Officer Names (CH/EN): Han Officers

Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Han Dynasty

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Han Dynasty: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
巴祇 (敬祖)
Pa Chih (Ching-tsu) 巴只 (敬祖)
An Inspector of Xu who held command against the Yellow Turbans, and reported on the excellent conduct of Zhao Yu.
Pao Hung 鲍鸿/洪
A colonel in the northern army who would later be reported embezzling local funds.
Pao Hsin 鲍信
Urged Yuan Shao to attack Dong, invited Cao Cao to govern Yan. Died fighting Turbans.
Peikung Poyü 北宮伯玉
Lead mutiny of troops then Qiang revolt. Huangfu Song and Zhang Wen failed to put him down.
Pi Lan 毕岚
One of the 12 Regular Attendants who was known for his engineering achievements.
Pi Yü 毕瑜
Sent with seal to Liu Yu who rejected the appointment and may have executed Bi Yu.
邊讓 (文禮)
Pien Jang (Wên-li) 边让 (文礼)
Governor of Jiujiang. Killed by Xiahou Dun reinforcing Tao Qian against Cao Cao.
Pien Chang 边章
Forced into leading the Qiang’s in revolt against the Han alongside Han Sui.

Notes: Originally named Bian Yuan (元).

Ts‘ai Ku 蔡谷
Warned his cousin Cai Yong that fleeing Dong Zhuo would fail due to Yong’s fame.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

蔡邕 (伯喈)
Ts‘ai Yung (Po-chieh) 蔡邕 (伯喈)
Advised Emperor Ling’s court. Hated the eunuchs. Died honoring Dong Zhuo.

Notes: In some Wade-Giles translations of the novel Cai Yong is incorrectly listed as Ch’ai Yung.

曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

Ts‘ao Tê 曹德
Brother of Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Kai with his father Cao Song.
曹節 (元偉)
Ts‘ao Chieh (Yuan-wei) 曹节 (元伟)
The Chief of the Ten Regular Attendants under Emperors Huan and Ling of Han.
曹全 (景完)
Ts‘ao Ch‘üan (Ching-yüan) 曹全 (景完)
Helped defeat the Turbans, a generous offical who was much admired.
曹嵩 (巨高)
Ts‘ao Sung (Chü-kao) 曹嵩 (巨高)
Adopted son of Cao Teng and father of Cao Cao. Also called Xiahou Song.

Notes: Occasionally listed as, and once named, Xiahou Song (夏侯嵩).

曹騰 (季興)
Ts‘ao T‘êng (Chi-hsing) 曹腾 (季兴)
Adopted Cao Song (formerly Xiahou), father of Cao Cao, into the Cao family. Eunuch.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹寅
Prefect of Wuling. Forged a decree to Sun Jian calling for Wang Rui’s execution.
岑桎 (公孝)
Ts‘ên Chih (Kung-hsiao) 岑桎 (公孝)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Nanyang.
Ch‘ang Nu 苌奴
Helped Dong Cheng block Cao Hong from reaching Emperor Xian.
常洽 (茂尼)
Ch‘ang Hsia (Mao-ni) 常洽 (茂尼)
Claimed that Li Jue would not harm Zhao Wen. Killed during Emperor Xian’s flight.

Notes: Also called Chang Qia.

陳耽 (漢公)
Ch‘ên Tan 陈耽 (汉公)
Loyal Minister that, due to slander by the eunuchs, was arrested and died in jail.
Ch‘ên Tuan 陈端
One of the seven heroes who gave their lives so Zhao Qian could escape Turbans.
Ch‘ên Fan 陈蕃
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Imperial Guardian. Died opposing the eunuchs.
陳宮 (公臺)
Ch‘ên Kung (Kung-t‘-ai) 陈宫 (公臺)
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
陳紀 (元方)
Ch‘ên Chi (Yüan-fang) 陈纪 (元方)
A highly respected minister, opposed Dong Zhuo’s plan to move the capital.
陳琳 (孔璋)
Ch‘ên Lin (K‘ung-chang) 陈琳 (孔璋)
Served under Emperor Ling, then under Yuan Shao. A superior writer.
陳寔 (仲躬)
Ch‘ên Shih (Chung-kung) 陈寔 (仲躬)
A government official who was well-liked by many. Admired throughout the Empire.
Ch‘ên Wei 陈炜
Served Han as High Minister. Advisor to Li Ying. Mocked in jest by young Kong Rong.
陳溫 (元悌)
Ch‘ên Wên (Yüan-t‘i) 陈温 (元悌)
Inspector of Yangzhou, he helped Cao Hong raise troops and died of illness.
陳翔 (仲麟)
Ch‘ên Hsiang (Chung-lin) 陈翔 (仲麟)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Ch‘êng K‘uang 程旷
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.
Ch‘ung Fu (Ying-po) 种拂
Served Han as Minister of Ritual. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Ch‘ung Chi 种辑
Served Han as Changshui Commandant. Friend of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ch‘ung Shao (Shên-fu) 种邵
Han Court Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ts‘ui Chün 崔钧
Joined alliance despite his father serving Dong Zhuo. Had reputation as fighting man.
崔烈 (威考)
Ts‘ui Lieh (Wei-k’ao) 崔烈 (威考)
Commandant of the Capital Gates. Cui Yi’s brother. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Yi’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

Ts‘ui I 崔毅
Served Han under Emperor Ling. Cui Lie’s brother.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Lie’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

崔均 (元平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Yüanp‘ing) 崔均 (元平)
Accompanied his father, wanted to avenge him but died of illness.
Têng P‘in 邓聘
Accompanied Emperor Xian during his flight but was killed.
鄧禹 (仲華)
Têng Yü (Chung-hua) 邓禹 (仲华)
Han Dynasty general and statesman. Major contributor to Emperor Guangwu’s effort to reestablish the Han.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Zheng Yu’ in chapter 43 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation and the Moss Roberts translation.

