Officer Names (CH/EN): Novel Characters

Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Novel Characters Category

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Novel Characters Category: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Ahuinan 阿会喃
Served and executed by Meng Huo. Marshal of the Third Cave. Captured by Zhang Yi.

Notes: Some translations depict his name as Ahui Nan.

Pai Ch‘i 白起
General of Qin, rumored to have been undefeated. Conquered the state of Chu.
Pao Lung 鲍隆
Served Zhao Fan. Fell two tigers with a few arrows. Executed by Zhao Yun.
Pao Su 鲍素
Fictional officer of Jiang Wei. Acted as a decoy but was defeated and killed by Chen Tai.
Pao Hsin 鲍信
Urged Yuan Shao to attack Dong, invited Cao Cao to govern Yan. Died fighting Turbans.
Pao Chung 鲍忠
Served Bao Xin, his brother. Died in battle with Hua Xiong.
Pei Tou 北斗
God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Beidou (in Big Dipper).
Pei Yen 卑衍
Served Gongsun Yuan. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, fell in a duel against Xiahou Ba.
畢軌 (昭先)
Pi Kuei (Chao-hsien) 毕轨 (昭先)
Officer of Cao Shuang’s faction, executed by Sima Yi after Sima Yi’s coup.
Pien Ho 卞和
Historically, a statesman of Chu. Discovered the jade from which the imperial seal was crafted.
Pien Hung 边鸿
Part of Sun Yi’s escort, he assassinated his master after dusk. Executed by his co-conspirators.
邊讓 (文禮)
Pien Jang (Wên-li) 边让 (文礼)
Governor of Jiujiang. Killed by Xiahou Dun reinforcing Tao Qian against Cao Cao.
Pien Hsi 卞喜
Met Guan Yu with mock hospitality at Sishui Pass, and died for his trouble.
邴原 (根矩)
Ping Yüan (Kên-chü) 邴原 (根矩)
Friend of Hua Xin. Belly of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars.
Po Shou 白寿
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Pu Ch‘an (Chung-ssŭ) 步阐
Served Wu. Bu Zhi’s son. Surrendered his city to Jin. Killed by Lu Kang.
步騭 (子山)
Pu Chih (Tzŭ-shan) 步骘 (子山)
Served Sun Quan. Accurately predicted Guan Yu’s invasion of Jing.
Ts‘ai Ho 蔡和
Cai Mao’s brother. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but executed by Zhou Yu.
Ts‘ai Lin 蔡林
Officer of Zhuge Ke, he defected to Wei with his entire company at Xincheng.
蔡瑁 (德珪)
Ts‘ai Mao (Tê-kuei) 蔡瑁 (德圭)
Assisted Liu Biao in taking control of Jingzhou, prevented Liu Qi from visiting father.
Ts’ai Hsün 蔡埙
Relative of Cai Mao, killed with an arrow by Gan Ning in a navy battle.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

Ts‘ai Yang 蔡扬
Sent to take Runan from Liu Bei and Liu Pi but failed and was killed.

Notes: His given name may be either ’揚’ or ’陽’.

蔡邕 (伯喈)
Ts‘ai Yung (Po-chieh) 蔡邕 (伯喈)
Advised Emperor Ling’s court. Hated the eunuchs. Died honoring Dong Zhuo.

Notes: In some Wade-Giles translations of the novel Cai Yong is incorrectly listed as Ch’ai Yung.

Ts‘ai Chung 蔡中
Cai Mao’s cousin. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but was killed by Gan Ning.
曹昂 (子脩)
Ts‘ao Ang (Tzŭ-hsiu) 曹昂 (子脩)
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s first son. Died to save his father.
Ts‘ao Anmin 曹安民
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s nephew. Died in the battle against Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Cao Amin’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Ts‘ao Pao 曹豹
Beaten and later slain by Zhang Fei. He caused Lü Bu’s attack on Xuzhou.
曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

曹純 (子和)
Ts‘ao Ch‘un (Tzŭ-ho) 曹纯 (子和)
Cao Ren’s younger brother. Defeated by Zhou Yu in the southern cities.
Ts‘ao Tê 曹德
Brother of Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Kai with his father Cao Song.
曹芳 (蘭卿)
Ts‘ao Fang (Lan-ch‘ing) 曹芳 (兰卿)
Cao Rui’s crown prince. Became Emperor at age eight. Deposed by Sima Shi.
曹洪 (子廉)
Ts‘ao Hung (Tzŭ-lien) 曹洪 (子廉)
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s cousins and a vital element of his army.
曹奐 (景明)
Ts‘ao Huan (Ching-ming) 曹奂 (景明)
Son of Cao Yu. Last Emperor of the Wei Dynasty. Abdicated to Sima Yan.

Notes: Originally named Cao Huang (曹璜). An Emperor’s given name was ineffable. As such, it was stricken from use (sometimes changing city names and re-writing literature). Cao Huang changed his name to Huan to lessen the impact of this practice (learn more).

曹節 (元偉)
Ts‘ao Chieh (Yuan-wei) 曹节 (元伟)
The Chief of the Ten Regular Attendants under Emperors Huan and Ling of Han.
曹髦 (彥士)
Ts‘ao Mao (Yen-shih) 曹髦 (彥士)
Grandson of Cao Pi. Was made Emperor after Cao Fang’s abdication by Sima Shi.
曹丕 (子桓)
Ts‘ao P‘i (Tzŭ-huan) 曹丕 (子桓)
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
曹仁 (子孝)
Ts‘ao Jên (Tzŭ-hsiao) 曹仁 (子孝)
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
曹叡 (元仲)
Ts‘ao Jui (Yüan-chung) 曹睿 (元仲)
Emperor of Wei, he defended the dynasty from Shu and Wu, but was criticized for his spending.
Ts‘ao Shên 曹参
Prime Minister under Liu Bang. Ancestor of Cao Cao.

Notes: Sometimes Romanized ‘Cao Can’.

曹爽 (昭伯)
Ts‘ao Shuang (Chao-po) 曹爽 (昭伯)
Regent of Cao Fang. Underestimated Sima Yi, was stripped of power, and executed.
曹嵩 (巨高)
Ts‘ao Sung (Chü-kao) 曹嵩 (巨高)
Adopted son of Cao Teng and father of Cao Cao. Also called Xiahou Song.

Notes: Occasionally listed as, and once named, Xiahou Song (夏侯嵩).

曹騰 (季興)
Ts‘ao T‘êng (Chi-hsing) 曹腾 (季兴)
Adopted Cao Song (formerly Xiahou), father of Cao Cao, into the Cao family. Eunuch.
Ts‘ao Hsi 曹羲
Warned his brother about his excesses but was ignored. Recommended surrender.
Ts‘ao Hsing 曹性
Slain by Xiahou Dun in battle, who lost an eye to the archery of this man.
Ts‘ao Hsiung 曹熊
Fourth son of Cao Cao from second wife Lady Bian.
曹休 (文烈)
Ts‘ao Hsiu (Wên-lieh) 曹休 (文烈)
Performed well against Shu and Wu but fell for Zhou Fang’s ploy at Shiting.
Ts‘ao Hsün 曹训
Cao Zhen’s third son. Younger brother of Cao Shuang. Executed by Sima Yi.
Ts‘ao Yung 曹永
General of Cao Ren. Killed by Pang De, who also took his horse.
曹宇 (彭祖)
Ts‘ao Yü (P‘êng-tsu) 曹宇 (彭祖)
Son of Cao Cao. Refused to be Regent to Cao Fang due to his modest nature.
曹彰 (子文)
Ts‘ao Chang (Tzŭ-wên) 曹彰 (子文)
Cao Cao’s second son by Empress Bian. Fond of martial arts. Died not long after Cao Cao.
曹真 (子丹)
Ts‘ao Chên (Tzŭ-tan) 曹真 (子丹)
Served Wei. Adopted into Cao family. Managed affairs after Cao Pi’s death.

Notes: Cao Zhen’s original family name was Qin. He was adopted into the Cao clan.

曹植 (子建)
Ts‘ao Chih (Tzŭ-chien) 曹植 (子建)
Cao Cao’s third son by Empress Bian. Originally favored as heir over Cao Pi. Famous poet.
Ts‘ao Tsun 曹遵
Relative of Cao Zhen. Appointed as vanguard against Zhuge Liang. Killed by Wei Yan.
Ts‘ên Pi 岑璧
Tried to taunt Yuan Shang into a duel but got Lü Kuang instead and was soon killed.
Ts‘ên Hun 岑昏
Eunuch and favourite of Sun Hao, he was killed and eaten by palace officials.
Ts‘ên Wei 岑威
Escort for the captured Wooden Horses but was killed by Wang Ping.
岑桎 (公孝)
Ts‘ên Chih (Kung-hsiao) 岑桎 (公孝)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Nanyang.
Ch‘ang Tiao 常雕
Led an attack on Ruxu but was ambushed and killed by Zhu Huan.
Ch‘ang Hsi 昌豨
One of the Taishan Bandits. Joined and rebelled against Cao Cao several times.
Ch‘ê Chou 车胄
Served Cao Cao. Provisional Protector/Imperial Inspector of Xuzhou.
陳耽 (漢公)
Ch‘ên Tan 陈耽 (汉公)
Loyal Minister that, due to slander by the eunuchs, was arrested and died in jail.
陳登 (元龍)
Ch‘ên Têng (Yüan-lung) 陈登 (元龙)
Spied on Lü Bu with his father, Gui, for Cao Cao. Joined Liu Bei, then surrendered to Cao.
Ch‘ên Fan 陈蕃
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Imperial Guardian. Died opposing the eunuchs.
陳宮 (公臺)
Ch‘ên Kung (Kung-t‘-ai) 陈宫 (公臺)
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
Ch‘ên Hêng 陈横
Van leader with Xue Li under Liu Yao. Shot by Jiang Qin when ambushed by Sun Ce.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈纪
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
陳矯 (季弼)
Ch‘ên Chiao (Chi-pi) 陈矫 (季弼)
Known as a righteous, happy yet calm person. Highly respected governor.
Ch‘ên Chiu 陈就
Chief Controller, led Huang Zu’s navy but was killed by Lü Meng.
Ch‘ên Chün 陈俊
General of Sima Zhao. Participated in Sima Zhao’s campaign against Zhuge Dan.
Ch‘ên Lan 陈兰
Serves Yuan Shu, then later joined the Songshan Bandits with Lei Bo.

Notes: Chen Jian in To Esablish Peace

陳琳 (孔璋)
Ch‘ên Lin (K‘ung-chang) 陈琳 (孔璋)
Served under Emperor Ling, then under Yuan Shao. A superior writer.
Ch‘ên P‘ing 陈平
Former Han. A minister who served under Liu Bang.
陳騫 (休淵)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ien (Hsiu-yüan) 陈骞 (休渊)
A key Wei officer in the suppression of Zhuge Dan. Brigadier General of Jin.

Notes: Appears in some sources under the name Chen Xuan (陳鶱).

Ch‘ên Ch‘ün 陈群
Served Cao Rui. Captain under Sima Yi in his campaign against Gongsun Yuan.
陳群 (長文)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün (Ch‘ang-wên) 陈群 (长文)
Served Wei. Imperial Censor under Cao Cao. Supreme Commander under Cao Pi.

Notes: Sometimes his style is referenced incorrectly as ‘Zhangwen’.

Ch‘ên Shêng 陈生
Rode out aid the exhausted Zhang Hu but was shot in the face by Sun Jian.

Notes: Also known as Chen Zuo.

Ch‘ên Shih 陈式
Rumored father of Chen Shou. Traded for Xiahou Shang at Hanzhong. Executed.
Ch‘ên Sun 陈孙
Began pillaging the people of Jiangxia. Zhang Fei killed him in one blow.
陳泰 (玄伯)
Ch‘ên T‘ai (Hsüan-po) 陈泰 (玄伯)
Defended Wei against Jiang Wei. Wept at Cao Mao’s death, and died soon after.
Ch‘ên Wei 陈炜
Served Han as High Minister. Advisor to Li Ying. Mocked in jest by young Kong Rong.
陳武 (子烈)
Ch‘ên Wu (Tzŭ-lieh) 陈武 (子烈)
Served Sun Ce as Commandant. Surrounded at Hefei and fought to his death.
陳翔 (仲麟)
Ch‘ên Hsiang (Chung-lin) 陈翔 (仲麟)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Ch‘ên Ying 陈应
Officer of Zhao Fan. Fought with Zhao Yun, but was later executed by him.

Notes: In Destiny of an Emperor 2 his name is incorrectly mistranslated as Chen Shu.

Ch‘ên Yüan 陈元
Officer of Yang Hu, advised against drinking wine sent by Lu Kang.
Ch‘ên Tsao 陈造
Vanguard of Cao Zhen’s army. Slain by Ma Dai.
陳震 (孝起)
Ch‘ên Chên (Hsiao-ch‘i) 陈震 (孝起)
Local official, was sent as emissary to Wu, swearing oath of alliance with Sun Quan.
程秉 (德樞)
Ch‘êng Ping (Tê-shu) 程秉 (德枢)
Advisor to Sun Quan. Sent as diplomat, with Zhang Fei’s head, to Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: ‘Cheng Deshu’ in chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms despite being Cheng Bing elsewhere.

Ch‘êng K‘uang 程旷
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng Lien 成廉
General noted for his courage under Lü Bu. In novel, killed by Yue Jin.
程普 (德謀)
Ch‘êng P‘u (Tê-mou) 程普 (德谋)
Served three generations of the Sun family. From Tuyin in Youbeiping.

Notes: Incorrectly referred to as ‘Chen Pu’ once in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Ch‘êng Wu 程武
Served Wei. Son of Cheng Yu. Advised Xiahou Mao against Zhao Yun.
Ch‘êng I 成宜
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Attacked Chang’an with Ma Chao. Killed by Xiahou Yuan.
Ch‘êng Yin 程银
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Died fighting Cao Cao at Wei Nan.
程昱 (仲德)
Ch‘êng Yü (Chung-tê) 程昱 (仲德)
Served Wei as an advisor. From Dong’e in Dongjun.

Notes: Cheng (程) Li (立) was his original name, he dreamed about the mount Tai Shan when he was young, holding the sun (日) with both hands. Hence Cao Cao changed his name to Yu (昱) [Cheng Yu]. As you can see the word of Yu is composed with the word ‘sun’ (日) and the word ‘stand’ Li (立), together they form the word of Yu (昱).

Ch‘êng Yüanchih 程远志
Served Yellow Scarves as a chieftain. Killed by Guan Yu.
郗慮 (鴻豫)
Ch‘ih Lü (Hung-yü) 郗虑 (鸿豫)
Slandered Kong Rong leading to his death and took away the Empress’ seal.
Ch‘ung Fu (Ying-po) 种拂
Served Han as Minister of Ritual. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Ch‘ung Chi 种辑
Served Han as Changshui Commandant. Friend of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ch‘ung Shao (Shên-fu) 种邵
Han Court Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ch‘ung’êrh [Duke Wên of Chin] 重耳[晋文公]
Spring and Autumn Period. Chong’er, literally “Double Ears”, came to lead state of Jin.

Notes: ‘Er Chong’ in the Moss Roberts novel translation. ‘Er Chong’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. “Chong’er” literally translates to ‘Double Ears’, though there is no historic basis pointing out that he had unusual ears.

Wuhuan Ch‘u [Ch‘u of Wuhuan] 乌桓触
Tribal chief, swore fealty to Cao Cao rather then help the Yuan sons.

Notes: The characters of 烏桓 (wuhuan) are the same as those used for the Wuhuan tribe, thus ‘Chu of Wuhuan’ in many respected sources.

Ch‘unyü Tan 淳于丹
Sent by Lu Xun to test Liu Bei’s encampments. Is defeated and wounded.
淳于瓊 (仲簡)
Ch‘unyü Ch‘iung (Chungchien) 淳于琼 (仲简)
Served Yuan Shao. Mutilated by Cao Cao after failing Yuan Shao at Guandu.
Ts‘uan Hsi 爨习
A resident of Nanzhong. He later surrendered to Zhuge Liang, and his clan became powerful.
Ts‘ui Liang 崔谅
Governor of Anding, tried to lure Shu army into trap but was killed by Zhang Bao.
崔烈 (威考)
Ts‘ui Lieh (Wei-k’ao) 崔烈 (威考)
Commandant of the Capital Gates. Cui Yi’s brother. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Yi’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

崔琰 (季珪)
Ts‘ui Yen (Chi-kuei) 崔琰 (季珪)
Scholar who served Yuan Shao then Cao Cao, who executed him for his opposition.
Ts‘ui I 崔毅
Served Han under Emperor Ling. Cui Lie’s brother.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Lie’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

Ts‘ui Yung 崔勇
Served Guo Si. Killed by Xu Huang after taunting Yang Feng.
Ts‘ui Yü 崔禹
Went to Sun Huan’s aid instead of Zhu Ran but was captured and executed.
崔鈞 (州平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Choup‘ing) 崔钧 (州平)
One of Zhuge Liang’s close childhood friends. Friend of Xu Shu as well. From Boling.
Ta Ch‘iao 大乔
Elder of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Xiao Qiao. Married to Sun Ce.

Notes: Da (大), in this context, translates to ‘Big’, thus ‘Elder’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Older Qiao’, the name Da Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by Koei in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

Tai Ling 戴陵
Served as assistant general to Zhang He during battle against Zhuge Liang.
Tai Yüan 戴员
Killed Sun Yi, Bian Hong and Sun He before he was assassinated.
Tailaitungchu 带来洞主
Younger brother of Zhurong. Participated in the battle against Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Sometimes appears as Chief or King. ‘King Dai Lai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Tang Chün 党均
Served as advisor to Deng Ai. Spread false rumours about Jiang Wei.
鄧艾 (士載)
Têng Ai (Shih-tsai) 邓艾 (士载)
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
Têng Liang 邓良
Served Liu Shan. Surrended to Deng Ai on behalf of Liu Shan.
Têng Lung 邓龙
Attempted to attack Zhou Yu at Chaisang, Deng Long was defeated and captured.
Têng Mao 邓茂
Served Yellow Scarves under Cheng Yuanzhi. Killed by Zhang Fei.
Têng T‘ung 邓铜
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
Meng Da’s nephew. Under orders from Sima Yi, he betrayed Meng Da.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
One of the many generals that fights Liu Bei. Is killed by Huang Zhong in the novel.
Têng I 邓义
Served under Liu Cong with Liu Xian. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.
鄧禹 (仲華)
Têng Yü (Chung-hua) 邓禹 (仲华)
Han Dynasty general and statesman. Major contributor to Emperor Guangwu’s effort to reestablish the Han.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Zheng Yu’ in chapter 43 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation and the Moss Roberts translation.

鄧芝 (伯苗)
Têng Chih (Po-miao) 邓芝 (伯苗)
Served Zhuge Liang. Was responsible for restoration of alliance with Wu.
Têng Chung 邓忠
Served Wei. Deng Ai’s talented son. Died attempting to aid his father.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Deng Zong’ in some online historical sources.

Tien Man 典满
Served Wei. Dian Wei’s son, became a member of Cao Cao’s bodyguard.
Tien Wei 典韦
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.

Notes: We originally listed Dian Wei’s style as Ziman (子曼). As we are no longer able to locate the source, and a few possible causes for error have turned up, we no longer have reason to believe he had the name.

Tiaoch‘an [Sable Cicada] 貂婵
Wang Yun’s adopted daughter. Helped to kill Dong Zhuo. Fictional.

Notes: Also known as Sable Cicada.

Tilu Horse [Hex Mark] 的卢马
Liu Bei’s horse. Saved Liu Bei at the river Tan. Killed at Fallen Phoenix Slope, along with Pang Tong.

