jie Ting.
Ma Hsiu 马脩
Son of Ma Zhong (Dexin). His family continued service in Jin after Shu’s surrender.
馬勳 (盛衡)
Ma Hsün (Ch‘êng-hêng) 马勋 (盛衡)
Served in varying positions under Liu Bei, showed ability and was trusted.
Ma Yü 马玉
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Ma Yünlu 马云騄
Fictional character from Fan Sanguo Yanyi. Ma Teng’s daughter. Married to Zhao Yun.

Notes: Sometimes appears incorrectly as Ma Yunli.

馬忠 (德信)
Ma Chung (Tê-hsin) 马忠 (德信)
Served Shu notably during the northern and southern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as Hu Du (狐篤). Mistranslated as Ma Zheng in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

孟達 (子敬)
Mêng Ta (Tzŭ-ching) 孟达 (子敬)
Refused aid to Guan Yu. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, kills Xu Huang.

Notes: Meng Da was originally styled Zijing (子敬), but later changed his style to Zidu (子度) because the uncle of his lord, Liu Bei, was named Liu Jing.

孟光 (孝裕)
Mêng Kuang (Hsiao-yü) 孟光 (孝裕)
Raised concerns over Liu Xuan’s education, an arrogant but bright scholar.
麋芳 (子方)
Mi Fang (Tzŭ-fang) 麋芳 (子方)
Mi Zhu’s brother. Served all three kingdoms. Surrendered to Wu after threat of punishment from Guan Yu.
麋竺 (子仲)
Mi Chu (Tzŭ-chung) 麋竺 (子仲)
Served Shu. Mi Fang’s brother. Died shortly after Mi Fang’s betrayal.
Ning Sui 宁随
Officer in Shu’s later years. Offered Jiang Wei a plan that repelled Deng Ai.
潘濬 (承明)
P‘an Chün (Ch‘êng-ming) 潘浚 (承明)
Began his career under Liu Biao then Liu Bei. After Guan Yu’s death, served in Wu.
龐宏 (巨師)
P‘ang Hung (Chü-shih) 庞宏 (巨师)
Son of Pang Tong. Joined Wei with Huang Quan after the Shu army’s defeat by Wu.
P‘ang Lin 庞林
Surrendered to Wei with Huang Quan, where Lin was reunited with his wife.
P‘ang Jou 庞柔
Cousin of Pang De, his service to Shu cast doubts on Pang De’s loyalty.
龐統 (士元)
P‘ang T‘ung (Shih-yüan) 庞统 (士元)
Friend of Sima Hui’s and Shu’s “Fledgling Phoenix.” Killed by an arrow at Luocheng.
P‘ang Hsi 庞羲
A friend of Liu Yan. Collected his grandchildren and brought them to Shu.
彭羕 (永年)
P‘êng Yang (Yung-nien) 彭羕 (永年)
Friend of Meng Da, plotted revolt against Liu Bei. Repented but still executed.
譙周 (允南)
Ch‘iao Chou (Yün-nan) 谯周 (允南)
Historian and teacher, advised Liu Shan to surrender. Opposed Jiang Wei and Huang Hao.
秦宓 (子質)
Ch‘in Mi (Tzŭ-ch‘ih) 秦宓 (子质)
Rebuked Jian Yong for his arrogance, thrown in jail for opposing the invasion of Wu.
Red Hare [Ch‘iht‘uma] 赤兔[赤兔马]
Lü Bu’s famed horse. “Among men, Lü Bu; among horses, Red Hare.” Novel: Later given to Guan Yu by Cao Cao.
Jên K‘uei 任夔
Advised attacking Cao Hong early but the plan resulted in Kui’s death.
射堅 (文固)
Shê Chien 射坚 (文固)
Of good repute, sacked during time of famine, went to Yi from Chang’an.
射援 (文雄)
Shê Yüan (Wên-hsiung) 射援 (文雄)
Of good reputation, Huangfu Song admired his talents. Memorialised Liu Bei be King of Hanzhong.
申耽 (義舉)
Shên Tan (I-chü) 申耽 (义举)
Brother of Shen Yi. Governor of Shangyong. Surrendered from Wei to Shu to Wei.
Shên I 申仪
Brother of Shen Dan. Friend of Meng Da. Surrendered from Wei to Shu then again to Wei.
Shih Ho 史郃
Surrendered to Wei alongside Huang Quan.
孫乾 (公祐)
Sun Ch‘ien (Kung-yu) 孙乾 (公祐)
Served Liu Bei. From Beihai. At death ranked General Who Upholds Loyalty.
田豫 (國讓)
T‘ien Yü (Kuo-jang) 田豫 (国让)
General of Wei under Cao Rui. Dispatched to Xiangyang to counter Wu’s invasion.

