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Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Officers H-O

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Officers H–O: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
韓? (士元)
Han ? (Shih-yuan) 韩? (士元)
Noted by Chen Shou that no name, achievements or place of origin were available.
韓當 (義公)
Han Tang (I-kung) 韩当 (义公)
Veteran general in service to the Sun family. Served three generations.
Han Tê 韩德
Served Wei. Father to Han Ying, Yao, Qiong, and Qi. Died at Changshan facing Zhao Yun.
Han Fan 韩范
Feigned surrender to Cao Cao but was persuaded by Xu Huang to genuinely surrender.
韓馥 (文節)
Han Fu (Wên-chieh) 韩馥 (文节)
Surrendered to Yuan Shao but was abused. Fled to Zhang Miao and later committed suicide.
Han Fu 韩福
Governor of Luoyang, killed by Guan Yu while guarding the passes. Related to Wang Zhi.

Notes: ‘Han Qu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation (to differentiate from the historic Han Fu), and in some Koei games.

韓浩 (元嗣)
Han Hao (Yüan-ssŭ) 韩浩 (元嗣)
Rescued Xiahou Dun from being held hostage. Supported the farm reforms.
韓暨 (公至)
Han Chi (Kung-tzŭ) 韩暨 (公至)
Sent by Cao Rui to tell Cao Zhen not to give battle against Zhuge Liang.
韓嵩 (德高)
Han Sung (Tê-kao) 韩嵩 (德高)
A tactician of Liu Biao, he served as one of Biao’s ministers.
韓遂 (文約)
Han Sui (Wên-yüeh) 韩遂 (文约)
Worked with Ma Chao, before defecting to Cao Cao. Lost his hand to Ma Chao.
Han Hsien 韩暹
White Wave Rebel. Helped Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu, Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
Han Hsin 韩信
Reknowned commander who served Xiang Yu and later Liu Bang. Rose from a childhood of destitution.
Han Hsüan 韩玄
Magistrate of Changsha. Wei Yan killed him and surrendered to Liu Bei.
韩荀 (莒子)
Han Hsün (Chü-tzŭ) 韓荀 (莒子)
Cavalry officer at Wuchao, beheaded by Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Han Juzi’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Han Yin 韩胤
Sent by Yuan Shu to Lü Bu as a messenger for marriage, and later executed.
Han Chung 韩忠
A member of the Yellow Scarves. Fought with Zhu Jun and Liu Bei at Wan, but was killed.
Hao Mêng 郝萌
Served under Lü Bu. Helped fight Cao Cao at Puyang.
郝昭 (伯道)
Hao Chao (Po-tao) 郝昭 (伯道)
A talented officer of Wei. Successfully defended against Zhuge Liang at Chencang.
Hao Chou (K‘ung-i) 浩周
Captured at Fan, he would later assure Cao Pi that Sun Quan would keep his promise.
何進 (遂高)
Ho Chin (Sui-kao) 何进 (遂高)
Grand Administrator in the Han courts, but was assassinated by the eunuchs.
Ho Ching 贺景
Served Wu. Son of He Qi. Strict but kind. Died young.
何夔 (叔龍)
Ho K‘uei (Shu-lung) 何夔 (叔龙)
Claimed Yuan Shu lacked support if he declared himself Emperor. Noted for proper behaviour.
Ho Man 何曼
Nicknamed ‘The Shooting Devil’ in novel. Yellow Scarves commander. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ho Miao 何苗
Empress He’s older half-brother. Later killed by Wu Kuang.

Notes: Was born Zhu Miao.

賀齊 (公苗)
Ho Ch‘i (Kung-miao) 贺齐 (公苗)
Served Wu, first under Sun Ce. Became governor of Xuzhou. Father of He Da.
Ho Shao (Hsin-po) 贺邵
Urged Sun Hao to change his ways. Executed when Sun Hao didn’t believe He Shao had a stroke.
Ho Hsi (Mêng-sun) 何熙
Noted for height, died of sickness after successfully fighting tribes.
和洽 (陽士)
Ho Hsia (Yang-shih) 和洽 (阳士)
Rescued Mao Jie from jail but unable to restore his rank. Supported Cao Pi’s succession and ascension.

Notes: Also known as He Qia. Appears as He He in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

何晏 (平叔)
Ho Yen (P‘ing-shu) 何晏 (平叔)
Was a trusted friend of Cao Shuang, a leading writer and philosopher. Took drugs.
Ho I 何仪
Yellow Scarves commander. Captured Runan after the Yellow Scarves rebellion.
何颙 (伯求)
Ho Yong (Po-ch‘iu) 何顒 (伯求)
Recognised Cao Cao and Xun Yu as men who could deal with the troubles.