Notes: Called ‘Hex Mark’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Ting Fei 丁斐
Magistrate of Weinan. Set free animals at Tong Gate to confuse Ma Chao’s army.
丁奉 (承淵)
Ting Fêng (Ch‘êng-yüan) 丁奉 (承渊)
Famous Wu officer, assassinated Sun Chen with Zhang Bu. Defeated Wei at Dongxing.
Ting Fêng 丁封
Served Sun Xiu under Ding Feng with Sun Yi. Dispatched to aid Zhuge Zhan.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Ding Fung’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Ting Kuan 丁管
Served Han as Imperial Secretary. Opposed Dong Zhuo’s change of Emperors.
Ting Li 丁立
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
丁謐 (彥靖)
Ting Mi (Yen-ching) 丁谧 (彦靖)
Supporter of Cao Shuang, part of the clever four club led by Xiahou Xu.
丁廙 (敬礼)
Ting I (Ching-li) 丁廙 (敬礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi, a man of literary talent. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yì (丁儀). Sometimes incorrectly translated (perhaps in the name of disambiguation) as Ding Yin.

丁儀 (正禮)
Ting I (Chêng-li) 丁仪 (正礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi after Cao Pi slandered him. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yí (丁廙).

丁原 (建陽)
Ting Yüan (Chien-yang) 丁原 (建阳)
An excellent horseman and archer, assassinated by Lü Bu on Dong Zhuo’s orders.
Tung Ch‘ao 董朝
Objected to Pang De as leader for battle against Guan Yu.
Tung Ch‘êng 董承
Served Han as General of Cavalry and Chariots. Plots to assassinate Cao Cao.
Tung Ch‘ung 董重
Served Han as General of the Flying Cavalry. Lady Dong’s brother.

Notes: Is also known as Dong Zhong in the ZZTJ.

董和 (幼宰)
Tung Ho (Yu-tsai) 董和 (幼宰)
Suggested asking Zhang Lu for aid against Liu Bei. Admired for his honesty and plain living.
Tung Huang 董璜
Privy Counsellor under Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo’s nephew. Killed by Huangfu Song.
董厥 (龔襲)
Tung Chüeh (Kung-hsi) 董厥 (龚袭)
Brought troops to defend Saber Pass from Deng Ai and Zhong Hui.
董旻 (叔穎)
Tung Min (Shu-yin) 董旻 (叔颖)
Served Dong Zhuo as Lord of Hu. Dong Zhuo’s brother. Killed by Huangfu Song.
Tung Ssŭ 董祀
Sentenced to death for some crime, Cai Yan appealed to Cao Cao and saved him.
董襲 (元代)
Tung Hsi (Yüan-tai) 董袭 (元代)
Historically killed two generals, drowned with his ship, refusing pleas to leave it.
董允 (休昭)
Tung Yün (Hsiu-chao) 董允 (休昭)
Served Shu as a High Minister during Liu Shan’s reign.
董昭 (公仁)
Tung Chao (Kung-jên) 董昭 (公仁)
Served Han then Wei. Advised Cao Cao to move the capital to Xuchang.
董卓 (仲穎)
Tung Cho (Chung-ying) 董卓 (仲颖)
Siezed control of Luoyang and the Han government before being killed by Lü Bu.
Tungt‘una 董荼那
Fought against Zhao Yun and Wei Yan. Captured by Zhang Ni.

Notes: Appears as Dong Tu Na or Dong Tu Ne in Koei games.

Tou Wu 窦武
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Regent-Marshal. Died opposing the eunuchs.
Tu Ch‘i 杜祺
Subordinate of Wang Lian, he rose up to become a high ranking officer.
杜瓊 (伯瑜)
Tu Ch‘iung (Po-yü) 杜琼 (伯瑜)
A teacher of Qiao Zhou and famed scholar, generally avoided public affairs despite rank.
杜微 (國輔)
Tu Wei (Kuo-fu) 杜微 (国辅)
Faked illness, even faked being deaf, to avoid serving Liu Bei.
杜襲 (子緒)
Tu Hsi (Tzŭ-hsü) 杜袭 (子绪)
Proposed to the troops that Zhang He take command after Xiahou Yuan was killed.
杜預 (元凱)
Tu Yü (Yüan-k‘-ai) 杜预 (元凯)
Served Jin to unification. The Field Marshal that led the invasion of Wu.
Tuan Kuei (Tzŭ-yin) 段圭
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Min Gong searching for Emperor Ling.
Tuan Wei (Chung-ming) 段煨
Supplied Emperor Xian’s court despite being attacked. Destroyed Li Jue.
O Huan 鄂焕
General under Gao Ding. Captured by Shu forces.
Oho Shaoko 饿何烧戈
Sent with Chen Tai, he was tricked and fell into a pit. Committed suicide.
Emperor Kuangwu [Liu Hsiu] 光武皇帝[刘秀]
Emperor Guangwu restored the Han Dynasty in AD 25, making him the first Emperor of the Later Han.

Notes: Shizu (世祖) was his Temple Name. His style name is Wenshu (Wên-shu) (文叔).

Emperor Huan [Liu Chih] 桓帝[刘志]
Emperor Huan of the Han. Destroyed the Liang family, but empowered the eunuchs.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Huan (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Ling [Liu Hung] 灵帝[刘宏]
Emperor Ling of Han (AD 156–189). Ruled through the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Ling (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Shao [Liu Pien] 少帝[刘辩]
Emperor Shao of Han (AD 189). Deposed and poisoned by Dong Zhuo.

Notes: ‘Emperor Bian’ at times in the Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Emperor Shun 舜帝
Ancient Chinese Emperor. One of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Ruled for a half-century.

Notes: Born Yao Chonghua (姚重華). Other names include Youyu-shi (有虞氏), the Great Shun (大舜) and Yu Shun (虞舜).

獻帝[劉協] (伯和)
Emperor Hsien [Liu Hsieh] (Po-ho) 献帝[刘协] (伯和)
Son of Emperor Ling. Reigned AD 189–220. Forced to abdicate by Cao Pi.

Notes: Called by the name ‘Prince of Chenliu’ frequently in novel translations. In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Xian (the name) Di (emperor). In this case, Emperor Xian also has a style name attached to his normal name, therefore if you were addressing him as emperor you would say Xian Di, if you knew his name and were close you may use Liu Xie, or if you wanted his style name you’d call him Liu Bohe.

Empress Pien 卞皇后
Wife of Cao Cao and mother of Cao Pi. Made empress dowager when Cao Pi became emperor.

Notes: Called ‘Bian Shi’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Fu Shou 伏寿皇后
Wife of Emperor Xian. From Langya. Daughter of Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: Commonly referenced simply as ‘Empress Fu’.

Empress Kan 甘皇后
Concubine and later Empress of Liu Bei. She was a native of Pei.
Empress Kuo (Nü-wang) 郭皇后
One of Cao Pi’s wives, said to have spread doubts about Cao Rui’s birth.

Notes: Guo Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Ho 何皇后
Emperor Shao’s mother. He Jin’s half-sister. Died of grief or through suicide.
Empress Mu 穆皇后
Consort and later Empress of Liu Bei. From Chenliu. Wu Yi’s sister.

Notes: Empress Mu (穆皇后) is her traditional name. Informally, you will find her referenced as Empress Wu (吳皇后).

Empress Chang 张皇后
Daughter of Zhang Qi. Empress to Cao Fang. Ordered executed by Sima Shi.
Empress Chang [Hsingts‘ai] 张皇后[星彩]
Zhang Fei’s daughter. Empress Zhang married to Liu Shan. Zhang Xingcai in Koei games.

Notes: ‘Empress Zhang’ or ‘Lady Zhang’ in the novel and other historic sources, she has been given a fictional personality by Koei under the name ‘Zhang Xingcai’ or simply ‘Xing Cai’. Both names refer to the same person, but the story given her in Koei games is fictional. I’ve recorded this as the English translation presents itself (so, Huanghou Zhang (empress Zhang) and Xing1cai3 as her given name)

Empress Chên [Chên Chi] 甄皇后[甄姫]
Formerly Yuan Xi’s wife. Later married to Cao Pi. Became Empress.

Notes: Empress Zhen is frequently called Zhen Ji, as she is named by Koei. Referenced elsewhere as Zhen Luo (甄洛) or Empress Wenzhao (文昭皇后). I’ve recorded this as Huang2hou4 Zhen1 (Empress Zhen), with Ji1 as her given name. To say her name as Koei suggests, use Zhen (surname) and Ji1 (given name) together.

法正 (孝直)
Fa Chêng (Hsiao-chih) 法正 (孝直)
Served Liu Zhang then Liu Bei. Was integral to the foundation of Shu.
Fan Ch‘êng 范成
Appointed a prefect of Luoyang when Cao Cao moved the capital to Xuchang.
Fan Ch‘ou 樊稠
Controlled the Han court alongside Li Jue and Guo Si. A brave general, killed by Li Jue.
樊建 (長元)
Fan Chien (Ch‘ang-yüan) 樊建 (长元)
Secretary under Jiang Wei. Went with Liu Shan when Shu fell.
Fan Chiang 范强
Assassinated Zhang Fei with Zhang Da and then fled to Wu.
范康 (仲真)
Fan K‘ang (Chung-chên) 范康 (仲真)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Bohai.
Fan Li 范蠡
Spring and Autumn Period. Advisor in the state of Yue. Resigned after Yue defeated Wu.
Fan Nêng 樊能
Served Liu Yao. Died after Sun Ce shouted at him in battle.
范滂 (孟博)
Fan P‘ang (Mêng-po) 范滂 (孟博)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Fang Yüeh 方悦
A famous officer from Henei, he served Wang Kuang. Killed by Lü Bu.
費觀 (賓伯)
Fei Kuan (Pin-po) 费观 (宾伯)
Relative of Liu Zhang, he recommended Li Yan and later surrendered to Liu Bei.
費詩 (公舉)
Fei Shih (Kung-chü) 费诗 (公举)
Gave refuge to Liu Zhang’s officers. Protested against Liu Bei becoming Emperor.
Fei Yao 费曜
Officer of Wei. Reached rank of Grand Commander, but died in battle.
費禕 (文偉)
Fei I (Wên-wei) 费祎 (文伟)
Shu official. Took over affairs of state after Jiang Wan’s death.
Fêng Tan (Shao-chou) 冯紞
Close to Sima Yan and part of Jia Chong’s clique. Opposed Yang Hu’s proposal to attack Wu.
Fêng Fang 冯方
Father of Yuan Shu’s wife, a Han offical willing to slander those that excluded him.
逢紀 (元圖)
Fêng Chi (Yüan-t‘u) 逢纪 (元图)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Shang as Shao’s successor.

Notes: ‘Peng Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Pang Ji’ in the ZZTJ.

Fêng Li 张礼
Served Yuan Shang. Punished for intoxication. Betrayed to Wei. Killed by Shen Pei.
馮習 (休元)
Fêng Hsi (Hsiu-yüan) 冯习 (休元)
Officer of Shu. Died fighting at the battle of Yiling.
Fêng Hsü 封胥
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. An agent of Zhang Jue of the Yellow Scarves.
Fu Tê 伏德
Brother of Empress Fu, carried her into a boat when they attempted to escape Li Jue.
傅幹 (彦材)
Fu Kan (Yen-ts‘ai) 傅幹 (彥材)
Advised Cao Cao to concentrate on civil affairs rather then campaign against Wu.
傅嘏 (蘭石)
Fu Ku (Lan-shih) 傅嘏 (兰石)
Chair of the Secretariat, he opposed Sima Shi’s invasion of Wu.
Fu Ch‘ien 傅佥
Fu Tong’s son, served Shu. Captured Li Peng and Wang Zhen. Died in battle.
傅士仁 (君義)
Fu Shihjên (Chün-i) 傅士仁 (君义)
Persuaded by Lü Meng to betray Guan Yu. Killed by Guan Xing after trying to return to Shu.

Notes: Just known as Shi Ren in ZZTJ and Generals of the South.

Fu T‘ung 傅彤
Central military advisor for the Shu forces. Died during the battle of Yiling.

Notes: Called Fu Rong by SGZ.

Fu Wan 伏完
Married a Princess, took a lesser position in Cao Cao’s court.
傅巽 (公悌)
Fu Hsün (Kung-t‘i) 傅巽 (公悌)
Advised Liu Cong to surrender, urged Cao Cao to become a Duke and Cao Pi to become Emperor.

Notes: Incorrectly Romanized as ‘Fu Xuan’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Fu Ying 傅婴
General of Sun Yi, avenged his master’s murder by killing Gui Lan.
Kan Chi 干吉
A Taoist priest. In the novel, sent to execution by Sun Ce and said to have cursed him to death.

Notes: Gan Ji frequently referenced as ‘Yu Ji’, especially in games. Historically, ‘Gan Ji’ (干吉) is correct, and it is thought Luo Guanzhong may have confused the character for his family name and thus entered him as ‘Yu Ji’ (于吉). Notice the similarity between Gan ‘干’ and Yu ‘于’. Our recording features both “Gan4 Ji2” and “Yu2 Ji2.”

甘寧 (興霸)
Kan Ning (Hsing-pa) 甘宁 (兴霸)
Known to be brave and strong. Served Huang Zu, then Wu. Died of illness.
Kao Ting (Yüan) 高定
Shu vassal that revolted in the southern Man region.
高幹 (元才)
Kao Kan (Yüan-ts‘ai) 高干 (元才)
Nephew of Yuan Shao. Defeated Li Dian and Yue Jin at Huguan Pass.

Notes: Gan written as 干 in HHS.

Kao Lan 高览
Originally a talented officer of Yuan Shao. Defected with Zhang He to Wei.
Kao P‘ei 高沛
Officer of Liu Zhang. Executed after an attempt to assassinate Liu Bei.
高柔 (文惠)
Kao Jou (Wên-hui) 高柔 (文惠)
Minister of the Interior. Given provisional command of the army to seize Cao Shuang’s camp.
Kao Shêng 高升
Yellow Scarf officer. Fought with Liu Bei at Quyang, but was slain by Zhang Fei.
Kao Shun 高顺
Defeated Xiahou Dun. Caught and executed by Cao Cao at Xiapi.
Kao Hsiang 高翔
Officer of Shu. Participated in many of Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
耿紀 (季行)
Kêng Chi (Chi-hsing) 耿纪 (季行)
Launched a coup against Cao Cao. Wounded Wang Bi. Executed after his failure.
Kêng Yen 耿眼
Historic reference from chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
Kung Tu 龚都
Joined Liu Bei. Former Yellow Scarve. Killed by Xiahou Yuan at Ru Nan.
Kung Ching 龚景
Imperial Protector of Qingzhou. Attacked by the Yellow Scarves. Supported by Liu Bei.
Kung Chih 巩志
Advised Jin Xuan to surrender. When Jin Xuan returned defeated, Gong Zhi shot him.
公孫度 (升濟)
Kungsun Tu (Shêng-chi) 公孙度 (升济)
Established an independent government in Liaodong, expanding against several tribes.
Kungsun Kung 公孙恭
Advised Kang to kill Yuan Xi and Shang. Impotent and weak, he was deposed by Gongsun Yuan.
Kungsun Huang 公孙晃
Sent as hostage to Wei, warned of the likelihood of war. Executed when war did happen.
Kungsun K‘ang 公孙康
Executed the Yuan sons, extended power in Korea and restored communication with Japan.
Kungsun Yüan 公孙渊
Originally subject to Wei. Declared himself King of Yan, but was executed by Sima Yi.
Kungsun Yüeh 公孙越
Assassinated by Yuan Shao after a diplomatic mission. Served as envoy to Yuan Shu.
公孫瓚 (伯珪)
Kungsun Tsan (Po-ku) 公孙瓒 (伯珪)
Magistrate of Beiping. Fought Yuan Shao. Committed suicide with his family.
Kou An 句安
Drunkard officer under Li Yan. Beaten for arriving late with supplies, and fled to Wei.
顧雍 (元嘆)
Ku Yung (Yüan-t‘-an) 顾雍 (元叹)
Studied under Cai Yong. Convinced to join Wu by Zhang Hong. Became Prime Minister.
Kuan Ting 关定
Father of Guan Ping, housed Guan Yu while Sun Qian went to Yuan Shao.
Kuan Hai 管亥
Former member of the Yellow Scarves. Besiged Beihai and was killed by Guan Yu.
管輅 (公明)
Kuan Lu (Kung-ming) 管辂 (公明)
A soothsayer able to foresee the coming deaths of others.
管寧 (幼安)
Kuan Ning (Yu-an) 管宁 (幼安)
Former friend of Hua Xin. Tail of “The Dragon”, a group of scholars. Became a hermit.
Kuan Ning 关宁
Brother of Guan Ping. Was a student when Guan Yu came to the farm.

Notes: ‘Guan Neng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Kuan P‘ing 关平
Served Shu. Guan Yu’s son (adopted in novel). Executed with Guan Yu by Sun Quan.
Kuan So 关索
Fictional son of Guan Yu. Greatly involved in Shu’s Southern Campaigns in the novel.
關興 (安國)
Kuan Hsing (An-kuo) 关兴 (安国)
Son of Guan Yu. Served in Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kuan I 关彝
Son of Guan Xing by concubine. Died fighting Wei troops during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.
Lady Kuan [Yinp‘ing] 関夫人[银屏]
Daughter of Guan Yu. Sun Quan wanted to arrange a marriage between her and Sun Deng.

Notes: Guan Yinping is a fictional name given to her by Koei.

關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

管夷吾 ()
Kuan Iwu (Chung) 管夷吾 ()
Famed prime minister of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn period.
毌丘甸 (子邦)
Kuanch‘iu Tien (Tzŭ-pang) 毌丘甸 (子邦)
Son of Guanqiu Jian, he advised his father to rebel.
毌丘儉 (仲恭)
Kuanch‘iu Chien (Chung-kung) 毌丘俭 (仲恭)
Officer of Wei. Revolted against Sima Shi when he deposed Cao Fang.

Notes: Sometimes mistranslated in Koei games as Wuqiu Jian.

郭淮 (伯濟)
Kuo Huai (Po-chi) 郭淮 (伯济)
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
郭嘉 (奉孝)
Kuo Chia (Fêng-hsiao) 郭嘉 (奉孝)
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
Kuo Shêng 郭胜
Warned close friend He Jin about Jian Shi’s plot. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.

Notes: In the notes section of To Esablish Peace he is referenced with two names from different sources: 1) HHJ25 as Guo Mai; 2) Jiuzhou chunqiu as Lang Sheng.

Kuo Ssŭ (To) 郭汜
Served Dong Zhuo. Later took control of the imperial court with Li Jue.

Notes: Guo Si is sometimes called Guo Duo, a name that is listed as an alternate personal name in a few different sources.

郭圖 (公則)
Kuo T‘u (Kung-tsê) 郭图 (公则)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Tan as Shao’s successor.
郭攸之 (演長)
Kuo Yuchih (Yen-ch‘ang) 郭攸之 (演长)
Described by Zhuge Liang as loyal and honest, advised Liu Shan on palace matters.
韓當 (義公)
Han Tang (I-kung) 韩当 (义公)
Veteran general in service to the Sun family. Served three generations.
Han Tê 韩德
Served Wei. Father to Han Ying, Yao, Qiong, and Qi. Died at Changshan facing Zhao Yun.
韓馥 (文節)
Han Fu (Wên-chieh) 韩馥 (文节)
Surrendered to Yuan Shao but was abused. Fled to Zhang Miao and later committed suicide.
Han Fu 韩福
Governor of Luoyang, killed by Guan Yu while guarding the passes. Related to Wang Zhi.

Notes: ‘Han Qu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation (to differentiate from the historic Han Fu), and in some Koei games.