Têng Yüan 邓渊
Detained by Guo Si when sent by Emperor Xian as envoy and later killed.
Tiaoch‘an [Sable Cicada] 貂婵
Wang Yun’s adopted daughter. Helped to kill Dong Zhuo. Fictional.

Notes: Also known as Sable Cicada.

丁宮 (元雄)
Ting Kung (Yüan-hsiung) 丁宫 (元雄)
Recommended Shi Yi to the court, held high posts for the Han.
Ting Kuan 丁管
Served Han as Imperial Secretary. Opposed Dong Zhuo’s change of Emperors.
丁原 (建陽)
Ting Yüan (Chien-yang) 丁原 (建阳)
An excellent horseman and archer, assassinated by Lü Bu on Dong Zhuo’s orders.
Ting (Tzŭ-su) (子嗣)
A local officer, one of the Seven Heroes who shielded Zhao Qian after losing to Turbans.
Tiwu Chün 第五儁
In 188, was ordered to raise a regiment to help He Xun defeat Liang rebels.
Tung Ch‘êng 董承
Served Han as General of Cavalry and Chariots. Plots to assassinate Cao Cao.
Tung Ch‘ung 董重
Served Han as General of the Flying Cavalry. Lady Dong’s brother.

Notes: Is also known as Dong Zhong in the ZZTJ.

Tung Fên 董芬
Tried to copy Gan Shi’s breathing style but failed, almost killing himself in the attempt.
董扶 (茂安)
Tung Fu (Mou-an) 董扶 (茂安)
Famed teacher and debater, he advised Liu Yan to go to Yi.

Notes: Professor Rafe has style name as Mao’an.

董旻 (叔穎)
Tung Min (Shu-yin) 董旻 (叔颖)
Served Dong Zhuo as Lord of Hu. Dong Zhuo’s brother. Killed by Huangfu Song.
董昭 (公仁)
Tung Chao (Kung-jên) 董昭 (公仁)
Served Han then Wei. Advised Cao Cao to move the capital to Xuchang.
董卓 (仲穎)
Tung Cho (Chung-ying) 董卓 (仲颖)
Siezed control of Luoyang and the Han government before being killed by Lü Bu.
Tou Wu 窦武
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Regent-Marshal. Died opposing the eunuchs.
杜畿 (伯侯)
Tu Chi (Po-hou) 杜畿 (伯侯)
Judged the best administrator in the empire, kept the people of Hedong loyal to Wei.
杜夔 (公良)
Tu K‘uei (Kung-liang) 杜夔 (公良)
Gentleman of the Court Music. Reprimanded Liu Biao for creating an orchestra for his court.
Tuan Kuei (Tzŭ-yin) 段圭
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Min Gong searching for Emperor Ling.
Tuan Hsü 段训
Sent to reward Liu Yu and Gongsun Zan, instead was forced to execute Liu Yu.

Notes: Also called Yin Xun (殷訓)

Emperor Kuangwu [Liu Hsiu] 光武皇帝[刘秀]
Emperor Guangwu restored the Han Dynasty in AD 25, making him the first Emperor of the Later Han.

Notes: Shizu (世祖) was his Temple Name. His style name is Wenshu (Wên-shu) (文叔).

Emperor Huan [Liu Chih] 桓帝[刘志]
Emperor Huan of the Han. Destroyed the Liang family, but empowered the eunuchs.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Huan (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Ling [Liu Hung] 灵帝[刘宏]
Emperor Ling of Han (AD 156–189). Ruled through the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Ling (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Shao [Liu Pien] 少帝[刘辩]
Emperor Shao of Han (AD 189). Deposed and poisoned by Dong Zhuo.

Notes: ‘Emperor Bian’ at times in the Brewitt-Taylor translation.

獻帝[劉協] (伯和)
Emperor Hsien [Liu Hsieh] (Po-ho) 献帝[刘协] (伯和)
Son of Emperor Ling. Reigned AD 189–220. Forced to abdicate by Cao Pi.

Notes: Called by the name ‘Prince of Chenliu’ frequently in novel translations. In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Xian (the name) Di (emperor). In this case, Emperor Xian also has a style name attached to his normal name, therefore if you were addressing him as emperor you would say Xian Di, if you knew his name and were close you may use Liu Xie, or if you wanted his style name you’d call him Liu Bohe.

Empress Ts‘ao Chieh 曹节皇后
Emperor Xian’s empress after death of Empress Fu, opposed Cao Pi becoming Emperor.

Notes: Also known as Empress Cao, Empress Xianmu (獻穆皇后) and Duchess Shanyang.

Empress Fu Shou 伏寿皇后
Wife of Emperor Xian. From Langya. Daughter of Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: Commonly referenced simply as ‘Empress Fu’.

Empress Ho 何皇后
Emperor Shao’s mother. He Jin’s half-sister. Died of grief or through suicide.
法真 (高卿)
Fa Chên (Kao-ch‘ing) 法真 (高卿)
A distinguished scholar but refused all office. A quiet man with few desires.
Fan Ch‘êng 范成
Appointed a prefect of Luoyang when Cao Cao moved the capital to Xuchang.
樊陵 (德雲)
Fan Ling (Tê-yün) 樊陵 (德云)
Appointed by the eunuchs after He Jin’s death but was executed by Yuan Shao.
樊敏 (升達)
Fan Min (Shêng-ta) 樊敏 (升达)
An expert at Chunqiu, he would become an elder statesmen under Liu Zhang.
范曾 (子閔)
Fan Tsêng (Tzŭ-min) 范曾 (子闵)
Serving under He Jin, he defeated Turbans in Nanyang.
Fêng Fang 冯方
Father of Yuan Shu’s wife, a Han offical willing to slander those that excluded him.
逢紀 (元圖)
Fêng Chi (Yüan-t‘u) 逢纪 (元图)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Shang as Shao’s successor.