Notes: Known name is He Yu (何禺) in SGYY.

何曾 (穎考)
Ho Tsêng (Ying-k‘-ao) 何曾 (颖考)
Son of He Kui. Advised Sima Zhao to make his eldest son Sima Yan his heir.

Notes: Occasionally turns up as He Ceng.

何楨 (元幹)
Ho Chên (Yüan-kan) 何桢 (元幹)
Father of Empress He, became General of Chariots and Cavalry.
Ho Chih 何植
Grandson of He Qi. Son of He Da. Sun Hao’s Minister of the Interior.
Name is Japanese N/A
Queen Himiko was the female ruler of pre-Japan’s Yamatai region. Contacted Wei in AD 238.

Notes: Sometime also called Pimiku or Pimiko. Precise pronunciation of her name is unknown as the kanji of her name were written prior to mid-20th century kanji reforms. Himiko may be a Chinese corruption of himemiko (princess priestess or lady shaman), which translates to ‘Sun Child’.

Hou Ch‘êng 侯成
Cavalry commander under Lü Bu. Defected to Cao Cao.
Hou Lan 侯览
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Tried to make off with Emperor Shao.
Hou Hsüan 侯选
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Surrendered to Cao Cao along with Han Sui.
Hou Yin 侯音
Led a revolt in Wan, capturing Dongli Gun but was defeated by Cao Ren.
Hu Pan 胡班
Son of Hu Hua. Helped Guan Yu during his 1,000 li journey from Cao Cao.
Hu Ch‘ê–êrh 胡赤儿
Advisor to Niu Fu. He betrayed him and sided with Lü Bu, who executed him.

Notes: Hu Che’er is frequently confused with Hu Juer of Zhang Xiu, but they are, indeed, separate people. Hu Che’er’s name is sometimes typed with or without an apostrophe (Che’er or Cheer), and at times with a hypen instead (Che-er). To complicate matters further, sometimes his name is mistranslated as ‘Chi’er’, with all the according grammatical variations.

Hu Ch‘ung 胡冲
Persuaded Sun Hao not to commit suicide but to surrender to Jin instead.

Notes: Also appears sometimes as Hu Zhong.

胡奮 (玄威)
Hu Fên (Hsüan-wei) 胡奋 (玄威)
Killed Zhuge Dan of Wu. Advised Du Yu to wait before attacking Jianye.
Hu Hua 胡华
Father of Hu Ban. Retired officer of the court under Emperor Huan. Met Guan Yu.
胡濟 (偉度)
Hu Chi (Wei-tu) 胡济 (伟度)
Based in Hanshou, went to Chengdu to get help to repel Wei’s invasion.
Hu Chüêrh 胡车儿
Served Zhang Xiu. Stole Dian Wei’s weapons as part of Jia Xu’s plan to defeat Cao Cao.

Notes: Ju1 is the former pronunciation of 車, which is now pronounced Che1. We hold true to the standard set by Moss Roberts and others, using the old pronunciation for an old historical figure. Besides, it helps to alleviate confusion between him and Hu Che’er of Niu Fu.

胡烈 (武玄)
Hu Lieh (Wu-hsüan) 胡烈 (武玄)
Took part in invasion of Shu, got former a vassal to warn his son about Zhong Hui’s revolt.
Hu Miao 胡邈
Privy counselor to Emperor Xian. Tried to calm an angry Huangfu Li to protect him.
Hu Shou 壶寿
Governor of Jizhou. Formed an alliance with Poison Yu. Defeated and executed by Yuan Shao.
胡淵 (世元)
Hu Yüan (Shih-yüan) 胡渊 (世元)
Son of Hu Lie, his army killed Zhong Hui and defeated Jiang Wei’s revolt.
胡軫 (文才)
Hu Chên (Wên-ts‘ai) 胡轸 (文才)
He led 5,000 men against Sun Jian but was killed by Cheng Pu after a few bouts.
胡質 (文德)
Hu Chih (Wên-tê) 胡质 (文德)
Governor of Dongwan, took part in Cao Xiu’s invasion of Wu.
胡綜 (偉則)
Hu Tsung (Wei-tse) 胡綜 (偉則)
Joined Sun Ce as a refugee, noted scholar for his liteary achievements.
Hu Tsun 胡遵
Led the van against Gongsun Yuan then led the van in an invasion of Wu’s Dongxing.
華覈 (永先)
Hua Ho (Yung-hsien) 华覈 (永先)
Told Sun Hao not to attack but to gain the love of the people. Left court bemoaning Wu’s fate.

Notes: Incorrectly translated in the Brewitt-Taylor edition as Hua Jiao.