Notes: Also referred to erroneously as Tian Du.

王甫 (國山)
Wang Fu (Kuo-shan) 王甫 (国山)
Warned Guan Yu about Lü Meng, Pang Jun and an ambush but was ignored.
Wang Han 王含
Defender of Yuecheng, surrendered on the loss of Hanzhong.
Wang K‘ang 王伉
Defended Yongchang against Yong Kai’s attack, credited success to Lu Kai.
王連 (文儀)
Wang Lien (Wên-i) 王连 (文仪)
Shu governor who did well economically. He warned Zhuge Liang of the risk of malaria.
王謀 (元泰)
Wang Mou (Yuan-t’ai) 王谋 (元泰)
Governor of Bajun under Liu Zhang. Held various post in Shu.
王平 (子均)
Wang P‘ing (Tzŭ-chün) 王平 (子均)
Served Wei but later surrendered to Shu. Served in the northern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as He Ping (何平).

Wang Shan 王山
Served Shu. Wang Lian’s son.
王士 (義強)
Wang Shih (I-ch’iang) 王士 (义強)
Second cousin of Wang Fu. Died in the Nanman campaign.
王嗣 (承宗)
Wang Ssu (Ch’engtsung) 王嗣 (承宗)
Died several months after being struck by an arrow during one of Jiang Wei’s northern expeditions. Had a strong relationship with the Qiang and Hu tribes.
Wang Hsün 王训
Wang Ping’s son and heir.
Wang You 王祐
Son of Wang Fu who was of a similar character to his father.
魏延 (文長)
Wei Yen (Wên-ch‘ang) 魏延 (文长)
Talented commander. Killed Han Xuan and surrendered his territory to Liu Bei.
衛? (文經)
Wei ? (Wen-ching) 卫? (文经)
Noted by Chen Shou that no name, achievements or place of origin were available.
吳班 (元雄)
Wu Pan (Yüan-hsiung) 吴班 (元雄)
Vanguard at Yiling, led naval forces. Later senior general, helps defeat Sima Yi.

Notes: Also called Hu Ban in some versions of the novel.

Wu Lan 吴兰
Served Liu Yan and Zhang then Liu Bei. Killed in battle with Cao Zhang.
五梁 (德山)
Wu Liang (Tê-shan) 五梁 (德山)
Commended for classical learning and moral integrity.
吳懿 (子遠)
Wu I (Tzŭ-yüan) 吴懿 (子远)
Younger sister married Liu Bei, a general of some renown.

Notes: Wu Yi4 (懿) or Yi1 (壹) are both proper.