Notes: ‘Peng Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Pang Ji’ in the ZZTJ.

Fêng Hsü 封胥
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. An agent of Zhang Jue of the Yellow Scarves.
Fu Tê 伏德
Brother of Empress Fu, carried her into a boat when they attempted to escape Li Jue.
Fu Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-shên) 服虔
A noted scholar, one of his works circulating for several hundred years. Backed Tao Qian’s petition.
Fu Wan 伏完
Married a Princess, took a lesser position in Cao Cao’s court.
傅燮 (南容)
Fu Hsieh (Nan-jung) 傅燮 (南容)
Loyal minister who fought against the Turbans with Zhu Jun.
傅巽 (公悌)
Fu Hsün (Kung-t‘i) 傅巽 (公悌)
Advised Liu Cong to surrender, urged Cao Cao to become a Duke and Cao Pi to become Emperor.

Notes: Incorrectly Romanized as ‘Fu Xuan’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Kao Wang 高望
An officer of medicines, he was close to Prince Liu Bian. Killed in the massacre.
Kao Yen 高焉
Gongsun Zan alleged that Yuan Shao executed Yan as Shao was greedy for Yan’s property.
耿紀 (季行)
Kêng Chi (Chi-hsing) 耿纪 (季行)
Launched a coup against Cao Cao. Wounded Wang Bi. Executed after his failure.
Kung Ching 龚景
Imperial Protector of Qingzhou. Attacked by the Yellow Scarves. Supported by Liu Bei.
公孫度 (升濟)
Kungsun Tu (Shêng-chi) 公孙度 (升济)
Established an independent government in Liaodong, expanding against several tribes.
公孫瓚 (伯珪)
Kungsun Tsan (Po-ku) 公孙瓒 (伯珪)
Magistrate of Beiping. Fought Yuan Shao. Committed suicide with his family.
關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

Kuo Shêng 郭胜
Warned close friend He Jin about Jian Shi’s plot. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.

Notes: In the notes section of To Esablish Peace he is referenced with two names from different sources: 1) HHJ25 as Guo Mai; 2) Jiuzhou chunqiu as Lang Sheng.

韓馥 (文節)
Han Fu (Wên-chieh) 韩馥 (文节)
Surrendered to Yuan Shao but was abused. Fled to Zhang Miao and later committed suicide.
韓遂 (文約)
Han Sui (Wên-yüeh) 韩遂 (文约)
Worked with Ma Chao, before defecting to Cao Cao. Lost his hand to Ma Chao.
Han Hsien 韩暹
White Wave Rebel. Helped Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu, Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
何進 (遂高)
Ho Chin (Sui-kao) 何进 (遂高)
Grand Administrator in the Han courts, but was assassinated by the eunuchs.
Ho Miao 何苗
Empress He’s older half-brother. Later killed by Wu Kuang.

Notes: Was born Zhu Miao.

Ho Hsi (Mêng-sun) 何熙
Noted for height, died of sickness after successfully fighting tribes.
何颙 (伯求)
Ho Yong (Po-ch‘iu) 何顒 (伯求)
Recognised Cao Cao and Xun Yu as men who could deal with the troubles.

Notes: Known name is He Yu (何禺) in SGYY.

何楨 (元幹)
Ho Chên (Yüan-kan) 何桢 (元幹)
Father of Empress He, became General of Chariots and Cavalry.
Hou Lan 侯览
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Tried to make off with Emperor Shao.
Hu Hua 胡华
Father of Hu Ban. Retired officer of the court under Emperor Huan. Met Guan Yu.
Hu Miao 胡邈
Privy counselor to Emperor Xian. Tried to calm an angry Huangfu Li to protect him.
Hu Shou 壶寿
Governor of Jizhou. Formed an alliance with Poison Yu. Defeated and executed by Yuan Shao.
Huang Ch‘êngyen 黄承彦
Father of Zhuge Liang’s wife. A prominent scholar of the Later Han Dynasty.

Notes: Incorrectly referenced as Huang Chenyan (承 [Cheng2] as ‘Chen’) in many sites, biographies, and in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Huangfu Li 皇甫郦
Served Emperor Xian. Charged with making peace between Li Jue and Guo Si.
皇甫嵩 (義真)
Huangfu Sung (I-chên) 皇甫嵩 (义真)
Imperial Commander under Han. Fought heavily against the Yellow Turban Rebellion.
胡母班 (季皮)
Humu Pan (Chi-p‘i) 胡母班 (季皮)
Sent by Dong Zhuo to pursuade Yuan Shao to lay down his arms. Executed by Wang Kuang.

Notes: Hou Han shu records his style as Jiyou. SGZ: Yuan Shao.

吉邈 (文然)
Chi Miao (Wên-jan) 吉邈 (文然)
Son of Ji Ping. Joined Geng Ji’s coup to avenge his father but was killed in the fighting.

Notes: Ji Miao sometimes appears as Ji Mao. The correct translation of 邈 is Miao.

