Related Historic People: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).
Browse our Three Kingdoms database alphabetically, by kingdom, or with a custom search.
Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.
|General of Qin, rumored to have been undefeated. Conquered the state of Chu.|
|God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Beidou (in Big Dipper).|
|Historically, a statesman of Chu. Discovered the jade from which the imperial seal was crafted.|
|Prime Minister under Liu Bang. Ancestor of Cao Cao.|
Notes: Sometimes Romanized ‘Cao Can’.
|Former Han. A minister who served under Liu Bang.|
|Chen Shou (Chengzuo)||陳壽 (承祚)|
|Ch‘ên Shou (Ch‘êng-tso)||陈寿 (承祚)|
|Served Shu and later Jin. Author of the highly-respected Three Kingdoms history, Sanguozhi.|
|Chong’er [Duke Wen of Jin]||重耳[晉文公]|
|Ch‘ung’êrh [Duke Wên of Chin]||重耳[晋文公]|
|Spring and Autumn Period. Chong’er, literally “Double Ears”, came to lead state of Jin.|
Notes: ‘Er Chong’ in the Moss Roberts novel translation. ‘Er Chong’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. “Chong’er” literally translates to ‘Double Ears’, though there is no historic basis pointing out that he had unusual ears.
|Ancient Chinese Emperor. One of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Ruled for a half-century.|
Notes: Born Yao Chonghua (姚重華). Other names include Youyu-shi (有虞氏), the Great Shun (大舜) and Yu Shun (虞舜).
|Spring and Autumn Period. Advisor in the state of Yue. Resigned after Yue defeated Wu.|
|The first of three noble emperors, the San Huang, in Chinese mythology.|
|Historic reference from chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.|
|Guan Yiwu (Zhong)||管夷吾 (仲)|
|Kuan Iwu (Chung)||管夷吾 (仲)|
|Famed prime minister of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn period.|
|Reknowned commander who served Xiang Yu and later Liu Bang. Rose from a childhood of destitution.|
|Jiang Ziya [Lü Wang] (Ziya)||姜子牙[呂望] (子牙)|
|Chiang Tzŭya [Lü Wang] (Tzŭ-ya)||姜子牙[吕望] (子牙)|
|Zhou Dynasty. Legendary historical figure. Resided by the Weishu River 3,000 years ago.|
Notes: Lü Wang is most commonly referred to as ‘Jiang Ziya’ a combination of his ancestral name, Jiang (姓), and his style name, Ziya (子牙). ‘Lü Wang’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ‘Jiang Ziya’ in Warriors Orochi 2.
|Lady Xi Shi||西施夫人|
|Lady Hsi Shih||西施夫人|
|Spring and Autumn Period. One of the Four Beauties of Ancient China. Lived in Zhuji, capital of Yue.|
|Chief Clerk to Dong Zhuo. A famous historian who authored the Lingdi Ji.|
Notes: ‘Liu Cai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.
|Liu Bang [Gaozu]||劉邦[高祖]|
|Liu Pang [Kaotsu]||刘邦[高祖]|
|Founder of the Han dynasty. Fought with Xiang Yu for control of China and eventually won.|
Notes: Also known by his temple name, Emperor Gaozu of Han. Originally Liu Ji (劉季). Emperor Gao (高帝). Gao Huangdi (高皇帝).
|Liu Bei’s father. Son of Liu Xiong, said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.|
Notes: His given name was originally Shan (山) and later Yi (義).
|Mathematician and cartographer of the Wei Dynasty. He obtained a more precise value of Pi, and edited the “The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art”|
|Liu Bei’s ancestor. Prince of Jing of Zhongshan. Son of Emperor Jing of Han.|
|Liu Bei’s grandfather. Said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.|
|Luo Ben (Guanzhong)||羅本 (貫中)|
|Lo Pên (Kuan-chung)||罗本 (贯中)|
|Better known as Luo Guanzhong. Credited for having authored the Sanguo yanyi.|
Notes: In discussion and reference his style name is nearly always used, hence ‘Luo Guanzhong’.
|Mao Lun (Shengshan)||毛綸 (聲山)|
|Mao Lun (Shêng-shan)||毛纶 (声山)|
|Father of Mao Zonggang. One of two authors behind the Mao edition of Sanguo yanyi.|
|Mao Zonggang (Xushi)||毛宗崗 (序始)|
|Mao Tsungkang (Hsü-shih)||毛宗岗 (序始)|
|Son of Mao Lun. One of two authors behind the Mao edition of Sanguo yanyi.|
|Mencius [Meng Ke]||孟子[孟軻]|
|Chinese philosopher. Often considered to the most famous Confucian outside Confucius himself.|
Notes: Rarely referenced as Meng Ke (sometimes Meng Ko), his actual name. Best known as ‘Mencius’, a variation of the name Mengzi (孟子). Posthumously named Master Meng the Second Sage (亞聖孟子; Yàshèng Mèngzǐ).