Hsi Lung 习隆
Son of Xi Zhong.
習禎 (文祥)
Hsi Chên (Wên-hsiang) 习祯 (文祥)
Skilled in rhetoric, he was comparable to Pang Tong, held civil posts under Liu Bei.
郤正 (令先)
Hsi Chêng (Ling-hsien) 却正 (令先)
Neither loved nor despised by Huang Hao. Advised Liu Shan in exile, left family behind.
Hsi Chung 习忠
Son of Xi Zhen.
夏侯霸 (仲權)
Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan) 夏侯霸 (仲权)
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
Hsiahou Po 夏侯博
In 200, Cao Cao captured him after defeating Liu Bei.
Lady Hsiahou 夏侯氏
Wife to Zhang Fei. Xiahou Yuan’s niece and Xiahou Ba’s cousin.
Hsiang Ch‘ung 向宠
Given control of internal military affairs. Died fighting Hanjia barbarians.
Hsiang Ch‘ung 向充
On hearing about the seals shown by Wei Guan, recalled Qiao Zhou’s prophecy.
向朗 (巨達)
Hsiang Lang (Chü-ta) 向朗 (巨达)
Defended rear flank in the northern campaigns. Friend of Ma Su, didn’t report escape attempt.
向條 (文豹)
Hsiang T‘iao (Wên-pao) 向条 (文豹)
Xiang Lang’s son, he was a man of great learning.
許慈 (仁篤)
Hsü Tz‘ŭ (Jên-tu) 许慈 (仁笃)
Expert in teachings of Zheng Xuan. Argued with Hu Qian, controlled Liu Shan’s harem.
Hsü Tan 许耽
Officer of Liu Bei in Xuzhou. Opened the gates for Lü Bu when he attacked Zhang Fei.
許靖 (文休)
Hsü Ching (Wên-hsiu) 许靖 (文休)
Said to be an able critic. Liu Bei didn’t respect him but Liang always bowed to him.
徐庶 (元直)
Hsü Shu (Yüan-chih) 徐庶 (元直)
One of Sima Hui’s students. Served Liu Bei, then later, through trickery, Cao Cao.

Notes: Also went by the name Shan Fu (單福).

Yen Yen 严颜
Served Liu Zhang, but surrendered to Zhang Fei after being defeated by him.
閻宇 (文平)
Yen Yü (Wên-p‘ing) 阎宇 (文平)
A respected figure in Shu, given command of the south. In novel, becomes Huang Hao’s man.

Notes: Yan Yu’s name is incorrectly translated in the Brewitt-Taylor as ‘Yan Yun’.

Yen Chih 阎芝
Reinforced Liu Bei after Yiling, died at Hanzhong when at service with Zhuge Liang.
楊洪 (季休)
Yang Hung (Chi-hsiu) 杨洪 (季休)
Argued with Li Yan, urged Zhuge Liang to follow orders and raise all forces for Hanzhong.
楊慮 (威方)
Yang Lü (Wei-fang) 杨虑 (威方)
Served Shu. Yang Yi’s brother, died at 17 but was known for virtue.
Yang Ch‘ün 阳群
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
楊戲 (文然)
Yang Hsi (Wên-jan) 杨戏 (文然)
Respected for his honesty but was sacked and died a commoner. Wrote the Ji-Han fuchen zan.
楊儀 (威公)
Yang I (Wei-kung) 杨仪 (威公)
Opposed old enemy Wei Yan. Later later stripped of rank for dissensitoius words.
尹默 (思潛)
Yin Mo (Ssŭ-ch‘ien) 尹默 (思潜)
Learnt from Sima Hui, had great knowledge of the classics, appointed tutor of Liu Shan.
Yin Shang 尹赏
Friend of Jiang Wei in Tianshui. Surrendered Tianshui to Shu, made Prefect of Jicheng.
Yung K‘ai 雍闓
Along with Gao Ding and Zhu Bao, rebelled in Southern Yizhou.
袁渙 (曜卿)
Yüan Huan (Yao-ch‘ing) 袁涣 (曜卿)
A man of courtesy, generosity and restraint, he refused to rebuke Liu Bei.
Chan Yen 詹宴
Officer of Liu Bei, he was defeated by Lu Xun by the Yangzi Gorges.
Chang Pao 张苞
Fought against Wei and Wu, killing many generals. Died in the Northern Campaigns.

Notes: Sometimes ‘苞’ is translated as Pao, thus Zhang Pao. We continue to use Bao.

張存 (處仁)
Chang Ts‘un (Ch’u-jen) 张存 (处仁)
Removed from office by Liu Bei for making disrepectful remarks after Pang Tong’s death.
Chang Ta 张达
Officer of Zhang Fei, he was beaten harshly so murdered Zhang Fei then fled to Wu.
張飛 (益德)
Chang Fei (I-tê) 张飞 (益德)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Guan Yu. Second of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Sanguozhi records Zhang Fei’s style as 益 (yi4: ‘benefit’ or ‘increase’) rather than 翼 (yi4: ‘wing’), as used in the novel, games, and most literature.