吉穆 (思然)
Chi Mu (Ssŭ-jan) 吉穆 (思然)
Son of Ji Ping. Fled the capital but returned secretly. Died in Geng Ji’s coup.
Chi P‘ing 吉平
Court physician from Luoyang. Forced to commit suicide by Cao Cao.

Notes: Also referenced by the name Chi T’ai in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Called Ji Ben in SGZ and ZZTJ.

Chien Shuo 蹇硕
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by fellow eunuch Guo Sheng.

Notes: The character 碩 can also be translated as Shi and in some academic sources this is considered to be the standard translation (e.g. anything by Rafe de Crespigny). We are using Jian Shuo because that is the most commonly used Romanization.

金旋 (元機)
Chin Hsüan (Yüan-chi) 金旋 (元机)
Served as Governor of Wuling. Defeated by Zhang Fei.

Notes: Called Jin Shun in Liu Bei’s SGZ.

金祎 (德禕)
Chin I (Tê-i) 金禕 (德祎)
Descendant of Jin Midi. Advised Geng Ji on killing Wang Bi. Died fighting in the coup.

Notes: May also have been Jin Wei, son of Jin Shang.

孔融 (文舉)
K‘ung Jung (Wên-chü) 孔融 (文举)
A famed scholar who did not always get on with his lords. One of the Seven Masters.
K‘ung Shang 孔尚
Great-great-grandfather of Kong Rong, who served Wei.
孔昱 (世元)
K‘ung Yü (Shih-yüan) 孔昱 (世元)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. Scholar who took a moral line on when to serve.

Notes: Also known as Kong Yi (Yi4 翊). Styled Shiyuan or Yuanshi (Yuan4shi4 元世).

K‘ung Chou (Chi-chiang) 孔宙
Father of Kong Rong and Kong Bao. Steele was set up on his death.
孔伷 (公緒)
K‘ung Chou (Kung-hsü) 孔伷 (公绪)
Known for his eloquent way of speaking. He joined alliance against Dong Zhuo.

Notes: Sometimes you can find his name incorrectly translated as Kong You2.

蒯越 (異度)
K‘uai Yüeh (I-tu) 蒯越 (异度)
Younger brother of Kuai Liang. Became a vassal of Wei when Cao Cao took Jing.
Lady Tung 董夫人
Arrested and executed due to her father’s plots against Cao Cao despite being pregnant.
Lady T‘ang Chi 唐姫夫人
Favorite concubine of Liu Bian, danced for him as he died. Daughter of Tang Mao.

Notes: ‘Lady Tang’ in various translations of the novel.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Mother of Liu Xie (Emperor Xian). Concubine to Emperor Ling. Poisoned by Empress He.
Li Ku 李固
Sent by Emperor Xian to give Li Jue rank as Grand Marshal.
Li Lê 李乐
Bandit who helped Xian escape Li Jue’s grasp, found the boat used to cross the river.
Li Min 李旻
Captured alive by Xu Rong after Sun Jian’s defeat and boiled to death.
李權 (伯豫)
Li Ch‘üan (Po-yü) 李权 (伯豫)
Influential man in Shu, executed by Liu Yan on a pretext.
Li Shêng 李升
Killed by Ma Xing’s revolt in one of their first acts.

Notes: Also called Yi Pou.

Li Ying 李膺
Governor of Henan. Visited and impressed by a young Kong Rong.
Li Yung 李永
An attentive man, he was murdered by Dian Wei on order of a rival.
Li Chên 李祯
An acquittance of Li Jue, he reassured the general about the courtiers being armed.
梁鵠 (孟皇)
Liang Ku (Mêng-huang) 梁鹄 (孟皇)
Famed writer, the Wei Heng’s Siti Shu Shixu accuses him of fraud.
Liang Shao 粱绍
Had arguments with Yuan Shao and held hostage by Li Jue. Held eunuch rank yet was a man.

Notes: Dr. Rafe de Crespigny notes his personal name as either 邵 or 紹

Liang Yen 梁衍
Advised Huangfu Song to raise troops against Dong Zhuo.
Liu Ai 劉艾
Chief Clerk to Dong Zhuo. A famous historian who authored the Lingdi Ji.

Notes: ‘Liu Cai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

劉表 (景升)
Liu Piao (Ching-shêng) 刘表 (景升)
Inspector of Jing province under the Han. Opposed the Sun family militarily.
Liu Ch‘ung 刘宠
During the Yellow Scarves rebellion he created his own kingdom. Killed by Yuan Shu.
Liu Tan 刘诞
Son of Liu Yan, executed alongside Liu Fan after a failed coup against Li Jue.
Liu Fan 刘范
Han Left Imperial Corps Commander. Helped Ma Teng. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Liu Ho 刘和
Ordered to escape capital and seek help for Xian. Captured by Yuan’s, later sent against Zan.
Liu Hung 刘弘
Liu Bei’s father. Son of Liu Xiong, said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.

Notes: His given name was originally Shan (山) and later Yi (義).

劉弘 (于高)
Liu Hung (Yü-kao) 刘弘 (于高)
Occupied high post but was sacked so Dong Zhuo could have his job.
Liu Chün 刘隽
A county magistrate in Wuwei. Killed by Qu Sheng during the Liang Rebellion.
Liu K‘uan (Wên-yao) 刘宽
A kind man, once fell into drunken sleep during court meeting. Warned about the Turbans,
劉梁 (曼山)
Liu Liang (Man-shan) 刘梁 (曼山)
Confucian Scholar. Wrote books advocating the elimination of court factionalism.
Liu P‘ing 刘平
Either noted Liu Bei’s talent or tried to kill Liu Bei, depends what source.

Notes: Also known as Liu Ziping.