|God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Nandou (in Sagittarius).|
|Nüwa (Nu Wa)||女媧|
|Nüwa (Nu Wa)||女娲|
|Chinese goddess. Created mankind from the yellow earth and repaired the Wall of Heaven.|
|General of the state of Wei in the Warring States Period.|
|Pei Songzhi (Shiqi)||裴松之 (世期)|
|P‘ei Sungchih (Shih-ch‘i)||裴松之 (世期)|
|Annotated Chen Shou’s Sanguozhi with numerous and extensive footnotes.|
|Shensheng [Prince Shensheng of Jin]||申生|
|Shênshêng [Prince Shênshêng of Chin]||申生|
|Spring and Autumn Period. Half-brother to Chong’er, eldest son of Duke Xian of Jin.|
Notes: ‘Shen Sheng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Er Shensheng’ in the Moss Roberts translation.
|Sima Guang (Junshi)||司馬光 (君實)|
|Ssŭma Kuang (Chün-shih)||司马光 (君实)|
|Authored the Warring States to Song Dynasty historical text, Zizhi tongjian.|
Notes: Also known as Sushui Xiansheng (涑水先生). Alternative style name (or hao 號) Yusou (taken late in his life). Posthumously given the honorary title (Shi or 謚) Wenzheng (文正), thus Sima Wenzhenggong (司馬文正公).
|Su Qin was an influential political strategist during the Warring States Period.|
|Su Shi [Su Dongpo] (Zizhan)||蘇軾[蘇東坡] (子瞻)|
|Su Shih [Su Tungp‘o] (Tzŭ-chan)||苏轼[苏东坡] (子瞻)|
|Song Dynasty writer, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist and statesman.|
Notes: Su Shi (蘇軾), styled Zizhan (子瞻), went by the pseudonym Dongpo Jushi (東坡居士; “The Scholar in Retirement at Eastern Slope”), and is often referenced as Su Dongpo (蘇東坡).
|Wang Mang (Jujun)||王莽 (巨君)|
|Wang Mang (Chü-chün)||王莽 (巨君)|
|Minister of the Western Han. Userped the throne from Ruzi. Killed in a rebellion.|
|Weizi (Viscount of Wei)||微子|
|Weitzŭ (Viscount of Wei)||微子|
|Shang Dynasty. Related to the corrupt Zhou Xin, quit in disgust and went into exile.|
|Authored the Han/Jin historical text, Han Jin chunqiu.|
|Xiang Yu [Xiang Ji]||項羽(項籍)|
|Hsiang Yü [Hsiang Chi]||项羽(项籍)|
|Founder of the state of Chu. Warred with Liu Bang but was defeated.|
|Honored official of the Shang Dynasty. Helped Tang of Shang to defeat King Jie of Xia.|
|Assassin from the Warring States period. Disfigured himself to avenge Zhi Yao.|
|Minister of the states of Zhao and Yan in the Warring States era. Also known as Lord Guojun.|
Notes: Also known as ‘Lord Guojun’.
|Zhang Liang (Zifang)||張良 (子房)|
|Chang Liang (Tzŭ-fang)||张良 (子房)|
|Western Han. Renowned strategist and statesman. One of the “Three Heroes of the early Han Dynasty.”|
|Strategist from the Warring States period. Born in the State of Wei. See also Su Qin.|
|Using the Zizhi tongjian and other sources, wrote the Tongjian gangmu.|
|Zhuang Zi [Nan Hua]||莊子[南華]|
|Chuang Tzŭ [Nan Hua]||莊子[南华]|
|Old Taoist Sage from Mt. Hua that gave Zhang Jue the Way of Peace (太平要術).|
Notes: Though frequently presented under the proper name, Zhuang Zi (莊子), the literal text presents his name as “The Nanhua Immortal” (南華真人). This is sometimes simplified to ‘Nanhua’ or ‘Nan Hua’ (南華), which is not correct. Zhuang Zi is none other than the famous Taoist sage from the Warring States period, and with this in mind, you may also see him listed, of course, as Chang Tzu (Wade-Giles), Zhuang Zhou (莊周) (his given name), Meng Official (蒙吏), Meng Zhuang (蒙莊), and Meng Elder (蒙叟). He also appears in some Koei games as ‘Nan Hua’.
|Zhuge Feng (Shaoji)||諸葛豐 (少季)|
|Chuko Fêng (Shao-chi)||诸葛丰 (少季)|
|Commander in the Western Han Dynasty. Ancestor of Zhuge Liang.|
April 6, 2010