韓浩 (元嗣)
Han Hao (Yüan-ssŭ) 韩浩 (元嗣)
Rescued Xiahou Dun from being held hostage. Supported the farm reforms.
韓暨 (公至)
Han Chi (Kung-tzŭ) 韩暨 (公至)
Sent by Cao Rui to tell Cao Zhen not to give battle against Zhuge Liang.
韓嵩 (德高)
Han Sung (Tê-kao) 韩嵩 (德高)
A tactician of Liu Biao, he served as one of Biao’s ministers.
韓遂 (文約)
Han Sui (Wên-yüeh) 韩遂 (文约)
Worked with Ma Chao, before defecting to Cao Cao. Lost his hand to Ma Chao.
Han Hsien 韩暹
White Wave Rebel. Helped Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu, Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
Han Hsin 韩信
Reknowned commander who served Xiang Yu and later Liu Bang. Rose from a childhood of destitution.
Han Hsüan 韩玄
Magistrate of Changsha. Wei Yan killed him and surrendered to Liu Bei.
韩荀 (莒子)
Han Hsün (Chü-tzŭ) 韓荀 (莒子)
Cavalry officer at Wuchao, beheaded by Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Han Juzi’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Han Yin 韩胤
Sent by Yuan Shu to Lü Bu as a messenger for marriage, and later executed.
Han Chung 韩忠
A member of the Yellow Scarves. Fought with Zhu Jun and Liu Bei at Wan, but was killed.
Hao Mêng 郝萌
Served under Lü Bu. Helped fight Cao Cao at Puyang.
郝昭 (伯道)
Hao Chao (Po-tao) 郝昭 (伯道)
A talented officer of Wei. Successfully defended against Zhuge Liang at Chencang.
何進 (遂高)
Ho Chin (Sui-kao) 何进 (遂高)
Grand Administrator in the Han courts, but was assassinated by the eunuchs.
Ho Man 何曼
Nicknamed ‘The Shooting Devil’ in novel. Yellow Scarves commander. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ho Miao 何苗
Empress He’s older half-brother. Later killed by Wu Kuang.

Notes: Was born Zhu Miao.

和洽 (陽士)
Ho Hsia (Yang-shih) 和洽 (阳士)
Rescued Mao Jie from jail but unable to restore his rank. Supported Cao Pi’s succession and ascension.

Notes: Also known as He Qia. Appears as He He in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

何晏 (平叔)
Ho Yen (P‘ing-shu) 何晏 (平叔)
Was a trusted friend of Cao Shuang, a leading writer and philosopher. Took drugs.
Ho I 何仪
Yellow Scarves commander. Captured Runan after the Yellow Scarves rebellion.
何颙 (伯求)
Ho Yong (Po-ch‘iu) 何顒 (伯求)
Recognised Cao Cao and Xun Yu as men who could deal with the troubles.

Notes: Known name is He Yu (何禺) in SGYY.

何曾 (穎考)
Ho Tsêng (Ying-k‘-ao) 何曾 (颖考)
Son of He Kui. Advised Sima Zhao to make his eldest son Sima Yan his heir.

Notes: Occasionally turns up as He Ceng.

Ho Chih 何植
Grandson of He Qi. Son of He Da. Sun Hao’s Minister of the Interior.
Hou Ch‘êng 侯成
Cavalry commander under Lü Bu. Defected to Cao Cao.
Hou Lan 侯览
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Tried to make off with Emperor Shao.
Hou Hsüan 侯选
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Surrendered to Cao Cao along with Han Sui.
Hu Pan 胡班
Son of Hu Hua. Helped Guan Yu during his 1,000 li journey from Cao Cao.
Hu Ch‘ê–êrh 胡赤儿
Advisor to Niu Fu. He betrayed him and sided with Lü Bu, who executed him.

Notes: Hu Che’er is frequently confused with Hu Juer of Zhang Xiu, but they are, indeed, separate people. Hu Che’er’s name is sometimes typed with or without an apostrophe (Che’er or Cheer), and at times with a hypen instead (Che-er). To complicate matters further, sometimes his name is mistranslated as ‘Chi’er’, with all the according grammatical variations.

Hu Ch‘ung 胡冲
Persuaded Sun Hao not to commit suicide but to surrender to Jin instead.

Notes: Also appears sometimes as Hu Zhong.

胡奮 (玄威)
Hu Fên (Hsüan-wei) 胡奋 (玄威)
Killed Zhuge Dan of Wu. Advised Du Yu to wait before attacking Jianye.
Hu Hua 胡华
Father of Hu Ban. Retired officer of the court under Emperor Huan. Met Guan Yu.
胡濟 (偉度)
Hu Chi (Wei-tu) 胡济 (伟度)
Based in Hanshou, went to Chengdu to get help to repel Wei’s invasion.
Hu Chüêrh 胡车儿
Served Zhang Xiu. Stole Dian Wei’s weapons as part of Jia Xu’s plan to defeat Cao Cao.

Notes: Ju1 is the former pronunciation of 車, which is now pronounced Che1. We hold true to the standard set by Moss Roberts and others, using the old pronunciation for an old historical figure. Besides, it helps to alleviate confusion between him and Hu Che’er of Niu Fu.

胡烈 (武玄)
Hu Lieh (Wu-hsüan) 胡烈 (武玄)
Took part in invasion of Shu, got former a vassal to warn his son about Zhong Hui’s revolt.
Hu Miao 胡邈
Privy counselor to Emperor Xian. Tried to calm an angry Huangfu Li to protect him.
胡淵 (世元)
Hu Yüan (Shih-yüan) 胡渊 (世元)
Son of Hu Lie, his army killed Zhong Hui and defeated Jiang Wei’s revolt.
胡軫 (文才)
Hu Chên (Wên-ts‘ai) 胡轸 (文才)
He led 5,000 men against Sun Jian but was killed by Cheng Pu after a few bouts.
胡質 (文德)
Hu Chih (Wên-tê) 胡质 (文德)
Governor of Dongwan, took part in Cao Xiu’s invasion of Wu.
Hu Tsun 胡遵
Led the van against Gongsun Yuan then led the van in an invasion of Wu’s Dongxing.
華覈 (永先)
Hua Ho (Yung-hsien) 华覈 (永先)
Told Sun Hao not to attack but to gain the love of the people. Left court bemoaning Wu’s fate.

Notes: Incorrectly translated in the Brewitt-Taylor edition as Hua Jiao.

華佗 (元化)
Hua T‘o (Yüan-hua) 华佗 (元化)
A famous doctor from the Three Kingdoms period. Killed trying to avoid treating Cao Cao.
華歆 (子魚)
Hua Hsin (Tzŭ-yü) 华歆 (子鱼)
Head of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars. Promoted Emperor Xian’s abdication.
Hua Hsiung 华雄
Brave general in service to Dong Zhuo. Died in battle with Sun Jian.

Notes: Usually Hua is pronounced Hua2, but in the case of a Surname, is pronounced Hua4, hence Hua4 in the audio file.

桓範 (元則)
Huan Fan (Yüan-tsê) 桓范 (元则)
Known as “Bag of Wisdom”, his advice was not heeded by Cao Shuang. Jailed by Sima Yi.
桓階 (伯緒)
Huan Chieh (Po-hsü) 桓阶 (伯绪)
Negotiated the return of Sun Jian’s body. Involved with Xian’s abdication.

Notes: ‘Huan Jie’ 桓階 in novel chapters 7 and 8; ‘Huan Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition chapters 7 and 8. ‘Huan Jie’ (桓楷) in chapters 79 and 80. We recognize them as the same person; see ‘Fact vs. Fiction’ for more information.

Huang Ch‘êngyen 黄承彦
Father of Zhuge Liang’s wife. A prominent scholar of the Later Han Dynasty.

Notes: Incorrectly referenced as Huang Chenyan (承 [Cheng2] as ‘Chen’) in many sites, biographies, and in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Huang Ch‘ung 黄崇
Advised Zhuge Zhan to seize the high ground but was ignored. Killed by his soldiers.
黃蓋 (公覆)
Huang Kai (Kung-fu) 黄盖 (公覆)
Veteran general in Wu. Came up with the “Bitter Meat Plan” for Chibi.
Huang Hao 黄皓
Eunuch in service to Liu Shan. His advice helped to destroy Shu.
黃權 (公衡)
Huang Ch‘üan (Kung-hêng) 黄权 (公衡)
Served Liu Zhang and later Liu Bei. Surrendered to Wei out of necessity.
Huang Shao 黄邵
Yellow Scarves commander. Served with He Yi and He Man. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: In the novel, Sanguo yanyi, the Chinese characters used for Huang Shao’s name are huang2 shao4 黃劭. In Sanguozhi, the Chinese characters are huang2 shao4 黃邵. We have chosen to use the historic rendering.

Huang Yüehying 黄月英
Zhuge Liang’s wife. Huang Chengyan’s daughter. Was very smart, but not beautiful.
黃忠 (漢升)
Huang Chung (Han-shêng) 黄忠 (汉升)
Joined Liu Bei after Han Xuan’s defeat. One of the Five Tiger Generals.
Huang Tsu 黄祖
Served under Liu Biao. Later killed by Gan Ning at Xiakou.
Huangfu K‘ai 皇甫闓
Officer of Wei and, later, Jin. Joined Zhong Hui in his conquest of Hanzhong.
Huangfu Li 皇甫郦
Served Emperor Xian. Charged with making peace between Li Jue and Guo Si.
皇甫嵩 (義真)
Huangfu Sung (I-chên) 皇甫嵩 (义真)
Imperial Commander under Han. Fought heavily against the Yellow Turban Rebellion.
霍峻 (仲邈)
Huo Chün (Chung-miao) 霍峻 (仲邈)
Held Jiameng against Liu Zhang’s generals before his countering and defeating them.
霍弋 (紹先)
Huo I (Shao-hsien) 霍弋 (绍先)
Son of Huo Jun, was concerned about lack of defences at Chengdu.
Chi Ling 纪灵
Served under Yuan Shu. A fierce warrior who was killed by Zhang Fei.
吉邈 (文然)
Chi Miao (Wên-jan) 吉邈 (文然)
Son of Ji Ping. Joined Geng Ji’s coup to avenge his father but was killed in the fighting.

Notes: Ji Miao sometimes appears as Ji Mao. The correct translation of 邈 is Miao.

吉穆 (思然)
Chi Mu (Ssŭ-jan) 吉穆 (思然)
Son of Ji Ping. Fled the capital but returned secretly. Died in Geng Ji’s coup.
Chi P‘ing 吉平
Court physician from Luoyang. Forced to commit suicide by Cao Cao.

Notes: Also referenced by the name Chi T’ai in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Called Ji Ben in SGZ and ZZTJ.

賈充 (公閭)
Chia Ch‘ung (Kung-lü) 贾充 (公闾)
Suggested usurpation of the throne to Sima Yan and opposed invasion of Wu.
Chia Fan 贾范
Officer of Gongsun Yuan. Was executed by Yuan for opposing his declaration of independence.
Chia Hua 贾华
Officer of Wu. Guarded Sun Quan at the battle of Hefei.
賈逵 (梁道)
Chia K‘uei (Liang-tao) 贾逵 (梁道)
Served as strategist to Cao Xiu, seeing through Zhou Fang’s plot.
賈詡 (文和)
Chia Hsü (Wên-ho) 贾诩 (文和)
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.

Notes: Jia Xu is pronounced Jia2 Xu3 because of the 3rd tone preceeding the second in his normal given name. His name and style name should be pronounced and said as “Jia3 Wen2 He2”, not “Jia2 Wen2 He2”

Chien Shuo 蹇硕
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by fellow eunuch Guo Sheng.

Notes: The character 碩 can also be translated as Shi and in some academic sources this is considered to be the standard translation (e.g. anything by Rafe de Crespigny). We are using Jian Shuo because that is the most commonly used Romanization.

簡雍 (憲和)
Chien Yung (Hsien-ho) 简雍 (宪和)
Trusted friend of Liu Bei, a wit and often used as envoy. Persuaded Liu Zhang to surrender.

Notes: Jian Yong’s family name may have originally been ‘Geng’ (耿), but in the Youzhou dialect ‘Geng’ it was pronounced ‘Jian’, so he changed it.

Chiang Pan 蒋班
Advised Zhuge Dan to force a battle to escape but was rejected. Surrendered to Wei.
Chiang Pin 蒋斌
Served Shu as a general under Liu Shan. Later surrendered to Zhong Hui.
蔣幹 (子翼)
Chiang Kan (Tzŭ-i) 蒋干 (子翼)
Friend of Zhou Yu, he was sent to spy on Wu but was tricked, helping to cause Wei’s defeat at Chibi.
蔣濟 (子通)
Chiang Chi (Tzŭ-t‘ung) 蒋济 (子通)
Advised against moving the capital when Guan Yu attacked. Helped Sima Yi deal with Cao Shuang.

Notes: Known as Drunkard Jiang in his early days. Also known as Master Jiang for the works he wrote.

蔣欽 (公奕)
Chiang Ch‘in (Kung-i) 蒋钦 (公奕)
Led the volunteer forces that joined Sun Ce in the battle of Qu’e.
Chiang Shu 蒋舒
Jiang Wei highly prized his talent, was disgruntled and defected in Wei’s invasion.
蔣琬 (公琰)
Chiang Wan (Kung-yen) 蒋琬 (公琰)
Served Shu starting with the Yi invasion. Trusted and influential. Died as Regent.
姜維 (伯約)
Chiang Wei (Po-yüeh) 姜维 (伯约)
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
Chiang Hsien 蒋显
Sent by Liu Shan to order Jiang Wei to surrender.
姜敘 (伯奕)
Chiang Hsü (Po-i) 姜叙 (伯奕)
Helped to drive out Ma Chao, but Ma Chao killed his mother, defeated Ma Chao again later on.
Chiang Ich‘ü 蒋义渠
Officer of Yuan Shao. Comforted Yuan Shao after his defeat at Guandu.
姜子牙[呂望] (子牙)
Chiang Tzŭya [Lü Wang] (Tzŭ-ya) 姜子牙[吕望] (子牙)
Zhou Dynasty. Legendary historical figure. Resided by the Weishu River 3,000 years ago.

Notes: Lü Wang is most commonly referred to as ‘Jiang Ziya’ a combination of his ancestral name, Jiang (姓), and his style name, Ziya (子牙). ‘Lü Wang’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ‘Jiang Ziya’ in Warriors Orochi 2.

Chiao Ch‘u 焦触
Served Yuan Xi with Zhang Nan. Betrayed to Cao Cao. Killed by Han Dang at Chibi.
Chiao I 焦彝
Advisor of Zhuge Dan, slipped over the walls and surrendered to Wei.
伊籍 (機伯)
Yin Chi (Chi-po) 伊籍 (机伯)
Received favour comparable to Mi Zhu, helped compile the administrative code.

Notes: ‘Yi Ji’ in novel translations and games. ’伊’, Romanized, is Yin, as is the case in Rafe de Crespigny’s works and is the standard Romanization of other instances in names. As such, Yin Ji instead of Ji Yi [Wade-Giles: I Chi].

Chin Shang 金尚
Imperial Protector of Yangzhou. Executed after declining office from Yuan Shu.
金旋 (元機)
Chin Hsüan (Yüan-chi) 金旋 (元机)
Served as Governor of Wuling. Defeated by Zhang Fei.

Notes: Called Jin Shun in Liu Bei’s SGZ.

金祎 (德禕)
Chin I (Tê-i) 金禕 (德祎)
Descendant of Jin Midi. Advised Geng Ji on killing Wang Bi. Died fighting in the coup.

Notes: May also have been Jin Wei, son of Jin Shang.

Chinhuansanchieh 金环三结
An officer of Meng Huo, he died fighting the Shu army during their attack.

Notes: ‘Jinhua Sanjie’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Chü Ku 沮鹄
Maintained Handan. Defeated by Zhang Liao and shot while fleeing.

Notes: Appears in some Koei games, and a few other sources, as Ju Hu.

Chü Shou 沮授
Urged caution when attacking Cao Cao but was ignored and demoted.
闞澤 (德潤)
K‘an Tsê (Tê-jun) 闞泽 (德润)
Delivered Huang Gai’s false letter of defection to Cao Cao.
King Ch‘êlichi 彻里吉大王
Fictional. King of Western Qiang. Ally of Cao Rui.

Notes: Frequently written ‘King Cheli Ji’.

King Tossŭ 思朵大王
Officer of Meng Huo. Said to be the wisest man in all of Nanman.
King K‘opinêng 轲比能大王
Unifier of the Xianbei tribe. Fought often with Wei until he was assassinated.

Notes: You may also see him as Kebinang, Ke Binang, Kebe Neng, Kebe Nang, etc.

King Mêng Huo 孟獲大王
Ruled Nanman after Shamoke’s death. Captured and released seven times by Kongming.

Notes: In pronunciation, Meng is his surname, Huo his given name. Da means “big/large” and Wang means King, for your information, Wang2 is only one word for King, Emperors have different titles, usually Huang2 Di4.

King Mulu 木鹿大王
A Nanman chieftan. Initially drove back Zhuge Liang’s armies with his magic.
King Shamok‘o 沙摩柯大王
Originally a tribal leader, he helped Liu Bei at Yiling but died fighting Wu.
King Wut‘uku 兀突骨大王
Ruled the cave dwelling Wuguo Kingdom in south China. Twelve spans tall.
孔融 (文舉)
K‘ung Jung (Wên-chü) 孔融 (文举)
A famed scholar who did not always get on with his lords. One of the Seven Masters.
K‘ung Hsiu 孔秀
One of the defenders of the Passes killed by Guan Yu.
孔昱 (世元)
K‘ung Yü (Shih-yüan) 孔昱 (世元)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. Scholar who took a moral line on when to serve.

Notes: Also known as Kong Yi (Yi4 翊). Styled Shiyuan or Yuanshi (Yuan4shi4 元世).

孔伷 (公緒)
K‘ung Chou (Kung-hsü) 孔伷 (公绪)
Known for his eloquent way of speaking. He joined alliance against Dong Zhuo.

Notes: Sometimes you can find his name incorrectly translated as Kong You2.

蒯良 (子柔)
K‘uai Liang (Tzŭ-jou) 蒯良 (子柔)
Adviser of Liu Biao. Came up with the plan that resulted in Sun Jian’s death.
蒯越 (異度)
K‘uai Yüeh (I-tu) 蒯越 (异度)
Younger brother of Kuai Liang. Became a vassal of Wei when Cao Cao took Jing.
Lady Ting 丁夫人
Cao Cao’s first wife, she blamed him for Cao Ang’s death and they divorced.
Lady Tung 董夫人
Arrested and executed due to her father’s plots against Cao Cao despite being pregnant.
Lady Li 李夫人
Killed herself when her husband Ma Miao surrendered to Wei.

Notes: Appears as ‘Li Shi’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Liu 刘夫人
Yuan Shao’s wife. Mother of Yuan Shang.
Lady Mi 糜夫人
Consort of Liu Bei. Mi Zhu’s sister. Took her own life so Zhao Yun could save Liu Shan.
Lady P‘an 潘夫人
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Was a native of Juzhang in Kuaiji.
Lady Sun [Sun Shanghsiang] 孙妃[孙尚香]
Sun Quan’s sister. Married to Liu Bei by Sun Quan, but later returned to Wu.

Notes: Sun Shangxiang is Lady Sun’s name in most Koei Games. ‘Sun Ren’ (孫仁) in the seventh chapter of Romance of the Three Kingdoms (learn more; not a duplicate mention of Sun Lang). Also appears as Sun Li at times. Both Sun Ren and Sun Li are incorrect and have no bearing on her true name, which is unknown.

Lady T‘ang Chi 唐姫夫人
Favorite concubine of Liu Bian, danced for him as he died. Daughter of Tang Mao.

Notes: ‘Lady Tang’ in various translations of the novel.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Second only to Madam Bu, Sun Luban slandered her to death.

Notes: Lady Wang of Langya. Not to be confused with Lady Wang of Nanyang.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Mother of Liu Xie (Emperor Xian). Concubine to Emperor Ling. Poisoned by Empress He.
Lady Wu 夫人吴
Mother of Sun Quan and Sun Ce. Wife to Sun Jian. Endorsed marriage of lady Sun.
Lady Hsi Shih 西施夫人
Spring and Autumn Period. One of the Four Beauties of Ancient China. Lived in Zhuji, capital of Yue.
Hsiahou Lingnü 夏侯夏侯
Married to Cao Wenshu, a relative of Cao Shuang, mutilated herself rather then marry again.
Lady Hsü 夫人徐
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Was a native of Fuchun in Wu Commandary.
Lady Yang 杨夫人
Admired Wang Yi so convinced Ma Chao to trust Zhao Ang. Ang’s revolt led to her death.