Liu Shêng 刘胜
Liu Bei’s ancestor. Prince of Jing of Zhongshan. Son of Emperor Jing of Han.
劉陶 (子奇)
Liu T‘ao (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘陶 (子奇)
Accused the eunuchs of bringing down the Han and was murdered.
Liu Wei 刘卫
Killed by local Yellow Turban forces.
Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Liu Bei’s grandfather. Said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.
劉焉 (君郎)
Liu Yen (Chün-lang) 刘焉 (君郎)
Liu Zhang’s father. Magistrate in the Yi territory after fighting Yellow Scarves.
劉繇 (正禮)
Liu Yao (Chêng-li) 刘繇 (正礼)
Imperial Inspector of Yangzhou. Liu Dai’s brother. Defeated by Sun Ce, then died of illness.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Liu Yong’ in many Koei games, along with a few other video games. Historical sources, and nearly all novel translations, use ‘Liu Yao’ instead.

劉翊 (子相)
Liu I (Tzŭ-hsiang) 刘翊 (子相)
Saved several hundred people from famine during the Yellow Scarves Rebellion.
劉虞 (伯安)
Liu Yü (Po-an) 刘虞 (伯安)
Governor of Youzhou during the Later Han. Quelled Zhang Ju’s rebellion.
Liu Yün 贇贇
King of Ji’nan. Killed by Yellow Turbans in 207.
Liu Chêng 刘政
Administrator of Youbeiping. Killed in the rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju.
路粹 (文蔚)
Lu Ts‘ui (Wên-yü) 路粹 (文蔚)
Slandered Kong Rong which resulted in Kong Rong’s execution. Executed by Cao Cao.
陸康 (季寧)
Lu K‘ang 陆康 (季宁)
Criticised Emperor Ling and the eunuchs, held out for two years despite facing Sun Ce.
Lu K‘uei 鲁馗
Served Han as Court Steward. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
盧植 (子幹)
Lu Chih (Tzŭ-kan) 卢植 (子干)
Imperial Corps Commander in service of Han. Was Liu Bei’s teacher and friend.
駱俊 (孝遠)
Lo Chün (Hsiao-yüan) 骆俊 (孝远)
Many children were named after him. Killed by Yuan Shu’s agents over supplies.
馬日磾 (翁叔)
Ma Miti (Wêng-shu) 马日磾 (翁叔)
Sent as envoy to stop the war between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan.
馬騰 (壽成)
Ma T‘êng (Shou-ch‘êng) 马腾 (寿成)
Governed Xiliang. Descendant of the famous warrior Ma Yuan. Ma Chao’s father.
Ma Yü 马宇
Han Privy Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
馬援 (文淵)
Ma Yüan (Wên-yüan) 马援 (文渊)
General of the Han who campaigned against the Vietnamese. Ma Teng was descended from him.
孟光 (孝裕)
Mêng Kuang (Hsiao-yü) 孟光 (孝裕)
Raised concerns over Liu Xuan’s education, an arrogant but bright scholar.
Mêng I 孟溢
Sent to aid Gongsun Zan in the failed camapign against Zhang Ju and Zhang Chun.
Miao Ssŭ 苗祀
In charge of the residence of Empress Fu. Killed during the fighting in Hongnong.
Min Kung 闵贡
Han commander in the Henan district. Killed eunuch Duan Gui. Helped Emperor Shao.
Mu Shun 穆顺
Plotted to save Emperor Xian with Empress Fu and Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.
P‘an Yin 潘隐
Warned He Jin of Jian Shou’s plot and then of the Emperor’s death.
P‘ang Hsi 庞羲
A friend of Liu Yan. Collected his grandchildren and brought them to Shu.
裴茂 (巨光)
P‘ei Mao (Chü-kuang) 裴茂 (巨光)
Sent by Xian to give Cao Cao the Golden Seal. Took part in Li Jue’s death.
橋玄 (公祖)
Ch‘iao Hsüan (Kung-tsu) 桥玄 (公祖)
Recognised Cao Cao’s talent and predicted Han would collapse. Noble offical.

Notes: ‘State Patriarch Qiao’ in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘State Elder Qiao’ in the Moss Roberts translation.

秦頡 (初起)
Ch‘in Hsieh (Ch‘u-ch‘i) 秦颉 (初起)
Killed Zhang Mancheng and Han Zhong before being killed in a mutiny.

Notes: Also known as Qin Jie.

Ch‘in I 秦谊
Swordsman, helped kill Dong Zhuo, dressing up as a guard to do so.
Ch‘ü Mu 渠穆
Killed He Jin and cut off his head.
Ch‘üan Jou 全柔
Man of local family. Managed to bring in grain during famine.
Ch‘üan I 全祎
Conspired with Geng Ji and Wei Huang to abduct the Han Emperor.
Ch‘üeh Chien 却俭
Liu Yan’s predecessor, his attempt to raise levies caused revolts. Favorite of Emperor Ling.
Jaolung Tsung 扰龙宗
Delivering a report, he forgot to take off his sword and was killed by Dong Zhuo.
Jung Ko 荣邰
Held hostage by Guo Si.
Shan Yang 单飏
Asked by Qiao Xuan for interpretation of an omen, and predicted Cao Pi’s ascension to the throne.
射堅 (文固)
Shê Chien 射坚 (文固)
Of good repute, sacked during time of famine, went to Yi from Chang’an.
射援 (文雄)
Shê Yüan (Wên-hsiung) 射援 (文雄)
Of good reputation, Huangfu Song admired his talents. Memorialised Liu Bei be King of Hanzhong.
Shên Chung 审忠
In 179 or 180, he denounced the eunuchs of the court.
盛憲 (孝章)
Shêng Hsien (Hsiao-chang) 盛宪 (孝章)
Helped in resistance to Sun Ce, had quite a reputation. Killed by Sun Quan.
申屠蟠 (子龍)
Shênt‘u P‘an (Tzŭ-lung) 申屠蟠 (子龙)
Refused appointment and when Dong Zhuo tried to hire him, laughed at the idea.
Shih Huang 史璜
His death caused conflict as the Han ordered Shi Xie to defeat Liu Biao’s replacements.
士燮 (威彥)
Shih Hsieh (Wei-yen) 士燮 (威彦)
Grand Administrator of Jiaozhi. Paid regular tribute to Sun Quan.
司馬防 (建公)
Ssŭma Fang (Chienkung) 司马防 (建公)
Sima Yi’s father. An honest hermit who had a sense of public duty.
司馬儁 (元異)
Ssŭma Chün (Yüan-i) 司马儁 (元异)
Grandfather of Sima Yi. Governor of Yingchuan.