Chang K‘uang 章诳
Sent by his commander Xu Dan to invite in Lü Bu to Xu and opened the gates.
張南 (文進)
Chang Nan (Wên-chin) 张南 (文进)
Commander of the vanguard against Wu, killed in the defeat that followed.
張嶷 (伯岐)
Chang Ni or Chang I (Po-ch‘i) 张嶷 (伯岐)
Wounded by Wang Shuang. Died rescuing Jiang Wei, suffered from arthritis.

Notes: 張嶷 is commonly translated as both Zhang Yi and Zhang Ni. Zhang Ni is perhaps the most common translation, likely to disambiguate from other Zhang Yis, but both are accepted.

Chang Shao 张绍
Surrendered to Wei after Shu’s collapse.
Chang Shuang 张爽
Took part in pushing Liu Bei to become emperor.
張松 (永年)
Chang Sung (Yung-nien) 张松 (永年)
Officer of Liu Zhang and Shu. Aided Liu Bei in Ba-Shu. Angered Cao Cao in Sanguo Yanyi.
Chang Wei 张微
Of firm character and keen to learn.
張翼 (伯恭)
Chang I (Po-kung) 张翼 (伯恭)
Urged Jiang Wei to concentrate on internal affairs. Strict governor, it caused revolt.
張裔 (君嗣)
Chang I (Chün-ssŭ) 张裔 (君嗣)
Looked after affairs when Zhuge Liang was at war. Held hostage by Wu.
張裕 (南和)
Chang Yü (Nanho) 张裕 (南和)
Divined Liu Bei’s death nine years after taking Yizhou. Executed by Liu Bei.
Chao Fan 赵范
Offered his sister-in-law to Zhao Yun, who refused as Yun doubted Fan’s loyalty.
Chao Kuang 赵广
Died during an expedition under Jiang Wei.
Chao Lei 赵累
Said to be loyal and trust-worthy, he died fighting Wu with Guan Yu and Guan Ping.
Chao T‘ung 赵统
Eldest son of Zhao Yun. Inherited his father’s title.
趙雲 (子龍)
Chao Yün (Tzŭ-lung) 赵云 (子龙)
Served Shu. Highly trusted by Liu Bei. Fourth of the Five Tiger Generals.
Chou Ts‘ang 周仓
Yellow Scarves leader turned subordinate of Guan Yu. Fictional.
周群 (仲直)
Chou Ch‘ün (Chung-chih) 周群 (仲直)
Predicted the Han’s fall, Liu Biao’s death, success with pain at Hanzhong among others.
Chu Pao 朱褒
Rebelled against Shu with Yong Kai and Gao Ding. Killed when Gao Ding defected.
Chuko Ching 诸葛京
Zhuge Zhan’s second son. Served Jin following the collapse of Shu.
Chuko Chün 诸葛均
Zhuge Liang’s younger brother, worked his way up in Shu.
諸葛亮 (孔明)
Chuko Liang (K‘ung-ming) 诸葛亮 (孔明)
Mastermind of Shu’s rise as a great power. Also known as ‘Sleeping Dragon’.

Notes: Also known by his nickname, ‘Sleeping Dragon’ or ‘Wo Long’ (臥龍). His original novel introduction, with Pang Tong, comes under this title.

Chuko P‘an 诸葛攀
The son of Zhuge Qiao. After Zhuge Ke’s death, was restored as Zhuge Jin’s heir.
諸葛喬 (伯鬆)
Chuko Ch‘iao (Po-sung) 诸葛乔 (伯松)
Famed in his own time, lacked brother’s talent but had superior disposition.

Notes: Originally styled Zhongshen (仲慎), but after adopting him Zhuge Liang changed it to Bosong (伯松).

Chuko Shang 诸葛尚
Died with his father on the battlefield against Deng Ai at only nineteen years old.
諸葛瞻 (思遠)
Chuko Chan (Ssŭ-yüan) 诸葛瞻 (思远)
Zhuge Liang’s son. Died along with his son defending Shu from Deng Ai.
宗預 (德艷)
Tsung Yü (Tê-yen) 宗预 (德艳)
Shu official. Sent to Wu to ask about Wu’s increased border guard after Zhuge Liang died.



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March 7, 2014