Notes: Yang Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Chujung 祝融妃
Wife of King Meng Huo. Said to be descended from the Goddess of Fire.

Notes: Zhu4rong2 is her name, but Fei1 means literally “imperial concubine”

Lady Tsou 邹氏
Former wife of Zhang Ji. Caught Cao Cao’s fancy while staying with Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Appears as ‘Lady Zhou’ in Koei games, and in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Lady Zou’s name is strange in meaning. Zou1 is a surname as expected, but Shi4 is a clan or maiden name.

Lai Kung 赖恭
Driven away by Wu Ju, he later became a senior minister for Liu Bei.
來敏 (敬達)
Lai Min (Ching-ta) 来敏 (敬达)
Tested Fei Yi over a game of Weiqi, educated Liu Shan but may have been slightly crazy.

Notes: Called Liu Min in poisonpie’s novel listing.

Lei Po 雷薄
Serves Yuan Shu, then later leaves to join the Mt. Songshan Bandits with Chen Lan.

Notes: Also known as Lei Pu and possibly the same as Lei Xu.

Lei T‘ung 雷铜
Officer of Liu Zhang and, later, Liu Bei. Killed by Zhang He at Baxi.
Lêng Pao 冷苞
Fought Wei Yan and Huang Zhong, he was captured twice. He was executed the second time.

Notes: Sometimes erroneously referred to as Ling Bao.

李典 (曼成)
Li Tien (Man-ch‘êng) 李典 (曼成)
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
Li Fêng (Hsüan-kuo) 李丰
Famed from a young age, had a habit of faking illness. Plotted against Sima Shi.

Notes: Also styled Anguo

Li Fêng 李丰
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Li Deng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Li Fêng 李封
Served Lü Bu. Killed by Xu Chu after neglecting his post in Yanzhou.

Notes: ‘Li Fang’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Li Fu (Sun-tê) 李辅
Chief Secretary. Sent by Liu Shan to check on the dying Zhuge Liang.
李孚 (子憲)
Li Fu (Tzŭ-hsien) 李孚 (子宪)
Snuck through the Wei lines into Ye and then back out again.

Notes: ‘Li Mu’ in chapter 32 and ‘Li Qu’ in chapters 79 and 80, and ‘Li Zu’ in chapter 97 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish from others named Li Fu.

李恢 (德昂)
Li Hui (Tê’-ang) 李恢 (德昂)
Begged Liu Zhang not to let Liu Bei in, persuaded Ma Chao to surrender to Liu Bei.
李傕 (稚然)
Li Chüeh (Chih-jan) 李傕 (稚然)
Served Dong Zhuo. Later took control of the imperial court with Guo Si.
Li K‘an 李堪
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Accidentally killed by Yu Jin’s arrow.
Li Mêng 李蒙
Helped Li Jue take Chang’an but was later executed by Ma Teng.
Li Ch‘iu 李球
Officer of Shu. Died defending Mianzhu during Deng Ai’s attack on the city.
Li Ju 李儒
Served Dong Zhuo as an advisor. Died with his lord’s ambitions.
李勝 (公昭)
Li Shêng (Kung-chao) 李胜 (公昭)
Member of Cao Shuang’s faction, he was sent to check on Sima Yi’s health.
李肅 (偉恭)
Li Su (Wei-kung) 李肃 (伟恭)
Using Red Hare and other gifts he persuaded Lü Bu to kill Ding Yuan and join Dong Zhuo.
李通 (文達)
Li T‘ung (Wên-ta) 李通 (文达)
An officer of Wei. Saved Cao Cao’s rearguard in the retreat from Zhang Xiu.
Li Hsien 李暹
Nephew of Li Jue. Helped Li Jue smuggle out the Emperor. Killed by Xu Chu.
Li Hsin 李歆
Officer of Shu. Achieved merit in Jiang Wei’s first northern campaign.
李嚴 (正方)
Li Yen (Chêng-fang) 李严 (正方)
A talented officer, exiled after he forged a decree to cover up failure of supplies.

Notes: Li Yan changed his name to Li Ping (李平)after rising in Shu authority.

Li I 李异
General of Sun Huan. Slain by Guan Xing in the novel.
Li I 李意
Immortal who warned Liu Bei what would happen should he attack Wu.

Notes: Known as Li Yi in the novel.

Li Ying 李膺
Governor of Henan. Visited and impressed by a young Kong Rong.
李譔 (欽仲)
Li Chuan (Ch‘in-chung) 李譔 (钦仲)
Fond of practical jokes, admired by Liu Xuan but not given important tasks. Skilled scholar
Liang Kang 梁綱
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
Liang K‘uan 梁宽
Revolted against Ma Chao at Yicheng, executing Ma Chao’s family.
Liang Hsing 梁兴
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Killed by Ma Chao in an attempt to protect Sui.
Liang Hsü 梁绪
Originally of Wei, he submitted to Zhuge Liang and was made Governor of Tianshui.
Liao Ch‘un 廖淳
Served at Yiling, Jiang Wan recommended him for rank.
廖化 (元儉)
Liao Hua (Yüan-chien) 廖化 (元俭)
Officer in service of Shu. Served through the full span of the Shu Kingdom.

Notes: Also known as Liao Chun (廖淳).

廖立 (公淵)
Liao Li (Kung-yüan) 廖立 (公渊)
Arrogant officer who neglected his duties, was demoted by Zhuge Liang.
Ling Ts‘ao 凌操
Served Wu. Was killed in one of Gan Ning’s arrow attacks fighting Huang Zu.
凌統 (公績)
Ling T‘ung (Kung-chi) 凌统 (公绩)
Served Wu. Resented Gan Ning for killing his father, Ling Cao, but later forgave him.
Liu Ai 劉艾
Chief Clerk to Dong Zhuo. A famous historian who authored the Lingdi Ji.

Notes: ‘Liu Cai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉巴 (子初)
Liu Pa (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 刘巴 (子初)
Rescued Shu’s economy after Liu Bei’s troops had plundered the treasury.
Liu Pang [Kaotsu] 刘邦[高祖]
Founder of the Han dynasty. Fought with Xiang Yu for control of China and eventually won.

Notes: Also known by his temple name, Emperor Gaozu of Han. Originally Liu Ji (劉季). Emperor Gao (高帝). Gao Huangdi (高皇帝).

劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

劉表 (景升)
Liu Piao (Ching-shêng) 刘表 (景升)
Inspector of Jing province under the Han. Opposed the Sun family militarily.
Liu Ch‘ên 刘谌
Liu Shan’s fifth son. Rather than surrender to Wei, he committed suicide.

Notes: Also known as Liu Chan in some versions of the novel.

Liu Ch‘êng 刘丞
Guarded the gates of the palace. Executed by Sun Chen for taking part in Sun Liang’s plot.
Liu Ts‘ung 刘琮
Inherited Liu Biao’s kingdom upon his death, then surrendered it to Cao Cao.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Liu Zong’, but this is incorrect.

劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Fought Liu Bei with Wang Zhong but had no success.
劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Governor of Yan. Attacked the Qingzhou Yellow Scarves, but was killed.
Liu Tu 刘度
Governor of Lingling. He surrendered to Liu Bei after his son was defeated.
Liu Fan 刘范
Han Left Imperial Corps Commander. Helped Ma Teng. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
劉放 (子棄)
Liu Fang (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘放 (子弃)
Recommended Cao Shuang as joint regent of Cao Fang. A brilliant writer, Han lineage.
Liu Fêng 刘封
Liu Bei’s adopted son. Executed after the death of Guan Yu at Zhuge Liang’s suggestion.

Notes: ‘Kou Feng’ (寇封) before Liu Bei adopted him.

劉馥 (元穎)
Liu Fu (Yüan-ying) 刘馥 (元颖)
His farming and defence improvements in Yangzhou allowed Wei to keep control of the area.
Liu Kuei 刘璝
Sent to hold Luocheng, he advised visiting a local sage. Cut down by Zhang Yi.

Notes: Sometimes appears in games as Liu Kui.

Liu Ho 刘郃
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Liu Hung 刘弘
Liu Bei’s father. Son of Liu Xiong, said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.

Notes: His given name was originally Shan (山) and later Yi (義).

Liu Chün 刘俊
Attacked Mianzhu while Liu Bei welcomed Ma Chao. Killed by Zhao Yun.
劉理 (奉孝)
Liu Li (Fêng-hsiao) 刘理 (奉孝)
Third son of Liu Bei. Married to Ma Chao’s daughter.
Liu Lüeh 留略
General under Zhuge Ke, defended against Wei.
Liu Mao 刘瑁
A favourite of Liu Yan, illness incapacitated when Zhang took control.
Liu Ning 刘宁
Participated in Liu Bei’s attack on Wu, but was defeated and surrendered.
Liu P‘an 刘磐
Attempted guerilla warfare against Sun Ce but was foiled by Taishi Ci.
Liu P‘i 刘辟
After rebelling with the Yellow Scarves, moved to Runan. Later joined Liu Bei.
Liu P‘ing 留平
Officer of Wu. Was executed by Sun Hao for objecting to his cruelty.
Liu Ch‘i 刘琦
Eldest son of Liu Biao and legitimate heir of Jing. Became close friends with Liu Bei.
劉禪 (公嗣)
Liu Shan (Kung-ssŭ) 刘禅 (公嗣)
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.

Notes: Also known by his infant name, A-Dou (阿斗). See Liu Shan’s Comprehensive Officer Biography for more information on his name.

劉劭 (孔才)
Liu Shao (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘劭 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Rui to save Jiangxia from Wu. Compiled a considerable number of works.
Liu Shêng 刘胜
Liu Bei’s ancestor. Prince of Jing of Zhongshan. Son of Emperor Jing of Han.
劉寔 (子真)
Liu Shih (Tzŭ-chên) 刘寔 (子真)
Predicted Shu would fall but also that neither Deng Ai nor Zhong Hui would return.
劉陶 (子奇)
Liu T‘ao (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘陶 (子奇)
Accused the eunuchs of bringing down the Han and was murdered.
Liu Hsien 刘贤
Liu Du’s son. Defended Lingling with Xing Daorong against Liu Bei, but failed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xiang’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsien (Shih-tsung) 刘先
Served under Liu Cong with Deng Yi. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xin’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Liu Bei’s grandfather. Said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.
劉璿 (文衡)
Liu Hsüan (Wên-hêng) 刘璿 (文衡)
Son of Liu Shan, and his crown prince. Died during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.

Notes: Called Liu Rui in Moss Roberts and Brewitt Taylor translations of the novel.

劉勳 (子臺)
Liu Hsün (Tzŭ-t‘-ai) 刘勋 (子台)
Tricked into abandoning his city by Sun Ce and fled to Cao Cao. Executed for extortion and corruption.

Notes: ‘Liu Xu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Liu Yen 刘延
Grand Administrator of Dong commandery. Yuan Shao sent Yan Liang to attack him.

Notes: ‘Liu Yue’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉焉 (君郎)
Liu Yen (Chün-lang) 刘焉 (君郎)
Liu Zhang’s father. Magistrate in the Yi territory after fighting Yellow Scarves.
劉琰 (威碩)
Liu Yen (Wei-shih) 刘琰 (威硕)
Former Administrator of Yizhou. Executed after accusing Liu Shan of seducing his wife.

Notes: Liu Yan’s style, Weishi, is also translated as Weishuo. Either may turn up in references. Called Liu Yang in the Brewett-Taylor version of the novel.

劉繇 (正禮)
Liu Yao (Chêng-li) 刘繇 (正礼)
Imperial Inspector of Yangzhou. Liu Dai’s brother. Defeated by Sun Ce, then died of illness.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Liu Yong’ in many Koei games, along with a few other video games. Historical sources, and nearly all novel translations, use ‘Liu Yao’ instead.

劉曄 (子揚)
Liu Yeh (Tzŭ-yang) 刘晔 (子扬)
With other officials, went to Emperor Xian to petition his abdication to Cao Pi.
劉廙 (恭嗣)
Liu I (Kung-ssŭ) 刘廙 (恭嗣)
Among the officials that petitioned Emperor Xian to abdicate to Cao Pi.
劉虞 (伯安)
Liu Yü (Po-an) 刘虞 (伯安)
Governor of Youzhou during the Later Han. Quelled Zhang Ju’s rebellion.
Liu Yüanch‘i 刘元起
Liu Bei’s uncle. Recognized Liu Bei’s ambition, and worked to maintain the family.
留贊 (正明)
Liu Tsan (Chêng-ming) 留赞 (正明)
Father of Liu Lue. Marched to meet Wei’s invasion on Zhuge Ke’s orders.
劉璋 (季玉)
Liu Chang (Chi-yü) 刘璋 (季玉)
Son of Liu Yan. Governed Ba-shu before Liu Bei took his kingdom out from under his feet.
K‘ou 侯寇
Father of Liu Feng, who Liu Bei adopted as his heir. His family held a county fief in Changsha.
婁圭 (子伯)
Lou Kuei (Tzŭ-po) 娄圭 (子伯)
A former officer of Jing, assured Cao Cao that Liu Cong’s surrender was real.

Notes: ‘Lou’ and ‘Lu’ are both accepted ways of writing 婁. As such, his name is sometimes written ‘Lu Gui’.

樓玄 (承先)
Lou Hsüan (Ch‘êng-hsien) 楼玄 (承先)
Executed for rebuking Sun Hao about his tyranny.
Lü Pa 吕霸
Son of Lü Meng, was given hereditary nobility.
Lü Poshê 吕伯奢
Friend of Cao Song. Killed by the fleeing Cao Cao.
呂布 (奉先)
Lü Pu (Fêng-hsien) 吕布 (奉先)
Said to be the finest warrior of the Three Kingdoms era. Executed by Cao Cao.
呂岱 (定公)
Lü Tai (Ting-kung) 吕岱 (定公)
General of Wu. Executed the last vestiges of the Shi clan in Jiao province.
呂範 (子衡)
Lü Fan (Tzŭ-hêng) 吕范 (子衡)
Was an aide to Yuan Shu, but left for Sun Ce. Suggested Lady Sun’s marriage.
陸績 (公紀)
Lu Chi (Kung-chi) 陆绩 (公纪)
During his youth, he was said to have stolen an orange from Yuan Shu to give to his mother.
陸景 (士仁)
Lu Ching (Shih-jên) 陆景 (士仁)
The second son of Lu Kang and Wu Grand Admiral. Died in battle with Jin forces.
呂據 (世議)
Lü Chü (Shih-i) 吕据 (世议)
Second son of Lü Fan and an officer of Wu. Killed by Sun Chen.
陸凱 (敬風)
Lu K‘ai (Ching-fêng) 陆凯 (敬风)
Together with Wan Yu, shared the responsibility of Prime Minister under Sun Hao.

Notes: Listed incorrectly as ‘Lu Kuai’ in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

呂凱 (季平)
Lü K‘ai (Chi-p‘ing) 吕凯 (季平)
Served Shu with Wang Kang. Was Kongming’s guide while battling against the Nanman.
陸康 (季寧)
Lu K‘ang 陆康 (季宁)
Criticised Emperor Ling and the eunuchs, held out for two years despite facing Sun Ce.
陸抗 (幼節)
Lu K‘ang (Yu-chieh) 陆抗 (幼节)
Lu Xun’s second son. Known to be as capable a commander as his father.
Lü K‘uang 吕旷
Served Yuan Shang. Defected to Yuan Tan then Cao Cao. Attacking Liu Bei, killed by Zhao Yun.
Lu K‘uei 鲁馗
Served Han as Court Steward. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
呂蒙 (子明)
Lü Mêng (Tzŭ-ming) 吕蒙 (子明)
Served Wu. Originally a skilled warrior, turned out to be a scholar as well.

Notes: The Lü surname is pronounced Lü2 because of the preceeding Meng, which is 3rd tone, the same rule applies when pronouncing the style name because Zi3 is also third tone.

呂虔 (子恪)
Lü Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-k‘o) 吕虔 (子恪)
Served Cao Cao, and later Cao Pi, as Military Aide.
魯肅 (子敬)
Lu Su (Tzŭ-ching) 鲁肃 (子敬)
Brilliant and insightful Wu commander. Was ambassador to Shu.

Notes: When saying Lu Su’s surname and style name together the surname should be pronounced Lu2 instead of Lu3 because of the tone preceeding it.

Lü Weihuang 吕威璜
Officer of Yuan Shao. Guarded Wuchao as a lieutenant of Chunyu Qiong.
Lü Hsiang 吕翔
Younger brother of Lü Kuang, whom he followed everywhere.

Notes: He is known as Lü Xiang in SGZ and SGYY, and Gao Xiang (高翔) in HHS and ZZTJ.

Lu Hsün 卢逊
Officer of later-Shu. Defeated Zhong Hui at Nanzheng, but was later killed by Xun Kai.
陸遜 (伯言)
Lu Hsün (Po-yen) 陆逊 (伯言)
Famous and brilliant Wu commander that defeated Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: Originally named Lu Yi (陸議).

呂乂 (季阳)
Lü I (Chi-yang) 吕乂 (季阳)
Served Shu as Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time.

Notes: Some Brewitt-Taylor translations incorrectly list Lü Yi as ‘Lu Yin’. Some books, historical or simplified, including some Chinese Moss Roberts translations, list Lü Yi’s name as 呂義 or its simplified variant 呂义. They are presented as the same person because the two names are both used in reference to the same person, a Lü Yi who was Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time, and because there is no reference to another Lü Yi in Shu.

Lu Chao 路招
Dispatched with Liu Bei to block Yuan Shu’s attempts to get to Yuan Shao.
盧植 (子幹)
Lu Chih (Tzŭ-kan) 卢植 (子干)
Imperial Corps Commander in service of Han. Was Liu Bei’s teacher and friend.
Lun Chih 伦直
He was beheaded for criticizing Gongsun Yuan’s plan to revolt.
駱統 (公緒)
Lo T‘ung (Kung-hsü) 骆统 (公绪)
Vassal of Sun Quan, famed for being a poor yet honourable man, loyal to his step mother.
馬超 (孟起)
Ma Ch‘ao (Mêng-ch‘i) 马超 (孟起)
Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
Ma Tai 马岱
Ma Chao’s cousin. He surrendered to Liu Bei with Ma Chao.
馬鈞 (德衡)
Ma Chün (Tê-hêng) 马钧 (德衡)
Master of Works for Cao Rui. Advised the Emperor to drink Celestial Elixir.
馬良 (季常)
Ma Liang (Chi-ch‘ang) 马良 (季常)
Administered Jing after Liu Bei took Shu. Nicknamed ‘White Eyebrows’.
Ma Miao 马邈
Surrendered Jiangyou castle prompting his wife to commit suicide.
馬日磾 (翁叔)
Ma Miti (Wêng-shu) 马日磾 (翁叔)
Sent as envoy to stop the war between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan.
馬謖 (幼常)
Ma Su (Yu-ch‘ang) 马谡 (幼常)
Ma Liang’s younger brother. Executed by Zhuge Liang after his failure at Jie Ting.
馬騰 (壽成)
Ma T‘êng (Shou-ch‘êng) 马腾 (寿成)
Governed Xiliang. Descendant of the famous warrior Ma Yuan. Ma Chao’s father.
Ma T‘ieh 马铁
Killed in a volley of arrows as Cao Cao attacks the Ma’s outside Xuchang.
Ma Wan 马玩
Served under Han Sui. Tried to protect Han Sui from Ma Chao, but failed.
Ma Hsiu 马休
Second son of Ma Teng. Executed by Cao Cao on his way to Xuchang.
Ma Yen 马延
Served Yuan Shang, and later Cao Cao. Killed by Gan Ning.
Ma Yü 马宇
Han Privy Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ma Yü 马玉
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
馬援 (文淵)
Ma Yüan (Wên-yüan) 马援 (文渊)
General of the Han who campaigned against the Vietnamese. Ma Teng was descended from him.
Ma Yüani 马元义
Follower of Zhang Jue and the Yellow Scarves. Torn asunder by chariots for treason.
Ma Chung 马忠
Captured Guan Yu and Guan Ping. Executed to satiate Liu Bei in the novel.
馬忠 (德信)
Ma Chung (Tê-hsin) 马忠 (德信)
Served Shu notably during the northern and southern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as Hu Du (狐篤). Mistranslated as Ma Zheng in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

Ma Tsun 马遵
Was defeated by Shu and fled to Hu, drives Jiang Wei into Shu by his paranoia.
滿寵 (伯寧)
Man Ch‘ung (Po-ning) 满宠 (伯宁)
Served Cao Cao as Military Aide. Helped to repel Shu’s fifth northern campaign.
Mangyach‘ang 忙牙长
Second in command to the Nanman’s armies. Killed by Ma Dai.
毛玠 (孝先)
Mao Chieh (Hsiao-hsien) 毛玠 (孝先)
Served as Military Aide to Cao Cao. Later Staff Supervisor, then Naval Commander.
[Mêng K‘o] 孟子[孟轲]
Chinese philosopher. Often considered to the most famous Confucian outside Confucius himself.