Notes: ‘Sima Juan’ in the Moss Roberts translation and online Brewitt-Taylor translations. ‘Sima Jun’ in Rafe de Crespigny’s works.

Sung Kuo 宋果
Proposed to Yang Feng that they should betray Li Jue. Overheard and killed by Li Jue.

Notes: Also called Song Ye.

Song Ch’i 宋奇
Husband of Cao Cao’s second cousin. He was executed and caused the removal from office of all those related to him.
孫堅 (文台)
Sun Chien (Wên-t‘-ai) 孙坚 (文台)
Father of Sun Ce, Sun Quan, and the kingdom of Wu.
T‘ang Chou 唐周
Follower of Zhang Jue. Betrayed his plans to the Han, and got Ma Yuanyi beheaded.
陶丘洪 (子林)
T‘aoch‘iu Hung (Tzŭ-lin) 陶丘洪 (子林)
Praised Liu Dai and Liu Yao. Almost joined a plot to kidnap Emperor Ling.
T‘ien Fên 田芬
Accompanied Emperor Xian during his flight away from Li Jue, killed in battle.
田豐 (元皓)
T‘ien Fêng (Yüan-hao) 田丰 (元皓)
Served Yuan Shao, who ignored his advice. Killed himself after being slandered by Feng Ji.
Wang Ch‘êng 王承
Local officer near Chang’an, he feared Ma Teng was plotting against him so attacked and drove Ma Teng away.
Wang Ch‘en 王晨
One of the few members of the Wang family to escape Li Jue’s wrath.
Wang Tu 王度
Defected to the Yellow Turbans, beaten by Cheng Yu.
Wang Fen 王芬
Rebelled in an attempt to depose Emperor Ling. Committed suicide out of fear after being threatened with imperial troops.
Wang Fu 王甫
Accused Prince Li of treason after receiving no bribe. Accused Empress Song of witchcraft.
王服[王子服] (子由)
Wang Fu [Wang Tzŭfu] (Tzu-yu) 王服[王子服] (子由)
Part of the ‘Jade Girdle’ plot to kill Cao Cao. Courtier of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao.

Notes: Wang Fu appears as Wang Zifu (王子服) in the novel, SGZ Shu, and other sources. This appears to be an error. Rafe de Crespigny wrote the following in To Establish Peace I: “The main text of SGZ 32 gives the personal name of Wang Fu as, but Xiandi qijuzhu, quoted by PC, and the parallel texts HHS 9, 381, and HHS 72/62, 2343, all omit the character zi. It is presumably dittography from the name of Wu Zilan immediately preceding.”

Wang Kung 王肱
Grand Administrator of Dong commandery. He was unable to resist the Black Mountain Bandits.
王匡 (公節)
Wang K‘uang (Kung-chieh) 王匡 (公节)
Took heavy losses against Dong Zhuo. Despised material things but could be violent.
王朗 (景興)
Wang Lang (Ying-hsing) 王朗 (景兴)
Originally the prefect of Huiji, he later joined Wei. Debated with Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Originally called Wang Yan

Wang Ch‘i 王颀
Served Han as Commandant of the Exemplary Cavalry. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Wang Jui (T‘ung-yao) 王睿
Governor of Jingzhou. Tried to have Cao Yin killed, but was killed first by Sun Jian.
Wang I 王邑
Sent to present Cao Cao with gifts following Emperor Xian’s marriage with Cao Cao’s daughters.
王允 (子師)
Wang Yün (Tzŭ-shih) 王允 (子师)
Diaochan’s father. Orchestrated the plot which resulted in Dong Zhuo’s death.
Wei Hung 卫弘
Of a wealthy family, he gave his property to Cao Cao to raise troops to restore the Han.
Wei Huang (Tê-wei) 韦晃
Han loyalist. Participated in a coup with Geng Ji and Jin Yi. Captured by Xiahou Dun.
吳碩 (子蘭)
Wu Shih (Tzŭlan) 吴硕 (子兰)
Part of the ‘Jade Girdle’ plot to kill Cao Cao. Friend of Dong Cheng and Wang Zifu. Executed by Cao.

Notes: In SGZ: Shu 2 a man by the name of Wu Zilan 吳子蘭 is described as one of the conspirators. It is likely that this is Wu Shi, and that Zilan was his style.

Hsia Yün 夏晖
One of the Ten Regular Attendants, greatly favoured by Dowager Dong and Emperor Ling.

Notes: You may also see him referenced as Xia Hui (‘暉’ can be ‘Hui1’). In this case, we have sided with the Moss Roberts and Brewitt-Taylor translations.

襄楷 (公矩)
Hsiang K‘ai (Kung-chih) 襄楷 (公矩)
Widely read, he used portents against the eunuchs and for the reformers. Predicted the eunuchs’ destruction.
徐晃 (公明)
Hsü Huang (Kung-ming) 徐晃 (公明)
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
許靖 (文休)
Hsü Ching (Wên-hsiu) 许靖 (文休)
Said to be an able critic. Liu Bei didn’t respect him but Liang always bowed to him.
Hsü K‘un 徐琨
Fought under Sun Jian and Sun Ce, replaced as Administrator as he was seen as a threat.
徐璆 (孟玉)
Hsü Ch‘iu (Mêng-yü) 徐璆 (孟玉)
A scholarly man of utmost honesty, he refused to serve Yuan Shu and returned the imperial seal.

Notes: Also Xu Jiu. Styled Mengyu (孟玉), Mengben (孟本), or Mengping (孟平). Sometimes found as Xu Liu.

Hsü Jung 徐荣
Defeated Cao Cao and Sun Jian in battle, but never able to press it home.
荀爽 (慈明)
Hsün Shuang (Tz‘ŭ-ming) 荀爽 (慈明)
Fast tracked by Dong Zhuo, he calmed Zhuo down when Yang Biao angered him.

Notes: Also known as Xun Xu.

荀攸 (公達)
Hsün Yu (Kung-ta) 荀攸 (公达)
Advisor of Cao Cao. Xun Yu’s cousin. Died grieving Cao Cao’s interest in being Duke.

Notes: His name is pronounced differently from Xun Yu’s.

Yang Piao 杨彪
Stripped of rank and banished by both Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao. Drove Li Jue and Guo Si apart.
Yang Fêng 杨奉
Betrayed Li Jue to help Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu then Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
Yang Mi 杨密
Imperial Corps Commander. Persuaded Guo Si not to kill Yang Biao.
Yang Ch‘i 杨琦
Advised through Li Jue and Guo Si’s abuse, recommended Jia Xu. Plotted against Li Jue.
Yin Teng 殷登
Recorded Shan Yang’s prediction that Cao Pi would take the throne. Was rewarded by Cao Pi.
Yin K‘uei 殷馗
An expert in astrology, he predicted a Perfect Man would rise, later thought to mean Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Yin Ku’ in chapter 32 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation; likely a typo as he is Yin Kui elsewhere.

應劭 (仲瑗)
Ying Shao (Chung-yüan) 应劭 (仲瑗)
His historical work remain an important source of information on Later Han.

Notes: Called Ling Shao in the Shi Yu.

袁逢 (周陽)
Yüan Fêng (Chou-yang) 袁逢 (周阳)
Father of Yuan Shu and possibly Yuan Shao. Minister of Agriculture in service to Han.
袁渙 (曜卿)
Yüan Huan (Yao-ch‘ing) 袁涣 (曜卿)
A man of courtesy, generosity and restraint, he refused to rebuke Liu Bei.
Yüan Chi 袁基
A member of the Yuan family, he was executed due to Yuan Shao’s revolt.
Yüan Min 袁敏
Discussed matters with Xian and an expert with a sword, he was interested in hydrology.
袁紹 (本初)
Yüan Shao (Pên-ch‘u) 袁绍 (本初)
Childhood friend, and later enemy of, Cao Cao. Defeated at Guandu.
袁術 (公路)
Yüan Shu (Kung-lu) 袁术 (公路)
Relative of Yuan Shao. Declared himself Emperor, but soon after died.
Yüan Wei (Tz‘ŭ-yang) 袁隗
A famed minister, aided He Jin’s avengers. Killed by a vengeful Dong Zhuo.
袁忠 (正輔)
Yüan Chung (Chêng-fu) 袁忠 (正辅)
Fled his post during the civil war. Alleged to have been murdered on Cao Cao’s orders,
Yüeh Sung 乐松
A possible eunuch, he warned against Zhang Jue and defend his critic Yang Ci.
Tsang Min 臧旻
Governor of Kuaiji. Recommended Sun Jian to the court after Jian quelled Xu Chang’s rebellion.
Tsao Chih 棗祗
Held out against Lü Bu and kept supplies going. His idea of agricultural colonies was credited with Wei’s success.
張超 (子並)
Chang Ch‘ao (Tzŭ-ping) 张超 (子并)
A man of great literary ability, he assisted Zhu Jun against the Turbans.
張承 (公先)
Chang Ch‘êng (Kung-hsien) 张承 (公先)
Warned Yuan Shu about declaring himself Son of Heaven, served in many ranks.
Chang Ch‘un 张纯
Passed over for promotion, he led the Wuhuan in revolt. After initial success, Liu Yu turned up and Chun was betrayed.
張飛 (益德)
Chang Fei (I-tê) 张飞 (益德)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Guan Yu. Second of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Sanguozhi records Zhang Fei’s style as 益 (yi4: ‘benefit’ or ‘increase’) rather than 翼 (yi4: ‘wing’), as used in the novel, games, and most literature.