Notes: Rarely referenced as Meng Ke (sometimes Meng Ko), his actual name. Best known as ‘Mencius’, a variation of the name Mengzi (孟子). Posthumously named Master Meng the Second Sage (亞聖孟子; Yàshèng Mèngzǐ).

孟達 (子敬)
Mêng Ta (Tzŭ-ching) 孟达 (子敬)
Refused aid to Guan Yu. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, kills Xu Huang.

Notes: Meng Da was originally styled Zijing (子敬), but later changed his style to Zidu (子度) because the uncle of his lord, Liu Bei, was named Liu Jing.

孟光 (孝裕)
Mêng Kuang (Hsiao-yü) 孟光 (孝裕)
Raised concerns over Liu Xuan’s education, an arrogant but bright scholar.
孟建 (公威)
Mêng Chien (Kungwei) 孟建 (公威)
Friend of Xu Shu and Zhuge Liang. Joined Wei. Became Inspector of Liang Province.

Notes: ‘Meng Gongwei’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

Mêng Yu 孟优
Meng Huo’s brother. Captured by Zhuge Liang.
孟宗 (恭武)
Mêng Tsung (Kung-wu) 孟宗 (恭武)
One of the 24 paragons of filial piety, almost executed for leaving post to attend funeral.

Notes: Originally named Meng Ren (孟仁).

麋芳 (子方)
Mi Fang (Tzŭ-fang) 麋芳 (子方)
Mi Zhu’s brother. Served all three kingdoms. Surrendered to Wu after threat of punishment from Guan Yu.
彌衡 (正平)
Mi Hêng (Chêng-p‘ing) 弥衡 (正平)
Reputable scholar. Infuriated Cao Cao’s officers with his audacious ways.

Notes: Called Ni Heng in the ZZTJ.

麋竺 (子仲)
Mi Chu (Tzŭ-chung) 麋竺 (子仲)
Served Shu. Mi Fang’s brother. Died shortly after Mi Fang’s betrayal.
閔純 (伯典)
Min Ch‘un (Po-tien) 闵纯 (伯典)
Opposed surrendering to Yuan Shao and was executed.

Notes: Guan Chun (關純) in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. These characters are from the original text, so Guan Chun is the proper novel translation.

Min Kung 闵贡
Han commander in the Henan district. Killed eunuch Duan Gui. Helped Emperor Shao.
Mu Shun 穆顺
General of Governor Zhang Yang. Killed by Lü Bu in a duel.
Mu Shun 穆顺
Plotted to save Emperor Xian with Empress Fu and Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.
Nan Tou 南斗
God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Nandou (in Sagittarius).
Ning Sui 宁随
Officer in Shu’s later years. Offered Jiang Wei a plan that repelled Deng Ai.
Niu Fu 牛辅
Fought against Lü Bu and Li Su, after Dong Zhuo’s death. Killed by Hu Che’er.

Notes: In Koei’s Dynasty Warriors 2-4 his name was presented as ‘Niou Fu’.

Niu Chin 牛金
Subordinate of Cao Ren. Attacked Zhou Yu’s camp at Nanjun, but was defeated and rescued by Cao Ren.
P‘an Fêng 潘凤
Officer of Han Fu. Wielded a giant axe and fought with Hua Xiong, but was killed.
潘濬 (承明)
P‘an Chün (Ch‘êng-ming) 潘浚 (承明)
Began his career under Liu Biao then Liu Bei. After Guan Yu’s death, served in Wu.
P‘an Yin 潘隐
Warned He Jin of Jian Shou’s plot and then of the Emperor’s death.
潘璋 (文珪)
P‘an Chang 潘璋 (文珪)
Served Wu. Led the forces which captured Guan Yu and his son, Guan Ping.
龐德 (令明)
P‘ang Tê (Ling-ming) 庞德 (令明)
Served Ma Chao, Zhang Lu, then Cao Cao. Fought against Guan Yu at Fancheng.
庞德公 (山民)
P‘ang Têkung (Shan-min) 庞德公 (山民)
A famed scholar. Uncle of Pang Tong.

Notes: Sima Hui called him Pang Gong as a nickname and therefore his name is sometimes mistranslated as such.

P‘ang Hui 庞会
Pang De’s son. Had Guan Yu’s clan exterminated after Shu’s surrender.
P‘ang Chüan 庞涓
General of the state of Wei in the Warring States Period.
P‘ang Jou 庞柔
Cousin of Pang De, his service to Shu cast doubts on Pang De’s loyalty.
P‘ang Shu 庞舒
Sheltered Lü Bu and his family in Chang’an. Executed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
龐統 (士元)
P‘ang T‘ung (Shih-yüan) 庞统 (士元)
Friend of Sima Hui’s and Shu’s “Fledgling Phoenix.” Killed by an arrow at Luocheng.
P‘ang Hsi 庞羲
A friend of Liu Yan. Collected his grandchildren and brought them to Shu.
裴秀 (季彥)
P‘ei Hsiu (Chi-yen) 裴秀 (季彦)
Expert cartographer, close adviser to Sima Zhao and Sima Yan.
P‘ei Yüanshao 裴元绍
Former Yellow Scarve killed by Zhao Yun during an attempt to steal his horse.
彭羕 (永年)
P‘êng Yang (Yung-nien) 彭羕 (永年)
Friend of Meng Da, plotted revolt against Liu Bei. Repented but still executed.
P‘uching 普净
Monk. Warned Guan Yu of Bian Xi’s plot. Later helped Guan Yu’s spirit to find peace.

Notes: Pujing 普淨, a religious name, translates to Universal Purity. In the Brewitt-Taylor translation Pujing appears as Pu Jing and his name is translated as Transverse Peace. Other translations are possible.

濮陽興 (子元)
P‘uyang Hsing (Tzŭ-yüan) 濮阳兴 (子元)
Supported Sun Hao after Sun Xiu died, helping to elevate him to Emperor.
Ch‘ien Hung 牵弘
Served Wei. District Governor of Jincheng before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
喬瑁 (元偉)
Ch‘iao Mao (Yüan-wei) 乔瑁 (元伟)
Forged decree against Dong Zhuo. Was killed by his enemy Liu Dai.
Ch‘iao Jui 桥蕤
Officer of Yuan Shu. Fought with Cao Cao’s forces, but was killed by Xiahou Dun.
橋玄 (公祖)
Ch‘iao Hsüan (Kung-tsu) 桥玄 (公祖)
Recognised Cao Cao’s talent and predicted Han would collapse. Noble offical.

Notes: ‘State Patriarch Qiao’ in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘State Elder Qiao’ in the Moss Roberts translation.

譙周 (允南)
Ch‘iao Chou (Yün-nan) 谯周 (允南)
Historian and teacher, advised Liu Shan to surrender. Opposed Jiang Wei and Huang Hao.
秦朗 (元明)
Ch‘in Lang (Yüan-ming) 秦朗 (元明)
Adopted son of Cao Cao. Led troops to pacify the Xianbei in 233. Close to Cao Rui.
秦宓 (子質)
Ch‘in Mi (Tzŭ-ch‘ih) 秦宓 (子质)
Rebuked Jian Yong for his arrogance, thrown in jail for opposing the invasion of Wu.
Ch‘in Ch‘i 秦祺
Served Wei under Xiahou Dun. In novel, killed by Guan Yu leaving Cao Cao.
Ch‘in Ch‘ingt‘ung 秦庆童
Servant of Dong Cheng. Punished for talking with Yun Ying. Betrayed him to Cao Cao.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Quin Quington’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition. Another calls him ‘Qui Lici’.

Ch‘iu Pên 丘本
Advisor to Deng Ai, calms him down and advises to try and surprise Zhuge Zhan.
Ch‘iu Chien 丘建
Commander of Zhong Hui, helped warn Wei forces of Zhong Hui’s revolt.
Ch‘ü I 麴义
Defeated Han Fu, Yufuluo and destroyed Gongsun Zan. Became arrogant and was executed.
全琮 (子璜)
Ch‘üan Ts‘ung (Tzŭ-huang) 全琮 (子璜)
Son of Quan Rou and son-in-law of Sun Quan. Served Wu as general and advisor.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Quan Zong’, but this is incorrect.

Ch‘üan Tuan 全端
Defended Shouchun during Zhuge Dan’s rebellion, but surrendered to Wei.
Ch‘üan Chi 全纪
Brother-in-law of Sun Liang. Ordered to kill Sun Chen by Sun Liang, but was executed.
Ch‘üan Shang 全尚
Father of Quan Ji. Was killed after his wife revealed his son’s plot against Sun Chen.
Ch‘üan I 全懌
Quan Cong’s son. Sent to aid Zhuge Dan’s rebellion, but surrendered to Wei.
Red Hare [Ch‘iht‘uma] 赤兔[赤兔马]
Lü Bu’s famed horse. “Among men, Lü Bu; among horses, Red Hare.” Novel: Later given to Guan Yu by Cao Cao.
Jên K‘uei 任夔
Advised attacking Cao Hong early but the plan resulted in Kui’s death.
任峻 (伯達)
Jên Chün (Po-ta) 任峻 (伯达)
Looked after military stores with Mao Jie.
邵悌 (元伯)
Shao T‘i (Yüan-po) 邵悌 (元伯)
Advisor of Sima Zhao’s. Warned Sima Zhao about trusting Zhong Hui.
申耽 (義舉)
Shên Tan (I-chü) 申耽 (义举)
Brother of Shen Yi. Governor of Shangyong. Surrendered from Wei to Shu to Wei.
審配 (正南)
Shên P‘ei (Chêng-nan) 审配 (正南)
Served Yuan Shao with loyalty. After Shao’s death, sided with his youngest son, Shang.
Shên Jung 审荣
Nephew of Shen Pei. Betrayed Jizhou after the family of his friend, Xin Pi, was executed.
Shên I 申仪
Brother of Shen Dan. Friend of Meng Da. Surrendered from Wei to Shu then again to Wei.
Shên Ying 沈莹
General of the Left under Sun Hao who was slain during Jin’s conquest of Wu.

Notes: Also Shen Rong or Shen Zong in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition.

Shênshêng [Prince Shênshêng of Chin] 申生
Spring and Autumn Period. Half-brother to Chong’er, eldest son of Duke Xian of Jin.

Notes: ‘Shen Sheng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Er Shensheng’ in the Moss Roberts translation.

石苞 (仲容)
Shih Pao (Chung-jung) 石苞 (仲容)
Sold weapons to make a living, became a leading general of Jin and a popular offical.
史渙 (公劉)
Shih Huan (Kungliu) 史涣 (公刘)
General of Xu Huang, captured messenger which gave them vital information.
Shih Shuo 施朔
Imperial Guard under Sun Xiu who reported Sun Chen’s rebellion.
石韜 (廣元)
Shih T‘ao (Kuang-yüan) 石韬 (广元)
Old friend of Zhuge Liang. Joined Cao Cao with Xu Shu and worked on agriculture.

Notes: ‘Shi Guangyuan’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

Shih Tsuan 师纂
Joined Deng Ai’s attack on the Riverlands. Was made Imperial Protector of Yizhou.
司馬防 (建公)
Ssŭma Fang (Chienkung) 司马防 (建公)
Sima Yi’s father. An honest hermit who had a sense of public duty.
司馬孚 (叔達)
Ssŭma Fu (Shu-ta) 司马孚 (叔达)
Served Wei loyally to the end, weeping over Cao Mao’s corpse and refusing Jin princedom.
司馬徽 (德操)
Ssŭma Hui (Tê-ts‘ao) 司马徽 (德操)
Named ‘Water Mirror’ by Pang Degong. Former teacher of Zhuge Liang and Pang Tong.
司馬儁 (元異)
Ssŭma Chün (Yüan-i) 司马儁 (元异)
Grandfather of Sima Yi. Governor of Yingchuan.

Notes: ‘Sima Juan’ in the Moss Roberts translation and online Brewitt-Taylor translations. ‘Sima Jun’ in Rafe de Crespigny’s works.

司馬朗 (伯達)
Ssŭma Lang (Po-ta) 司马朗 (伯达)
Humane offical, his governing was popular with the people.
司馬師 (子元)
Ssŭma Shih (Tzŭ-yüan) 司马师 (子元)
Sima Yi’s son. Instrumental in the rise of Jin.
司馬望 (子初)
Ssŭma Wang (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 司马望 (子初)
Fought Shu with Deng Ai, ambushed and killed Xiahou Ba.
司馬炎 (安世)
Ssŭma Yen (An-shih) 司马炎 (安世)
Installed as the first Emperor of the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: Known formally as Emperor Wu of Jin.

司馬懿 (仲達)
Ssŭma I (Chung-ta) 司马懿 (仲达)
A skilled advisor of the Wei kingdom. His efforts laid the foundation of Jin.
司馬攸 (大猷)
Ssŭma Yu (Ta-yu) 司马攸 (大猷)
Second son of Sima Zhao. Known as a kind and warm-natured man.
司馬昭 (子上)
Ssŭma Chao (Tzŭ-shang) 司马昭 (子上)
Son of Sima Yi. Father of Sima Yan. Controlled the Wei army after his brother, Shi’s, death.
司馬伷 (子將)
Ssŭma Chou (Tzŭ-chiang) 司马伷 (子将)
Led the force to which Sun Hao offered his seal and surrendered.
Sung Kuo 宋果
Proposed to Yang Feng that they should betray Li Jue. Overheard and killed by Li Jue.

Notes: Also called Song Ye.

Sung Ch‘ien 宋谦
Served Wu. In the novel, is killed by Li Dian at Hefei, but historically fights at Yiling.
Sung Hsien 宋宪
Served Lü Bu, but joined Cao Cao after Hou Cheng was punished. Killed by Yan Liang.
Sung Chung [Tsung] (Chung-tzŭ) 宋忠
Scholar under Liu Biao with Qimu Kai. Sent by Liu Cong to surrender to Cao Cao.

Notes: Song Zhong’s name may have been written Song Zong 宋宗.

Su Fei 苏飞
Convinced Gan Ning to leave Huang Zu and join Sun Quan.
Su Ch‘in 苏秦
Su Qin was an influential political strategist during the Warring States Period.
蘇軾[蘇東坡] (子瞻)
Su Shih [Su Tungp‘o] (Tzŭ-chan) 苏轼[苏东坡] (子瞻)
Song Dynasty writer, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist and statesman.

Notes: Su Shi (蘇軾), styled Zizhan (子瞻), went by the pseudonym Dongpo Jushi (東坡居士; “The Scholar in Retirement at Eastern Slope”), and is often referenced as Su Dongpo (蘇東坡).

Su Shuang 苏双
Horse trader from Zhongshan with Zhang Shiping. Supplied Liu Bei’s first armed force.
Su Yung 苏顒
Vanguard commander of Guo Huai (who served Cao Zhen). Killed by Zhao Zilong.
Su Yu 苏由
Defended Ji when Yuan Shang went to help his brother against Cao Cao.
Su Yüeh 苏越
Hired to build a new palace for Cao Cao, tree he picks bleeds.
眭固 (白兔)
Sui Ku (Poi-t‘u) 眭固 (白兔)
Killed Yang Chou who had killed Zhang Yang. Turned to Yuan Shao but killed in battle.

Notes: You will also find him referenced as Gui Gu and Kui Gu. In Moss Roberts’ translation he isn’t mentioned by name. ‘Kui Gu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. Koei, until recently, referenced him as Gui Gu. Bo 白 in his style is frequently translated as Bai, thus Baitu. Sidenote: his style, Botu (白兔) literally translates to ‘White Rabbit’.

Sui Yüanchin 眭元进
Part of the defenders of Yuan Shao’s supply camp, captured and executed.

Notes: Gui Yuanjin in some versions of the novel.

孫策 (伯符)
Sun Ts‘ê (Po-fu) 孙策 (伯符)
Sun Jian’s oldest son. Built the foundation of the Wu kingdom.
孫綝 (子通)
Sun Ch‘ên (Tzŭ-t‘ung) 孙綝 (子通)
Executed a number of Wu officials and abused his authority, deposed Sun Liang.

Notes: Sometimes ‘綝’ is incorrectly translated as lin2, thus ‘Sun Lin’.

孫登 (子高)
Sun Têng (Tzŭ-kao) 孙登 (子高)
Set to be Quan’s successor, but died young. Kind and sought out goodness.
Sun Kao 孙高
Old general of Sun Yi, avenged the death of his master.
孫皓 (元宗)
Sun Hao (Yüan-tsung) 孙皓 (元宗)
Last Emperor of Wu. Destroyed the country through tyranical rule and wasteful projects.

Notes: Called “Peng Zu” by Sun Quan after his birth.

孫和 (子孝)
Sun Ho (Tzŭ-hsiao) 孙和 (子孝)
Heir to Sun Quan but quarrelled with his brother Sun Ba. Dismissed by his father.
孫河 (伯海)
Sun Ho (Po-hai) 孙河 (伯海)
Investigated Sun Yi’s death but was assassinated. Adopted into Yu clan by Sun Jian.

Notes: Sun He was adopted into the Yu clan by Sun Jian to continue the Yu family lineage, which would have continued only through women. The novel reverses this role and has him being adopted into the Sun clan from the Yu clan. Sun Hu in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. Yu Hu in the Moss Roberts translation.

孫桓 (叔武)
Sun Huan (Shu-wu) 孙桓 (叔武)
Part of invasion of Jing. Trapped at Yiling, he holds out until Lu Xun achieves victory.
Sun Chi 孙冀
Officer of Wu. Took over Lu Kang’s position when Kang was removed from office.
孫堅 (文台)
Sun Chien (Wên-t‘-ai) 孙坚 (文台)
Father of Sun Ce, Sun Quan, and the kingdom of Wu.
孫皎 (叔朗)
Sun Chiao (Shu-lang) 孙皎 (叔朗)
Held off Cao Cao’s forces at Ruxukou. A generous and honourable man.
孫靜 (幼台)
Sun Ching (Yu-t‘-ai) 孙静 (幼台)
Raised up the troops that would be Jian’s personal guard. Helped defeat Wang Lang.

Notes: Mistakenly referred to as ‘Sun Kuang’ in chapter 39 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

孫峻 (子遠)
Sun Chün (Tzŭ-yüan) 孙峻 (子远)
Joined Teng Yin in assassinating Zhuge Ke, later controlled the court.
孫匡 (季佐)
Sun K‘uang (Chi-tso) 孙匡 (季佐)
Married daughter of Cao Ren, died at twenty without having held office.
孫朗 (早安)
Sun Lang (Tsao-an) 孙朗 (早安)
The fifth son of Sun Jian. Led a command at Dongkou but accidentally burned his own camp.

Notes: Also known as Sun Ren (孫仁). Had his surname changed to Ding (丁) by Sun Quan while imprisoned after he ignored Lü Fan’s orders defending against Cao Xiu.