張綱 (文紀)
Chang Kang (Wên-chi) 张纲 (文纪)
Great-grandfather of Zhang Yi (Bogong), who served Shu.
張浩 (叔明)
Chang Hao (Shu-ming) 张浩 (叔明)
Great-great-grandfather of Zhang Yi (Bogong), who served Shu.
Chang Chi 张济
Junior partner under Li Jue, attacks Liu Biao in bid for supplies but dies due to arrow.
張儉 (元節)
Chang Chien (Yüan-chieh) 张俭 (元节)
Much admired, thousands of people died helping him flee. Aware of Cao Cao’s ambitions.
張津 (子雲)
Chang Chin (Tzŭ-yün) 张津 (子云)
Practised magic, sent to oppose Liu Biao, he was killed by his officer Ou Jing.
Chang Chü 张举
Led revolt against the Han, he ravaged the northeast and declared himself ruler.
Chang Chün 张钧
Blamed the Yellow Turban revolt on the eunuchs. Arrested and flogged on false charges.
張猛 (叔威)
Chang Mêng (Shu-wei) 张猛 (叔威)
Mother told he would die in a certain tower. Killed fellow officer Handan Shang, murdered by avenging troops.
張邈 (孟卓)
Chang Miao (Mêng-cho) 张邈 (孟卓)
Friend of Yuan Shao and Cao Cao, rebelled against Cao Cao. Killed by his own men later on.
Chang Ch‘i 张岐
Sent by Han Fu and Yuan Shao to get Liu Yu to take up the throne.
Chang Jang 张让
Most influential of the Ten Regular Attendants. Drowned himself to avoid capture.
張溫 (惠恕)
Chang Wên (Po-shên) 张温 (惠恕)
First ever Han Excellency appointed when out of the capital, struggled to deal with Han Sui.
Chang Hsiu 张绣
He fought Cao Cao after he took Zhang Ji’s widow as a wife. Served Wei with distinction.
張延 (公威)
Chang Yen (Kung-wei) 张延 (公威)
May have paid for rank, Zhang Yan was slandered by the eunuchs and died in jail.
Chang Yen 张燕
Leader of the Black Mountain Bandits. Tried but failed to aid Gongsun Zan.

Notes: His surname at birth was Chu (褚). Many Black Mountain Bandits had nicknames. Zhang Yan‘s was ’Flying Swallow Yan.’ In the past we have noted his style name as Zijie (子節), but have removed the name due to a lack of historic confirmation.

張楊 (稚叔)
Chang Yang (Chih-shu) 张杨 (稚叔)
A good and generous man, attempted to aid Emperor Xian but wasn’t trusted by other generals.
Chang Yin 张音
Prepared Emperor Xian’s abdication to Cao Pi.
Chang Chang 张璋
Officer under He Jin. Led troops to slaughter the eunuchs after his death.
趙苞 (威豪)
Chao Pao (Wei-hao) 赵苞 (威豪)
Zhao Zhong’s cousin. Fought Xianbei even though they had captured his wife and children.
Chao Wên (Tzŭ-jou) 赵温
Infuriated Cao Cao by nominating Cao Pi. Li Jue twice tried to kill him but Li Ying and Jia Xu saved him.
Chao Chung 赵忠
Emperor Ling considered him as a mother, slandered Huangfu Song, Lu Qiang and Fu Xie.
Chên I 甄逸
Father of Empress Zhen, but died while she was young. Commandery Governor.
Chêng Sui 郑遂
Student of Li Gu, compiled record of master’s sayings. Killed by Turbans from Qing.
鄭玄 (康成)
Chêng Hsüan (K‘-ang-ch‘êng) 郑玄 (康成)
Loved wine, a leading scholar of his day but hated court life. Had many students.
鍾繇 (元常)
Chung Yao (Yüan-ch‘ang) 钟繇 (元常)
Famous calligrapher. Stirred up quarrel between Han Sui and Ma Teng, close to Cao Pi.
Chou Huan (Wên-ming) 周奂
Part of Wang Yun’s government, killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Chou Ching 周旌
Part of Wang Fen’s plot in 188 to kidnap Emperor Ling. Cao Cao refused to be involved.
Chou Shên 周慎
Badly beaten by Han Sui and Bian Zhang due to his failure to listen to advice.
周昕 (大明)
Chou Hsin (Ta-ming) 周昕 (大明)
Well read, he resigned his position rather then have Yuan Shu to harm his people.
Chou Yü (Jên-ming) 周㬂
Helped his brother against Sun Jian and Yuan Shu, he was later killed by Xu Gong.
周忠 (嘉謀)
Chou Chung (Chia-mou) 周忠 (嘉谋)
Urged Li Jue to call in Zhu Jun, led troops to protect Xian and had some success.
Chu Fu 朱抚
Took in refugees from the north, forced to flee as his officers sparked revolts.
朱皓 (文明)
Chu Hao (Wên-ming) 朱皓 (文明)
Established excellent government. Attacked Yuan Shu, later killed by Zhai Rong.
朱儁 (公偉)
Chu Chün (Kung-wei) 朱儁 (公伟)
Han minister who fought against the Yellow Scarves with Liu Bei and Sun Jian.
諸葛珪 (子貢)
Chuko Kuei (Tzŭ-kung) 诸葛珪 (子贡)
Zhuge Liang’s father. Descended from Zhuge Feng. Governor’s deputy in Taishan.

Notes: His style is entered in the Sanguozhi as Jungong (君貢) but in Sanguo Yanyi as Zigong (子貢). Jungong is likely correct as it stems from Sanguozhi. We are looking into this.

Tsou Ching 邹靖
Served as Commandant under Liu Yan. Fought the Yellow Scarves with Liu Bei.

Notes: ‘Zhou Jing’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor Translation.

Tsu Pi 祖弼
Keeper of the Imperial Seal under Emperor Xian. Executed before Xian was deposed.
Tso Fêng 左丰
Eunuch of Han. Sent to evaluate Lu Zhi. Demanded a bribe, then lied about his merit.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Zhuo Feng’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Tso Ling 左灵
At Li Jue’s orders, with Jia Xu, restrained Emperor Xian. Slandered Duan Wei.



Novel and History

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March 7, 2014