孫禮 (德達)
Sun Li (Tê-ta) 孙礼 (德达)
Fought against Shu under Sima Yi and Cao Zhen. Became an Excellency.
孫亮 (子明)
Sun Liang (Tzŭ-ming) 孙亮 (子明)
Became Emperor, but was dethroned by Sun Chen after failed attempt to remove Chen.
孫鲁班 (大虎)
Sun Lupan (Ta-hu) 孙鲁班 (大虎)
Lover of Sun Jun. Caused deaths of Lady Wang, Princess Zhu and Sun He.

Notes: Also known as Princess Quan. Dahu means ‘Big Tiger’.

孫乾 (公祐)
Sun Ch‘ien (Kung-yu) 孙乾 (公祐)
Served Liu Bei. From Beihai. At death ranked General Who Upholds Loyalty.
孫權 (仲謀)
Sun Ch‘üan (Chung-mou) 孙权 (仲谋)
Sun Jian’s second son. Sun Ce’s brother. Long-lived first Emperor of Wu.
孫韶 (公禮)
Sun Shao (Kung-li) 孙韶 (公礼)
Disobeyed Xu Sheng to fool opposing Wei forces. Maintained strong defense against Wei.

Notes: Sun Shao, before being adopted by Sun Ce, was known as Yu Shao (俞韶). Mistranslated as ‘Sun Hu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition.

Sun Wan 孙上雨下單
Son of Sun Xiu, and intended heir. Puyang Xiang and Zhang Bu enthroned Sun Hao.

Notes: The character ‘Wan1’ in Sun Wan’s did not exist in Unicode for quite some time, but it is now listed. ’&#168128’ is the character, but odds are you can’t see it. 上雨下單, the name we are currently using, is simply an explanation of the character, which has has 雨 on the top and 單 on the bottom. 上 and 下 mean up and down respectively.

Sun Hsin 孙歆
In command of navy, lured out by Du Yu. Met the attack of Zhou Zhi but was killed.
Sun Hsiu 孙秀
Surrendered to Jin and served as Cavalry General. Wept at the fall of Wu.
孫休 (子烈)
Sun Hsiu (Tzŭ-lieh) 孙休 (子烈)
Overthrew Sun Chen but neglected state affairs. Wish for heirship ignored.
Sun I 孙异
Was sent to aid Jiang Wei during the fall of Shu but was too late.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Sun Yin’ in the online novel.

孫翊 (叔弼)
Sun I (Shu-pi) 孙翊 (叔弼)
Once a rival to Sun Quan. Assassinated by Bian Hong and others at a banquet.
孫瑜 (仲異)
Sun Yü (Chung-i) 孙瑜 (仲异)
Served Wu. Sun Jing’s second son and cousin to Sun Quan.
Sun Chung 孙仲
Fought with Zhu Jun and Liu Bei at Wan, but was killed by Liu Bei.
T‘atun 蹋顿
A Wuhuan chief. Slain in battle with Zhang Liao’s troops.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Mao Dun’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

太史慈 (子義)
T‘aishih Tz‘ŭ (Tzŭ-i) 太史慈 (子义)
Served Liu Yao, then Wu. Helped save Kong Rong from the Yellow Scarves.
太史享 (元復)
T‘aishih Hsiang (Yüan-fu) 太史享 (元复)
Held various posts in Wu. In novel, looked after by Quan after Ci’s death.

Notes: Also known as Heng in the novel.

檀敷 (文友)
T‘an Fu (Wên-yu) 檀敷 (文友)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Shanyang.
T‘an Hsiung 谭雄
General of Sun Huan. Fights at Yiling, wounds Zhang Bao’s horse.
唐彬 (儒宗)
T‘ang Pin (Ju-tsung) 唐彬 (儒宗)
General of Jin who participated in the conquest of Wu. Described as fast as an elk.
T‘ang Chou 唐周
Follower of Zhang Jue. Betrayed his plans to the Han, and got Ma Yuanyi beheaded.
T‘ang Tzŭ 唐咨
Served Wu then surrendered to Wei. Collected ships for Zhong Hui.
T‘ao Chün 陶浚
A general of Wu. During Jin’s invasion, sent to meet the invading Jin forces.
陶謙 (恭祖)
T‘ao Ch‘ien (Kung-tsu) 陶谦 (恭祖)
Inspector of Xuzhou. Fought violently with Cao Cao. Died of illness.
滕胤 (承嗣)
T‘êng Yin (Ch‘êng-ssŭ) 滕胤 (承嗣)
Minister of Wu. Argued to Sun Jun that Zhuge Ke should be put to death.
田疇 (子泰)
T‘ien Ch‘ou (Tzŭ-t‘-ai) 田畴 (子泰)
Acted as guide against Wuhuan for Wei, refused reward as he felt he had failed Liu Yu.
田豐 (元皓)
T‘ien Fêng (Yüan-hao) 田丰 (元皓)
Served Yuan Shao, who ignored his advice. Killed himself after being slandered by Feng Ji.
T‘ien K‘ai 田楷
Appointed Lieutenant Governor of Qingzhou by Gongsun Zan. Fought against Cao Cao.
T‘ien Hsü 田续
Slew Deng Ai and his son in revenge for Deng Ai nearly executing him.
田豫 (國讓)
T‘ien Yü (Kuo-jang) 田豫 (国让)
General of Wei under Cao Rui. Dispatched to Xiangyang to counter Wu’s invasion.

Notes: Also referred to erroneously as Tian Du.

T‘ien Chang 田章
Officer of Zhong Hui in Wei’s later days.
T‘u An 土安
Defeats Shu army 15 times but it is all a ploy to make Nanman careless.
Wan Yü 万彧
Advised Puyang Xing to make Sun Hao Emperor after Sun Xiu’s death.

Notes: Also called Wanyu Su

Wan Chêng 万政
Fictional lieutenant under Guo Huai in AD 228. Defeated and spared by Zhao Yun.
Wang Pi 王必
In charge of Imperial Guard, warned Cao Xiu of Geng Ji’s revolt but died from his wounds.
王粲 (仲宣)
Wang Ts‘an (Chung-hsüan) 王粲 (仲宣)
One of the great literary figures of the time. Urged Liu Cong to surrender to Wei.
王昶 (文舒)
Wang Ch‘ang (Wên-shu) 王昶 (文舒)
Compiled treatises on government and military matters. Leading general against Wu.
Wang Ch‘ang 王昌
Member of Li Jue’s Tiger Army. Wouldn’t arrest Huangfu Li for ethical reasons.

Notes: ‘Wang Chan’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Wang Tun 王惇
Minister of Wu who was executed by Sun Chen.

Notes: Appears as Wang Chun in both the Moss Roberts and online Brewitt-Taylor translations of the novel.

Wang Fang 王方
Opened the gates of Chang’an, later fought Ma Teng and was killed by a young Ma Chao.
王甫 (國山)
Wang Fu (Kuo-shan) 王甫 (国山)
Warned Guan Yu about Lü Meng, Pang Jun and an ambush but was ignored.
王服[王子服] (子由)
Wang Fu [Wang Tzŭfu] (Tzu-yu) 王服[王子服] (子由)
Part of the ‘Jade Girdle’ plot to kill Cao Cao. Courtier of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao.

Notes: Wang Fu appears as Wang Zifu (王子服) in the novel, SGZ Shu, and other sources. This appears to be an error. Rafe de Crespigny wrote the following in To Establish Peace I: “The main text of SGZ 32 gives the personal name of Wang Fu as, but Xiandi qijuzhu, quoted by PC, and the parallel texts HHS 9, 381, and HHS 72/62, 2343, all omit the character zi. It is presumably dittography from the name of Wu Zilan immediately preceding.”

王觀 (偉臺)
Wang Kuan (Wei-t‘-ai) 王观 (伟台)
Came up with a plan to trick Jiang Wei but it failed, died valiantly.
Wang Han 王含
Defender of Yuecheng, surrendered on the loss of Hanzhong.
王渾 (玄沖)
Wang Hun (Hsüan-ch‘ung) 王浑 (玄冲)
Warned that Sun Hao’s army was formidable and that they should wait a year.
王基 (伯興)
Wang Chi (Po-hsing) 王基 (伯兴)
Fought against Wu and Guanqiu Jian, fighting in three duels and advising to win hearts.
王經 (彥偉)
Wang Ching (Yen-wei) 王经 (彦伟)
Struggled against Jiang Wei. Supported Cao Mao when Mao tried to remove Sima Zhao.
王濬 (士治)
Wang Chün (Shih-chih) 王浚 (士治)
Commander of the force that conqured Wu.
Wang K‘ang 王伉
Defended Yongchang against Yong Kai’s attack, credited success to Lu Kai.
王匡 (公節)
Wang K‘uang (Kung-chieh) 王匡 (公节)
Took heavy losses against Dong Zhuo. Despised material things but could be violent.
王朗 (景興)
Wang Lang (Ying-hsing) 王朗 (景兴)
Originally the prefect of Huiji, he later joined Wei. Debated with Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Originally called Wang Yan

Wang Lei 王累
Minister of Liu Zhang. Strongly advised Zhang to not allow Liu Bei into Yi.
王連 (文儀)
Wang Lien (Wên-i) 王连 (文仪)
Shu governor who did well economically. He warned Zhuge Liang of the risk of malaria.
Wang Mai 王买
Officer of Zhong Hui during the conquest of Shu.
王莽 (巨君)
Wang Mang (Chü-chün) 王莽 (巨君)
Minister of the Western Han. Userped the throne from Ruzi. Killed in a rebellion.
王謀 (元泰)
Wang Mou (Yuan-t’ai) 王谋 (元泰)
Governor of Bajun under Liu Zhang. Held various post in Shu.
王平 (子均)
Wang P‘ing (Tzŭ-chün) 王平 (子均)
Served Wei but later surrendered to Shu. Served in the northern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as He Ping (何平).

Wang Ch‘i 王颀
Served Han as Commandant of the Exemplary Cavalry. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
王頎 (孔碩)
Wang Ch‘i (K‘ung-shih) 王颀 (孔硕)
Served Wei. District Governor of Tianshui before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.

Notes: Shi 碩 in Kongshi can also be translated as Shuo.

王戎 (濬沖)
Wang Jung (Chün-ch‘ung) 王戎 (浚冲)
A child prodigy, one of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, noted for his meanness.
王沈 (處道)
Wang Shên (Ch‘u-tao) 王沈 (处道)
Compiled Wei-shu, the offical history of Wei. Betrayed Cao Mao’s revolt to Sima Zhao.

Notes: 沈 can also be pronounced Chen, and his name is sometimes translated as such.

王雙 (子全)
Wang Shuang (Tzŭ-ch‘üan) 王双 (子全)
Served Cao Rui. Defeated Zhang Ni, and was later killed by Wei Yan.
王肅 (子雍)
Wang Su (Tzŭ-yung) 王肃 (子雍)
The son of Wang Lang. Aided the Sima’s in creating Jin. Father of Sima Zhao’s wife.
Wang T‘ao 王韬
Civil officer, advised Sima Zhao to pray to the fountain so he could feed the troops.
Wang Wei 王威
Served Liu Biao and Liu Cong loyally. Died protecting Cong from Cao Cao.
王祥 (休徵)
Wang Hsiang (Hsiu-chêng) 王祥 (休徵)
Convinced Sima Zhao to name Sima Yan heir, along with Jia Chong, Pei Xiu and others.
王修 (叔治)
Wang Hsiu (Shu-chih) 王修 (叔治)
Served Yuan Tan loyally. Joined Cao Cao after Yuan Tan’s death in AD 205.
Wang Yen 王琰
Captured Gao Gan and was well rewarded. Served as an administrator in many places.
Wang Yeh 王业
Taken into Cao Mao’s confidence but betrayed it to Sima Zhao.
Wang Yüanchi 王元姬
Empress dowager during Jin Dynasty. Wife of Sima Zhao and mother of Sima Yan.

Notes: Formerly Empress Wenming (文明皇后; “civil and understanding empress”)

王允 (子師)
Wang Yün (Tzŭ-shih) 王允 (子师)
Diaochan’s father. Orchestrated the plot which resulted in Dong Zhuo’s death.
Wang Chao 汪昭
Fictional officer under Yuan Tan. Killed after only a few bouts by Xu Huang.
Wang Chung 王忠
Failed against Liu Bei. Once forced to eat human flesh, Cao Pi made a joke of it.
衛瓘 (伯玉)
Wei Kuan (Po-yü) 卫瓘 (伯玉)
Sent to keep an eye on Zhong Hui and Deng Ai, he played a part in the death of both.
Wei Hung 卫弘
Of a wealthy family, he gave his property to Cao Cao to raise troops to restore the Han.
Wei Huang (Tê-wei) 韦晃
Han loyalist. Participated in a coup with Geng Ji and Jin Yi. Captured by Xiahou Dun.
Wei K‘ai 卫凯
Rebelled with Hou Yin but Cao Ren defeated and executed them.
Wei Miao 魏邈
Helped Sun Xiu against Sun Chen, warning the Wu ruler of the danger he was in.
Wei Hsü 魏续
At first an officer of Lü Bu, he later joined Cao Cao. Killed by Yan Liang.
魏延 (文長)
Wei Yen (Wên-ch‘ang) 魏延 (文长)
Talented commander. Killed Han Xuan and surrendered his territory to Liu Bei.
Weitzŭ (Viscount of Wei) 微子
Shang Dynasty. Related to the corrupt Zhou Xin, quit in disgust and went into exile.
Wên Ch‘ou 文丑
A fierce general in service under Yuan Shao. Killed in battle with Cao Cao.
Wên Hu 文虎
Son of Wen Qin and brother of Wen Yang. Followed his brother everywhere.
文聘 (仲業)
Wên P‘ing (Chung-yeh) 文聘 (仲业)
After Liu Cong’s surrender he secluded himself in shame. Later served Cao Cao

Notes: ‘Wen Pin’ in some books and nearly all games. Wen Ping is the correct Romanization.

文欽 (仲若)
Wên Ch‘in (Chung-jo) 文钦 (仲若)
Lieutenant Governor of Yang. Rebelled against Sima Shi with Guanqiu Jian.
Wên Yang 文鸯
Wen Qin’s son. Fought Sima Shi’s army. Later pledged loyalty to Zhuge Dan.

Notes: Originally named Wen Chu (文俶).

Wu Ankuo 武安国
Served Kong Rong. Wielded an iron mace. Maimed by Lü Bu after fighting ten bouts.
吳班 (元雄)
Wu Pan (Yüan-hsiung) 吴班 (元雄)
Vanguard at Yiling, led naval forces. Later senior general, helps defeat Sima Yi.

Notes: Also called Hu Ban in some versions of the novel.

吾粲 (孔休)
Wu Ts‘an (K‘ung-hsiu) 吾粲 (孔休)
Was promoted into office by Sun He. Helped to pacify the Shanyue.
吳敦 (黯奴)
Wu Tun (An-nu) 吴敦 (黯奴)
Bandit leader who would serve under Zang Ba for Lü Bu and Wei.

Notes: Annu, or Black Slave, was his nickname rather then his style.

Wu Kang 吴纲
Adviser to Zhuge Dan. Took Dan’s son to Wu to ensure Wu support.
Wu Kuot‘ai [Lady Wu] 吴国太
Fictional sister to Lady Wu, wife to Sun Jian. Mother figure to Sun Quan and Lady Sun after Lady Wu’s death.

Notes: Either Lady Wu or ‘Lady Wu’s sister’ (chapter 7) in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. You can read more about Wu Guotai’s novel appearances.

Wu Ching 吴景
Lady Wu’s younger brother. Served Sun Jian, then Yuan Shu, then Sun Ce.
吳巨 (元大)
Wu Chü (Yüan-ta) 吴巨 (元大)
Made Prefect of Cangwu through Liu Biao’s backing. Old friend of Liu Bei. Killed by Bu Zhi.
Wu Lan 吴兰
Served Liu Yan and Zhang then Liu Bei. Killed in battle with Cao Zhang.
吳碩 (子蘭)
Wu Shih (Tzŭlan) 吴硕 (子兰)
Part of the ‘Jade Girdle’ plot to kill Cao Cao. Friend of Dong Cheng and Wang Zifu. Executed by Cao.

Notes: In SGZ: Shu 2 a man by the name of Wu Zilan 吳子蘭 is described as one of the conspirators. It is likely that this is Wu Shi, and that Zilan was his style.

Wu 吴押狱
Looked after the jailed Hua Tuo and was given his black bag so he could become a doctor.

Notes: Also called Wu the Gaoler

Wu Yen 伍延
General of the Flying Cavalry, fled when his position was untenable. Du Yu executed him.
吾彥 (士則)
Wu Yen (Shih-tsê) 吾彦 (士则)
Held out in his city of Jianping until Sun Hao surrendered.

Notes: Wu Yang in the translation.

吳懿 (子遠)
Wu I (Tzŭ-yüan) 吴懿 (子远)
Younger sister married Liu Bei, a general of some renown.

Notes: Wu Yi4 (懿) or Yi1 (壹) are both proper.

吳質 (季重)
Wu Chih (Chi-chung) 吴质 (季重)
Helped Cao Pi become heir, used his wits to avoid disaster in the silk hamper affair.
Hsi Ni 奚泥
Defeats Shu army 15 times but it is all a ploy to make Nanman careless.
郤正 (令先)
Hsi Chêng (Ling-hsien) 却正 (令先)
Neither loved nor despised by Huang Hao. Advised Liu Shan in exile, left family behind.
Hsia Yün 夏晖
One of the Ten Regular Attendants, greatly favoured by Dowager Dong and Emperor Ling.

Notes: You may also see him referenced as Xia Hui (‘暉’ can be ‘Hui1’). In this case, we have sided with the Moss Roberts and Brewitt-Taylor translations.

夏侯霸 (仲權)
Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan) 夏侯霸 (仲权)
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
Hsiahou Tê 夏侯德
Dismissed Huang Zhong for seeking battle. Slain by Yan Yan at Tiandang mountain.
夏侯惇 (元讓)
Hsiahou Tun (Yüan-jang) 夏侯惇 (元让)
One of Cao Cao’s original officers, with civil and military talent. Lost an eye in battle.
Hsiahou ên 夏侯恩
Carried Cao Cao’s Blue Blade. Cut down by Zhao Yun at Dangyang as he plundered.
夏侯和 (義權)
Hsiahou Ho (I-ch‘üan) 夏侯和 (义权)
Fourth son of Xiahou Yuan. Fought well against Shu’s Zhuge Liang.
夏侯楙 (子林)
Hsiahou Mao (Tzŭ-lin) 夏侯楙 (子林)
Friend of Cao Pi, not very good at tactics and enjoyed an easy life. Slandered by family.

Notes: Xiahou Mao’s style name was recorded, historically, as Zilin, but Zixiu (子休) is used in the novel.

夏侯尚 (伯仁)
Hsiahou Shang (Po-jên) 夏侯尚 (伯仁)
Captured at Mt. Dingjun, but traded for Chen Shi. Defended against Wu.
夏侯威 (季權)
Hsiahou Wei (Chi-ch‘üan) 夏侯威 (季权)
Campaigned against both Shu and Gongsun Yuan. Recognised Yang Hu’s talent.
Hsiahou Hsien 夏侯咸
General who assisted Zhong Hui in taking Shu. One of Cao Shuang’s co regents.
夏侯玄 (太初)
Hsiahou Hsüan (T‘-ai-ch‘u) 夏侯玄 (太初)
Served Cao Fang. Killed by Sima Shi for plotting against him with Li Fang and Zhang Qi.
夏侯淵 (妙才)
Hsiahou Yüan (Miao-ts‘ai) 夏侯渊 (妙才)
Xiahou Dun’s brother. Famed for his attacks against the western barbarians.
Hsiang Ch‘ung 向宠
Given control of internal military affairs. Died fighting Hanjia barbarians.
Hsiang Yü [Hsiang Chi] 项羽(项籍)
Founder of the state of Chu. Warred with Liu Bang but was defeated.
向朗 (巨達)
Hsiang Lang (Chü-ta) 向朗 (巨达)
Defended rear flank in the northern campaigns. Friend of Ma Su, didn’t report escape attempt.
Hsiao Ch‘iao 小乔
Younger of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Da Qiao. Married to Zhou Yu.

Notes: Xiao (小), in this context, translates to ‘Little’, thus ‘Younger’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Younger Qiao’, the name Xiao Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by KOEI in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

Hsieh Ching 谢旌
Duels Zhang Bao for 40 bouts before retreating. Described as brave, killed by Zhang Bao.
辛敞 (泰雍)
Hsin Ch‘ang (T‘-ai-yung) 辛敞 (泰雍)
An follower of Cao Shuang, his sister warned him to stay loyal.
辛毗 (佐治)
Hsin P‘i (Tso-chih) 辛毗 (佐治)
Sent as envoy to Cao Cao but instead urged Cao Cao to attack the Yuan’s. Hugged by Cao Pi.
辛評 (仲治)
Hsin P‘ing (Chung-chih) 辛评 (仲治)
An officer of Han Fu, he later served the Yuan’s loyally when Fu fled.
Hsin Hsienying 辛宪英
Advised her brother Chang to go to Cao Shuang’s camp, saving his life. Advised Xin Pi and others.
Hsing Taojung 邢道荣
A hardy commander of Liu Du. Killed by Zhao Yun.

Notes: ‘Xing Darong’ in the online version of the novel.

Hsing Chên 邢贞
Quarrelled with Cheng Yu and later got rebuked by Wu officers when he was envoy.
Hsü Ch‘ang 许昌
Raised revolt against the Han but was put down by Zang Min and Sun Jian.
許褚 (仲康)
Hsü Ch‘u (Chung-k‘-ang) 许褚 (仲康)
One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards and a commander. Leader of the Tiger Guard.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Xu Zhu’, but this is incorrect. His nickname, 虎痴 (Hu3 Chi1), has been translated as Marquis Tiger, Crazy Tiger, Mad Tiger, and other variations. He also appears once in the Brewitt-Taylor translation by the nickname Tiger Lust.

許慈 (仁篤)
Hsü Tz‘ŭ (Jên-tu) 许慈 (仁笃)
Expert in teachings of Zheng Xuan. Argued with Hu Qian, controlled Liu Shan’s harem.
Hsü Kung 许贡
Prefect of Wu Territory. Executed by Sun Ce for having relations with Cao Cao.
徐晃 (公明)
Hsü Huang (Kung-ming) 徐晃 (公明)
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
許靖 (文休)
Hsü Ching (Wên-hsiu) 许靖 (文休)
Said to be an able critic. Liu Bei didn’t respect him but Liang always bowed to him.
徐璆 (孟玉)
Hsü Ch‘iu (Mêng-yü) 徐璆 (孟玉)
A scholarly man of utmost honesty, he refused to serve Yuan Shu and returned the imperial seal.

Notes: Also Xu Jiu. Styled Mengyu (孟玉), Mengben (孟本), or Mengping (孟平). Sometimes found as Xu Liu.

Hsü Jung 徐荣
Defeated Cao Cao and Sun Jian in battle, but never able to press it home.
許劭 (子將)
Hsü Shao (Tzŭ-chiang) 许劭 (子将)
A specialist of personalities living in Runan. Praised Cao Cao. Later served Liu Yao.

Notes: Appears in Destiny of an Emperor by the name of Xu Shou. If you say this person’s surname followed by style name it would become “Xu2 Zi3jiang1” because of the third tone after the Xu3.

徐盛 (文嚮)
Hsü Shêng (Wên-hsiang) 徐盛 (文向)
Served in Chibi and Wu’s invasions into Wei. Tricked Cao Pi with a fake wall.
徐庶 (元直)
Hsü Shu (Yüan-chih) 徐庶 (元直)
One of Sima Hui’s students. Served Liu Bei, then later, through trickery, Cao Cao.

Notes: Also went by the name Shan Fu (單福).

Hsü I 许仪
Led the attack on Nanzheng, but was defeated by Shu’s Lu Xun. Executed by Zhong Hui.
許攸 (子遠)
Hsü Yu (Tzŭ-yüan) 许攸 (子远)
Childhood friend of Cao Cao. Betrayed Yuan Shao to Cao, but was killed by Xu Chu.
Hsü Chao [Shao] 许昭[韶]
Son of Xu Chang. Killed by Sun Jian along with his father.

Notes: Xu Hao in the online novel version. Xu Zhao’s name is a bit of a mystery. Xu Chang (probably Xu Zhao’s) staged a rebellion in Kuaiji (or Xu Zhao did) and Xu Zhao was either leader (HHS 102), sole son by the name of Xu Shao, associated leader by the name of Xu Shao (SGZ Wu 1), or two sons named Zhao and Shao. In any case, Xu Zhao 昭 seems most likely as Shao 韶 may have been used in Sanguozhi to avoid a taboo on Sima Zhao’s name.

Hsü Chih 许芝
Minister of Wei. Reccomended Guan Lu to Cao Cao. Later convinced Cao Pi to take the throne.
Hsü Chih 徐质
A general defeated by Jiang Wei, in the novel he defeats Liao Hua and Zhang Yi in duels.

Notes: Called Xu Zi in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

Hsüeh Lan 薛兰
Defeated and killed Li Qian but was defeated and executed himself by Cao Cao a year later.
Hsüeh Li 薛礼
Served Liu Yao with Zhang Ying. Killed by his former ally Ze Rong.
Hsüeh Hsü 薛珝
An envoy to Shu, warned Sun Xiu that Shu was doomed. Led armies against Jin.
薛綜 (敬文)
Hsüeh Tsung (Ching-wên) 薛综 (敬文)
Took part in conquering Vietnam, skilled in debate and composition.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Xue Yong’ in chapter 38 of the online Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

荀諶 (友若)
Hsün Ch‘ên (Yu-jo) 荀谌 (友若)
Younger brother of Xun Yu. Advised Han Fu on administration. Later served Yuan Shao.

Notes: Xun Chen’s name is misrepresented in numerous sources, including: Pinyin Brewitt-Taylor chapter 7 as Xun Chang, chapters 22 and 26 as Xun Shen; Moss Roberts chapter 7 as Xun Chan, chapters 22 and 26 as Xun Shen; Zizhi Tongjian as Xun Shen. And in hoards of sites and games. You will see these mistakes wherever you see the 諶 character.

Hsün Kun 荀绲
Served Yuan Shao then Cao. Son of Xun Shu, father of Xun Yu. One of the ‘Eight Dragons’.
Hsün K‘ai 荀恺
Saved Zhong Hui at Nanzheng by shooting Lu Xun. Popular with the Sima’s.
荀爽 (慈明)
Hsün Shuang (Tz‘ŭ-ming) 荀爽 (慈明)
Fast tracked by Dong Zhuo, he calmed Zhuo down when Yang Biao angered him.

Notes: Also known as Xun Xu.

荀勗 (公曾)
Hsün Hsü (Kung-ts‘êng) 荀勗 (公曾)
Child prodigy, warned against Zhong Hui and opposed invasion of Wu. A jealous man.
荀顗 (景倩)
Hsün I (Ching-ch‘ien) 荀顗 (景倩)
Was sent by Sima Zhao to fetch Chen Tai after Cao Mao’s death. Senior minister.
荀攸 (公達)
Hsün Yu (Kung-ta) 荀攸 (公达)
Advisor of Cao Cao. Xun Yu’s cousin. Died grieving Cao Cao’s interest in being Duke.

Notes: His name is pronounced differently from Xun Yu’s.

荀彧 (文若)
Hsün Yü (Wên-jo) 荀彧 (文若)
Cousin of Xun You, a very talented advisor under Cao Cao. Commited suicide.

Notes: The reason we have Xun Yu and Xun “You” is because, though the sounds are the same (both Yu), they’re pronounced Yu4 and Yu1, the You idea, I suppose, comes in for foreign readers who cannot see the tones.

Yatan 雅丹
Fictional. Prime Minister to King Cheliji of the Western Qiang.

Notes: Frequently written ‘Ya Dan’.

Yen Paihu [White Tiger Yen] 严白虎
Fought with Sun Ce, but was defeated. Killed by Dong Xi.

Notes: ‘白虎’ translates to ‘White Tiger’, thus his alleged Chinese name of Yan Baihu actually reads ‘White Tiger of Yan’, as he appears in several English books. Yan Baihu was recorded in history by his nickname. His real name, if he actually had one, is unknown.

Yen Kang 严纲
Officer of Gongsun Zan. Led Zan’s army at Jieqiao, but was killed by Qu Yi.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Yan Guang’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

嚴畯 (曼才)
Yen Chün (Man-ts‘ai) 严畯 (曼才)
Refused appointment as Lu Su’s successor. He was unable to ride a horse.
Yen Liang 颜良
A fierce general in service under Yuan Shao. Beheaded by Guan Yu.
Yen P‘u 阎圃
Advised Zhang Lu on the defence against Cao Cao, stopped Lu becoming King.

Notes: Also called Yan Fu.

Yen Hsiang 阎象
Senior member of Yuan Shu’s staff. Objected to Yuan Shu’s plans to assume the imperial title.
Yen Yen 严颜
Served Liu Zhang, but surrendered to Zhang Fei after being defeated by him.
Yen Yü 严舆
Killed by an enraged Sun Ce after suggesting that Sun Ce join Yan Baihu.

Notes: Also said to be Yan Xing in Dynasty Tactics 2.

閻宇 (文平)
Yen Yü (Wên-p‘ing) 阎宇 (文平)
A respected figure in Shu, given command of the south. In novel, becomes Huang Hao’s man.

Notes: Yan Yu’s name is incorrectly translated in the Brewitt-Taylor as ‘Yan Yun’.

Yen Chêng 严政
Officer of Zhang Bao. Killed Bao when defeat was inevitable.
Yen Chih 阎芝
Reinforced Liu Bei after Yiling, died at Hanzhong when at service with Zhuge Liang.
Yang Ang 杨昂
Fought under Ma Chao and aided Zhang Wei in building strong defences against Cao Cao.
Yang Piao 杨彪
Stripped of rank and banished by both Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao. Drove Li Jue and Guo Si apart.
Yang Po 杨柏
Jealous of Ma Chao, prevented marriage alliance between Zhang Lu and Ma Chao.
Yang Ch‘ou 杨丑
Killed his former lord Zhang Yang, for Cao Cao, but in turn was killed by Sui Gu.
Yang Fêng 杨奉
Betrayed Li Jue to help Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu then Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
Yang Fêng 杨锋
Man chieftain. Ally of Meng Huo, who later betrayed to help Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Yang Fang’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

楊阜 (義山)
Yang Fu (I-shan) 杨阜 (义山)
Helped defeat Ma Chao. Criticized Cao Rui’s extravagance in clothing, buildings and woman.
楊洪 (季休)
Yang Hung (Chi-hsiu) 杨洪 (季休)
Argued with Li Yan, urged Zhuge Liang to follow orders and raise all forces for Hanzhong.
羊祜 (叔子)
Yang Hu (Shu-tzŭ) 羊祜 (叔子)
A talented Jin officer. Held Xiang Yang. Formed a friendship with Lu Kang of Wu.
Yang Huai 杨怀
Officer of Liu Zhang. Executed after an attempt to assassinate Liu Bei.
Yang Chi 杨济
Champion General under Jin. Controlled the field armies during the invasion of Wu.
Yang Chi 杨稷
Close offical of Cao Rui, respected Liu Ye. Opposed camapign against Shu.
Yang Mi 杨密
Imperial Corps Commander. Persuaded Guo Si not to kill Yang Biao.
Yang Ch‘i 杨琦
Advised through Li Jue and Guo Si’s abuse, recommended Jia Xu. Plotted against Li Jue.
Yang Ch‘iu 杨秋
Sent by Han Sui to Cao Cao as an envoy of peace. Surrendered when under siege.
Yang Ch‘ün 阳群
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Yang Jên 杨任
Fought well against Cao Cao’s forces at Yangping, lured out and killed in battle.

Notes: He is called Yan Ren in the online version of the novel and possibly in other sources.

Yang Sung 杨松
Vassal of Zhang Lu. Known to be greedy, he betrayed Zhang Lu.
Yang Hsin 杨欣
Served Wei. District Governor of Jincheng before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
楊修 (德祖)
Yang Hsiu (Tê-tsu) 杨修 (德祖)
A talented scholar and friend of Cao Zhi, helped Zhi cheat Cao Cao’s tests.
楊儀 (威公)
Yang I (Wei-kung) 杨仪 (威公)
Opposed old enemy Wei Yan. Later later stripped of rank for dissensitoius words.
Yang Tso 杨祚
Goes with Bei Yan and makes strong camp, suggests waiting for Sima Yi to retreat.
I Yin 伊尹
Honored official of the Shang Dynasty. Helped Tang of Shang to defeat King Jie of Xia.
Yin Tamu 尹大目
Tried to stop Wen Qin during Guanqiu Jian’s rebellion, but failed.
Yin Fêng (Tzŭ-tsêng) 尹奉
A man of respected family, he played a part in driving away Ma Chao.
Yin K‘ai 尹楷
Mantained supplies for Yuan Shang. Killed by Xu Chu in the novel.
Yin K‘uei 殷馗
An expert in astrology, he predicted a Perfect Man would rise, later thought to mean Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Yin Ku’ in chapter 32 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation; likely a typo as he is Yin Kui elsewhere.

Yin Li [Lu’êrh] 尹礼[卢儿]
A bandit leader, he later helped Zang Ba against the Yuan’s. Called Black Boy.

Notes: Lu’er, which translates to ‘Black Boy’, was his nickname.

尹默 (思潛)
Yin Mo (Ssŭ-ch‘ien) 尹默 (思潜)
Learnt from Sima Hui, had great knowledge of the classics, appointed tutor of Liu Shan.
Yin Shang 尹赏
Friend of Jiang Wei in Tianshui. Surrendered Tianshui to Shu, made Prefect of Jicheng.
應劭 (仲瑗)
Ying Shao (Chung-yüan) 应劭 (仲瑗)
His historical work remain an important source of information on Later Han.

Notes: Called Ling Shao in the Shi Yu.

Yung K‘ai 雍闓
Along with Gao Ding and Zhu Bao, rebelled in Southern Yizhou.
虞翻 (仲翔)
Yü Fan (Chung-hsiang) 虞翻 (仲翔)
Advisor to Wang Lang. Surrendered to Sun Ce. Convinced Mi Fang, Fu Shiren to defect to Wu.
于禁 (文則)
Yü Chin (Wên-tsê) 于禁 (文则)
Served Cao Cao. Surrendered to Guan Yu. Shamed by Cao Pi into suicide.
Yü Mi 于麋
An officer of Liu Yao. Defeated in a duel with Sun Ce and died.
Yü Ch‘üan 于诠
Served as commander in Wu during Sun Liang’s reign. Helped support Zhuge Dan.
Yü Jang 豫让
Assassin from the Warring States period. Disfigured himself to avenge Zhi Yao.
Yü Shê 俞涉
Served as a commander under Yuan Shu. Killed by Hua Xiong.
袁逢 (周陽)
Yüan Fêng (Chou-yang) 袁逢 (周阳)
Father of Yuan Shu and possibly Yuan Shao. Minister of Agriculture in service to Han.
袁尚 (顯甫)
Yüan Shang (Hsien-fu) 袁尚 (显甫)
A handsome man, won his father’s favor but lost to Cao Cao. Executed by Gongsun Kang.
Yüan Shao 爰邵
Guard of Deng Ai. Versed in the Book of Changes, he predicts Deng Ai’s success and fall.

Notes: Sometimes called Shao Yuan, likely to differentiate from his more famous namesake. Dispite the fact that they are different Han Zi, Yuan Shao of Wei’s name is pronounced exactly the same as the more commonly known Yuan2 Shao4 [Benchu]

袁紹 (本初)
Yüan Shao (Pên-ch‘u) 袁绍 (本初)
Childhood friend, and later enemy of, Cao Cao. Defeated at Guandu.
袁術 (公路)
Yüan Shu (Kung-lu) 袁术 (公路)
Relative of Yuan Shao. Declared himself Emperor, but soon after died.
袁譚 (顯思)
Yüan T‘an (Hsien-ssŭ) 袁谭 (显思)
A famed general but a poor governor, fought against Shang for the succession.
Yüan Wei (Tz‘ŭ-yang) 袁隗
A famed minister, aided He Jin’s avengers. Killed by a vengeful Dong Zhuo.
袁熙 (顯奕)
Yüan Hsi (Hsien-i) 袁熙 (显奕)
Eventually took in Shang, driven out by revolt. Executed by Gongsun Kang.
袁遺 (伯業)
Yüan I (Po-yeh) 袁遗 (伯业)
Admired by Zhang Chao and Cao Cao. Defeated by Yuan Shu and killed by his own men.
Yüan Yin 袁胤
Defended Yuan Shu’s belongings after Shu’s death, but was killed by Cao Cao.
Yüeh Ch‘ên 乐綝
Served Wei. Son of Yue Jin. Campaigned against Shu with Cao Zhen. Executed by Zhuge Dan.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Yue Shen’ in some Koei games, and on rare occasion referenced as ‘Yue Lin’.

樂進 (文謙)
Yüeh Chin (Wên-ch‘ien) 乐进 (文谦)
Served Cao Cao from the beginning. Shot from his horse by Gan Ning. Small-framed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as Yue Jing in some Brewitt-Taylor editions. Yue Jin is also sometimes translated as Le Jin (and in Destiny of an Emperor they somehow botched it up further to Le Xin).

Yüeh Chiu 乐就
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
Yüeh I 乐毅
Minister of the states of Zhao and Yan in the Warring States era. Also known as Lord Guojun.

Notes: Also known as ‘Lord Guojun’.

Yüehchi 越吉
Fictional. Marshal under King Cheliji of the Western Qiang. Killed by Guan Xing.

Notes: Frequently written ‘Yue Ji’.

Yün Ying 云英
Concubine of Dong Cheng. Her interactions with Qin Qingtong got Cheng killed.
臧霸 (宣高)
Tsang Pa (Hsüan-kao) 臧霸 (宣高)
Originally served Tao Qian, then Lü Bu. Later joined Cao Cao.
Tsang Min 臧旻
Governor of Kuaiji. Recommended Sun Jian to the court after Jian quelled Xu Chang’s rebellion.
Tsê Jung 笮融
Buddhist, fought against Sun Ce, had a record of betrayal and murder.

Notes: Also referred to as Zhai Rong in Generals of the South. As well as To Establish Peace.

Chang Pao 张宝
Yellow Scarves leader and Zhang Jue’s brother. Self-titled ‘Lord of Earth’.

Notes: Zhang Ba in the online version of the novel.

Chang Pao 张苞
Fought against Wei and Wu, killing many generals. Died in the Northern Campaigns.

Notes: Sometimes ‘苞’ is translated as Pao, thus Zhang Pao. We continue to use Bao.

Chang Pu 张布
With Puyang Xing, enthroned Sun Hao over Wen. Executed Sun Chen with Ding Feng.
Chang Ch‘ao 张超
Was a member of the anti-Dong Zhuo coalition, held out for months against Cao Cao.
張承 (仲嗣)
Chang Ch‘êng (Chung-ssŭ) 张承 (仲嗣)
Friend of Zhuge Jin among others. Sent with Sun Shao to Guangling to capture Huaiyang.
Chang Ch‘un 张纯
Passed over for promotion, he led the Wuhuan in revolt. After initial success, Liu Yu turned up and Chun was betrayed.
Chang Ta 张达
Officer of Zhang Fei, he was beaten harshly so murdered Zhang Fei then fled to Wu.
Chang Tang 張當
Gave Cao Shuang woman from the Imperial Harem. Implicated others as traitors.
張飛 (益德)
Chang Fei (I-tê) 张飞 (益德)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Guan Yu. Second of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Sanguozhi records Zhang Fei’s style as 益 (yi4: ‘benefit’ or ‘increase’) rather than 翼 (yi4: ‘wing’), as used in the novel, games, and most literature.

張郃 (儁乂)
Chang Ho (Chün-i) 张郃 (儁乂)
Originally under Yuan Shao, defected to Wei. Died battling Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Apparently, Zhang He is misspelled ‘Zhang Yue’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Chang Hêng 张横
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights.

Notes: For some reason poor Zhang Heng is listed incorrectly in several sources. Some Chinese versions of the novel have him as ‘長橫’ (‘長’ chang2 instead of ‘張’ zhang1). As if that isn’t enough, some Brewitt-Taylor translations list him as Zhang Han—no idea why.

張紘 (子綱)
Chang Hung (Tzŭ-kang) 张紘 (子纲)
Minister who served Wu. Suggested changing the capital to Sun Quan.
Chang Hu 张虎
Son of Zhang Liao. Defended against Zhuge Liang along with Yue Chen.
Chang Hu [Tiger Chang] 张虎
Marched out with Huang Zu to oppose Sun Jian. Killed by Han Dang after 30 bouts.

Notes: ‘Zhang Hui’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

張華 (茂先)
Chang Hua (Mao-hsien) 张华 (茂先)
Played Go with Sima Yan, approved invasion of Wu. Talented poet, became Prime Minister.
Chang Chi 张济
Junior partner under Li Jue, attacks Liu Biao in bid for supplies but dies due to arrow.
張既 (德容)
Chang Chi (Tê-jung) 张既 (德容)
Persuaded Ma Teng to help Cao Cao, he was a major part in the pacification of Liang.
張儉 (元節)
Chang Chien (Yüan-chieh) 张俭 (元节)
Much admired, thousands of people died helping him flee. Aware of Cao Cao’s ambitions.
Chang Chieh 张节
Minister of Wei who was executed by Sima Yan when he usurped the throne.
Chang Chü 张举
Led revolt against the Han, he ravaged the northeast and declared himself ruler.
Chang Chüeh or Chiao 张角
Founder of the Yellow Scarves. Self-titled ‘Lord of Heaven’.

Notes: Written ‘Zhang Jiao’ (角 can be pronounced as both Jue and Jiao) at times (particularly by Koei) and as Zhang Jao in Destiny of an Emperor. The audio file says “Zhang Zue”, followed by “Jiao3”

Chang Chün 张钧
Blamed the Yellow Turban revolt on the eunuchs. Arrested and flogged on false charges.
Chang K‘ai 张闿
Entered Tao Qian’s service after the Yellow Scarf uprising. Killed Cao Cao’s family.
Chang Liang 张梁
Yellow Scarves leader and Zhang Jue’s brother. Self-titled ‘Lord of Man’.

Notes: Zhang Lian in the online version of the novel.

張良 (子房)
Chang Liang (Tzŭ-fang) 张良 (子房)
Western Han. Renowned strategist and statesman. One of the “Three Heroes of the early Han Dynasty.”
張遼 (文遠)
Chang Liao (Wên-yüan) 张辽 (文远)
Served in Wei after Cao Cao defeated Lü Bu. Close friend of Guan Yu.
張魯 (公祺)
Chang Lu (Kung-ch‘i) 张鲁 (公祺)
Controller of Hanzhong before surrendering to Cao Cao in 215.
Chang Mao (Yen-ts‘ai) 张茂
Remonstrated with Cao Rui over Rui’s building works, put to death.
Chang Mi 张弥
Envoy to Gongsun Yuan, an idea Zhang Zhao protested against, executed by Yuan.
張邈 (孟卓)
Chang Miao (Mêng-cho) 张邈 (孟卓)
Friend of Yuan Shao and Cao Cao, rebelled against Cao Cao. Killed by his own men later on.
Chang Nan 张南
Claimed ability on the waters, but was just a braggart. Killed by Zhou Tai.

Notes: ‘Zhang Neng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to differentiate from Zhang Nan of Shu.

張南 (文進)
Chang Nan (Wên-chin) 张南 (文进)
Commander of the vanguard against Wu, killed in the defeat that followed.
張嶷 (伯岐)
Chang Ni or Chang I (Po-ch‘i) 张嶷 (伯岐)
Wounded by Wang Shuang. Died rescuing Jiang Wei, suffered from arthritis.

Notes: 張嶷 is commonly translated as both Zhang Yi and Zhang Ni. Zhang Ni is perhaps the most common translation, likely to disambiguate from other Zhang Yis, but both are accepted.

Chang Niu-chiao 张牛角
Bandit leader. After his death from a flying dart, command of his force passed to Zhang Yan.

Notes: Niujiao means “ox horn”.

Chang P‘u 张普
Served under Cao Xiu. Defeated by Xu Sheng, killed by Zhu Huan.
張緝 (敬仲)
Chang Ch‘i (Ching-chung) 张缉 (敬仲)
Executed by Sima Shi for plotting to remove Shi with Cao Fang. Predicted Zhuge Ke would die.
Chang Ch‘iu 张球
Served Cao Rui, sent to set a fire trap against Wu, burning many ships.
Chang Jang 张让
Most influential of the Ten Regular Attendants. Drowned himself to avoid capture.
Chang Jên 张任
Remained loyal to Liu Zhang. Executed by Liu Bei. In novel, Pang Tong died in his ambush.
Chang Shang 张尚
General of Jin who killed Lu Jing.
Chang Shihp‘ing 张世平
Horse trader from Zhongshan with Su Shuang. Supplied Liu Bei’s first armed force.
Chang Shuang 张爽
Took part in pushing Liu Bei to become emperor.
張松 (永年)
Chang Sung (Yung-nien) 张松 (永年)
Officer of Liu Zhang and Shu. Aided Liu Bei in Ba-Shu. Angered Cao Cao in Sanguo Yanyi.
Chang Su 张肃
Governor of Guanghan, discovered the treachery of his brother Zhang Song and warned Liu Zhang.
張特 (子產)
Chang T‘o (Tzŭ-ch‘an) 张特 (子产)
Commanded the defence of Xincheng when it was under attack by Zhuge Ke.
Chang T‘i (Chü-hsien) 张悌
Wu’s last Prime Minister. Refused surrender to Jin and marched out to die on the battlefield.
Chang Wei 张卫
Zhang Lu’s younger brother. Beheaded after a brilliant battle with Xu Chu.
張溫 (惠恕)
Chang Wên (Po-shên) 张温 (惠恕)
First ever Han Excellency appointed when out of the capital, struggled to deal with Han Sui.
Chang Wên (Hui-shu) 张温
Was an admired man of moral quality, sacked for recommending an overzealous friend.
Chang Wu 张武
Began pillaging the people of Jiangxia. Zhao Yun killed him with a spear thrust.
Chang Hsiang 张象
Wu Leader of the Van who surrendered to Jin.
Chang Hsiu 张绣
He fought Cao Cao after he took Zhang Ji’s widow as a wife. Served Wei with distinction.
張休 (叔嗣)
Chang Hsiu (Shu-ssŭ) 张休 (叔嗣)
Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Gu Tan, and Chen Biao. Lost faction struggle.
Chang Hsün 张勋
Fought against Lü Bu but was betrayed by Yang Feng. Escorts Yuan family south.
Chang Yen 张燕
Leader of the Black Mountain Bandits. Tried but failed to aid Gongsun Zan.

Notes: His surname at birth was Chu (褚). Many Black Mountain Bandits had nicknames. Zhang Yan‘s was ’Flying Swallow Yan.’ In the past we have noted his style name as Zijie (子節), but have removed the name due to a lack of historic confirmation.

張楊 (稚叔)
Chang Yang (Chih-shu) 张杨 (稚叔)
A good and generous man, attempted to aid Emperor Xian but wasn’t trusted by other generals.
Chang I 张仪
Strategist from the Warring States period. Born in the State of Wei. See also Su Qin.
張翼 (伯恭)
Chang I (Po-kung) 张翼 (伯恭)
Urged Jiang Wei to concentrate on internal affairs. Strict governor, it caused revolt.
張裔 (君嗣)
Chang I (Chün-ssŭ) 张裔 (君嗣)
Looked after affairs when Zhuge Liang was at war. Held hostage by Wu.
Chang I 张顗
Killed by Gan Ning as he cleared the road ahead for Cao Cao. Historically not at Chibi.

Notes: ‘Zhang Zi’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish among others named Zhang Yi.

Chang Yin 张音
Prepared Emperor Xian’s abdication to Cao Pi.
Chang Ying 张英
Served Liu Yao with Xue Li. Lost in battle to Sun Ce twice. Killed by Chen Wu.
Chang Yüeh 张约
Officer who served in Zhuge Ke’s personal police force. Killed by Sun Jun.
Chang Yün 张允
Surrendered to Cao Cao with Cai Mao. Served as Cao’s Vice Admiral at Chibi.
張昭 (子布)
Chang Chao (Tzŭ-pu) 张昭 (子布)
Served Wu. Highly trusted internal administrator.

Notes: Sometimes written Zhang Zao.

Chang Chungching 张仲景
Also known as Zhang Ji. Famous physician from the Eastern Han Dynasty.

Notes: Also commonly known as Zhang Ji (張機).

Chao Ts‘ên 赵岑
Occupied River Si Pass for Dong Zhuo. Retreated when Dong Zhuo abandoned Luoyang.
Chao Fan 赵范
Offered his sister-in-law to Zhao Yun, who refused as Yun doubted Fan’s loyalty.
Chao Kuang 赵广
Died during an expedition under Jiang Wei.
Chao Hung 赵弘
Fought with Zhu Jun at Wan, held out for eight months but was killed by Sun Jian.
Chao Lei 赵累
Said to be loyal and trust-worthy, he died fighting Wu with Guan Yu and Guan Ping.
Chao Ch‘ü 赵衢
Shut Ma Chao out of Hanyang and murdered his family, became a general.
Chao T‘ung 赵统
Eldest son of Zhao Yun. Inherited his father’s title.
趙雲 (子龍)
Chao Yün (Tzŭ-lung) 赵云 (子龙)
Served Shu. Highly trusted by Liu Bei. Fourth of the Five Tiger Generals.
Chao Chung 赵忠
Emperor Ling considered him as a mother, slandered Huangfu Song, Lu Qiang and Fu Xie.
Chao Tzŭ (Tê-tu) 赵姿
A man of wide learning, he was sent to offer thanks for Quan being made king, using it as an occasion to praise Wu.
Chêng Wên 郑文
Officer under Sima Yi. Falsesly surrendered to Kongming. Executed by Kongming.

Notes: Commonly listed as Deng Wen 邓文. Confusion may be the cause: zheng4 鄭/郑 vs deng4 鄧/邓.

鄭玄 (康成)
Chêng Hsüan (K‘-ang-ch‘êng) 郑玄 (康成)
Loved wine, a leading scholar of his day but hated court life. Had many students.
鍾會 (士季)
Chung Hui (Shih-chi) 锺会 (士季)
Close adviser of Sima Zhao. Later plotted rebellion and was killed by mutinous troops.
Chung Chin 钟缙
Used a large axe but was dismounted by Zhao Yun.
Chung Ching 钟进
Went to inspect a gate of Chang’an, he was was cut down by Pang De.

Notes: Called Zhong Jin in some translations of the novel.

Chung Shên 钟绅
Had half his head cut off by Zhao Yun as Shen pursued the Shu general.
鍾繇 (元常)
Chung Yao (Yüan-ch‘ang) 钟繇 (元常)
Famous calligrapher. Stirred up quarrel between Han Sui and Ma Teng, close to Cao Pi.
鍾毓 (稚叔)
Chung Yü (Chih-shu) 钟毓 (稚叔)
A senior law officer, warned Sima Zhao about his brother’s untrustworthy nature.
周毖 (仲遠)
Chou Pi (Chung-yüan) 周毖 (仲远)
Executed for bad advice, Dong Zhuo later regretted it. Protected Yuan Shao and acted as his agent.
Chou Ts‘ang 周仓
Yellow Scarves leader turned subordinate of Guan Yu. Fictional.
周魴 (子魚)
Chou Fang (Tzŭ-yü) 周鲂 (子鱼)
Trapped Cao Xiu, allowing the Wu army to score a great victory.
Chou Huan (Wên-ming) 周奂
Part of Wang Yun’s government, killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Chou P‘ing 周平
Went to aid Xia Xun but was disconcerted by his death and slain by Guan Xing.
周群 (仲直)
Chou Ch‘ün (Chung-chih) 周群 (仲直)
Predicted the Han’s fall, Liu Biao’s death, success with pain at Hanzhong among others.
Chou Shan 周善
Took part in the kidnap plot against Liu Shan and Lady Sun but was killed by Zhang Fei.
Chou T‘ai 州泰
Wei governor in Yue territory. Helped to secure victory against Zhuge Dan.
周泰 (幼平)
Chou T‘ai (Yu-p‘ing) 周泰 (幼平)
Wu officer who Saved Sun Quan’s life, and was loved dearly in return.
周昕 (大明)
Chou Hsin (Ta-ming) 周昕 (大明)
Well read, he resigned his position rather then have Yuan Shu to harm his people.
Chou Hsün 周循
The eldest son of Zhou Yu. Said to have inherited his father’s ability, but died at age 17.
Chou Yin 周胤
The second son of Zhou Yu. Exiled for misdeeds, later pardoned.
周瑜 (公瑾)
Chou Yü (Kung-chin) 周瑜 (公瑾)
Skilled war commander of Wu. Commanded Wu forces at the Battle of Chibi.
Chou Chih 周旨
Fought against Wu. Ambushes and kills Sun Xin then kills Shen Rong in a raid.
Chu Pao 朱褒
Rebelled against Shu with Yong Kai and Gao Ding. Killed when Gao Ding defected.
Chu Ên 朱恩
Officer who served in Zhuge Ke’s personal police force.
Chu Fang 朱芳
General of Wang Jing, one of four sent to attack Jiang Wei, they are defeated.
Chu Kuang 朱光
Set up farms at Huan and provoked riots against Wu but Sun Quan attacked and took the city.
朱桓 (休穆)
Chu Huan (Hsiu-mu) 朱桓 (休穆)
Possibly a little mad, murdered the servants of Quan Yi. Destroyed Cao Ren at Ruxu.
朱儁 (公偉)
Chu Chün (Kung-wei) 朱儁 (公伟)
Han minister who fought against the Yellow Scarves with Liu Bei and Sun Jian.
朱靈 (文博)
Chu Ling (Wên-po) 朱灵 (文博)
Said to be disliked by Cao Cao, his reputation was equal that of Xu Huang’s.
朱然 (義封)
Chu Jan (I-fêng) 朱然 (义封)
Served Wu. Was the son of Zhu Zhi’s sister. Studied together with Sun Quan.
朱異 (季文)
Chu I (Chi-wên) 朱异 (季文)
A general of Wu and the son of Zhu Huan. Executed by Sun Chen for numerous defeats.
Chu Tsan 朱讚
Officer of Cao Zhen, sent to raid the Shu camp but failed. Killed by Zhao Yun.
朱治 (君理)
Chu Chih (Chün-li) 朱治 (君理)
Served through three generations of the Sun family. Magistrate in Wu County.
Chuang Tzŭ [Nan Hua] 莊子[南华]
Old Taoist Sage from Mt. Hua that gave Zhang Jue the Way of Peace (太平要術).

Notes: Though frequently presented under the proper name, Zhuang Zi (莊子), the literal text presents his name as “The Nanhua Immortal” (南華真人). This is sometimes simplified to ‘Nanhua’ or ‘Nan Hua’ (南華), which is not correct. Zhuang Zi is none other than the famous Taoist sage from the Warring States period, and with this in mind, you may also see him listed, of course, as Chang Tzu (Wade-Giles), Zhuang Zhou (莊周) (his given name), Meng Official (蒙吏), Meng Zhuang (蒙莊), and Meng Elder (蒙叟). He also appears in some Koei games as ‘Nan Hua’.

諸葛誕 (公休)
Chuko Tan (Kung-hsiu) 诸葛诞 (公休)
Zhuge Liang’s cousin. Tried to rebel against Sima Zhao, but was executed.
諸葛豐 (少季)
Chuko Fêng (Shao-chi) 诸葛丰 (少季)
Commander in the Western Han Dynasty. Ancestor of Zhuge Liang.
諸葛珪 (子貢)
Chuko Kuei (Tzŭ-kung) 诸葛珪 (子贡)
Zhuge Liang’s father. Descended from Zhuge Feng. Governor’s deputy in Taishan.

Notes: His style is entered in the Sanguozhi as Jungong (君貢) but in Sanguo Yanyi as Zigong (子貢). Jungong is likely correct as it stems from Sanguozhi. We are looking into this.

諸葛瑾 (子瑜)
Chuko Chin (Tzŭ-yü) 诸葛瑾 (子瑜)
Zhuge Liang’s older brother in service to Wu. Highly trusted by Sun Quan.
Chuko Ching (Chung-ssŭ) 诸葛靚
Sent to Wu as a hostage, he became a prominent commander under Sun Hao.
Chuko Chün 诸葛均
Zhuge Liang’s younger brother, worked his way up in Shu.
諸葛恪 (元遜)
Chuko K‘o (Yüan-hsün) 诸葛恪 (元逊)
Served Wu as Imperial Guardian. Son of Zhuge Jin. Murdered by Sun Jun.
諸葛亮 (孔明)
Chuko Liang (K‘ung-ming) 诸葛亮 (孔明)
Mastermind of Shu’s rise as a great power. Also known as ‘Sleeping Dragon’.

Notes: Also known by his nickname, ‘Sleeping Dragon’ or ‘Wo Long’ (臥龍). His original novel introduction, with Pang Tong, comes under this title.

Chuko Ch‘ien 诸葛虔
Subordinate of Chang Diao in an attack on Zhu Huan.
Chuko Shang 诸葛尚
Died with his father on the battlefield against Deng Ai at only nineteen years old.
諸葛靚 (仲思)
Chuko Ching (Chung-ssu) 诸葛靓 (仲思)
Discusses plans of defence but on seeing Jin army, runs away weeping.
Chuko Hsü 诸葛绪
Imperial Inspector of Yongzhou before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
Chuko Hsüan 诸葛玄
Served Yuan Shu as Grand Administrator of Yuzhang. Later driven out by Zhu Hao.
諸葛瞻 (思遠)
Chuko Chan (Ssŭ-yüan) 诸葛瞻 (思远)
Zhuge Liang’s son. Died along with his son defending Shu from Deng Ai.
Tsung Pao 宗宝
Slain in a few bouts by the Yellow Turban general Guan Hai.
宗預 (德艷)
Tsung Yü (Tê-yen) 宗预 (德艳)
Shu official. Sent to Wu to ask about Wu’s increased border guard after Zhuge Liang died.
Tsou Ching 邹靖
Served as Commandant under Liu Yan. Fought the Yellow Scarves with Liu Bei.

Notes: ‘Zhou Jing’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor Translation.

Tsu Pi 祖弼
Keeper of the Imperial Seal under Emperor Xian. Executed before Xian was deposed.
Tsu Lang 祖郎
Chieftain of Danyang. Defeated Sun Ce but later joined his army.
祖茂 (大榮)
Tsu Mao (Ta-jung) 祖茂 (大荣)
One of Sun Jian’s first four commanders. Tricked Hua Xiong in order to save Sun Jian’s life.
左慈 (元放)
Tso Tz‘ŭ (Yüan-fang) 左慈 (元放)
Taoist named ‘Master Black Horn’. Trained in the occult at Emei Mountain.

Notes: Rafe de Crespigny calls him Zuo Ce.

Tso Fêng 左丰
Eunuch of Han. Sent to evaluate Lu Zhi. Demanded a bribe, then lied about his merit.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Zhuo Feng’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Tso Ling 左灵
At Li Jue’s orders, with Jia Xu, restrained Emperor Xian. Slandered Duan Wei.
Tso Hsien 左咸
Reminds Sun Quan of how well Cao Cao treated Guan Yu, to no avail.



Novel and History

Officers and Kingdoms

Literature and Language


March 7, 2014