Hua Man 花鬘
Hua Man is the fictional daughter of Meng Huo, as found in Koei games.
華佗 (元化)
Hua T‘o (Yüan-hua) 华佗 (元化)
A famous doctor from the Three Kingdoms period. Killed trying to avoid treating Cao Cao.
華歆 (子魚)
Hua Hsin (Tzŭ-yü) 华歆 (子鱼)
Head of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars. Promoted Emperor Xian’s abdication.
Hua Hsiung 华雄
Brave general in service to Dong Zhuo. Died in battle with Sun Jian.

Notes: Usually Hua is pronounced Hua2, but in the case of a Surname, is pronounced Hua4, hence Hua4 in the audio file.

桓範 (元則)
Huan Fan (Yüan-tsê) 桓范 (元则)
Known as “Bag of Wisdom”, his advice was not heeded by Cao Shuang. Jailed by Sima Yi.
桓階 (伯緒)
Huan Chieh (Po-hsü) 桓阶 (伯绪)
Negotiated the return of Sun Jian’s body. Involved with Xian’s abdication.

Notes: ‘Huan Jie’ 桓階 in novel chapters 7 and 8; ‘Huan Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition chapters 7 and 8. ‘Huan Jie’ (桓楷) in chapters 79 and 80. We recognize them as the same person; see ‘Fact vs. Fiction’ for more information.

Huan Shao 桓邵
Belittled Cao Cao, fled south when Cao Cao became powerful. Shi Xie sent him back and Cao Cao executed Shao.
Huang Ch‘êngyen 黄承彦
Father of Zhuge Liang’s wife. A prominent scholar of the Later Han Dynasty.

Notes: Incorrectly referenced as Huang Chenyan (承 [Cheng2] as ‘Chen’) in many sites, biographies, and in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Huang Ch‘ung 黄崇
Advised Zhuge Zhan to seize the high ground but was ignored. Killed by his soldiers.
黃蓋 (公覆)
Huang Kai (Kung-fu) 黄盖 (公覆)
Veteran general in Wu. Came up with the “Bitter Meat Plan” for Chibi.
Huang Hao 黄皓
Eunuch in service to Liu Shan. His advice helped to destroy Shu.
Huang Hua 黄华
Warlord of Jiuquan, due to the death of another warlord, he surrendered to Wei.
黃權 (公衡)
Huang Ch‘üan (Kung-hêng) 黄权 (公衡)
Served Liu Zhang and later Liu Bei. Surrendered to Wei out of necessity.
Huang Shao 黄邵
Yellow Scarves commander. Served with He Yi and He Man. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: In the novel, Sanguo yanyi, the Chinese characters used for Huang Shao’s name are huang2 shao4 黃劭. In Sanguozhi, the Chinese characters are huang2 shao4 黃邵. We have chosen to use the historic rendering.

Huang Shê 黄射
Defeated at Shaxian, then lost at Xiakou, friend of Mi Heng. Fate unsure.
Huang Hsü 黄叙
Served Shu. Huang Zhong’s son, died young without children.
Huang Yung 黄邕
Son of Huang Quan, who served Liu Zhang then Shu. Died without issue.
Huang Yüan 黄元
When Liu Bei became ill after Yiling, he rebelled. Defeated by Chen Hu.
Huang Yüehying 黄月英
Zhuge Liang’s wife. Huang Chengyan’s daughter. Was very smart, but not beautiful.
黃忠 (漢升)
Huang Chung (Han-shêng) 黄忠 (汉升)
Joined Liu Bei after Han Xuan’s defeat. One of the Five Tiger Generals.
Huang Chu 黃柱
Employed at Guiyang. Chen Shou recorded that most other information had been lost.
Huang Tsu 黄祖
Served under Liu Biao. Later killed by Gan Ning at Xiakou.
Huangfu K‘ai 皇甫闓
Officer of Wei and, later, Jin. Joined Zhong Hui in his conquest of Hanzhong.
Huangfu Li 皇甫郦
Served Emperor Xian. Charged with making peace between Li Jue and Guo Si.
皇甫嵩 (義真)
Huangfu Sung (I-chên) 皇甫嵩 (义真)
Imperial Commander under Han. Fought heavily against the Yellow Turban Rebellion.
Huch‘uch‘üan 呼厨泉
Helped Gao Gan against Zhong Yao then kept hostage by Wei after 216. Title died with him.
胡母班 (季皮)
Humu Pan (Chi-p‘i) 胡母班 (季皮)
Sent by Dong Zhuo to pursuade Yuan Shao to lay down his arms. Executed by Wang Kuang.

Notes: Hou Han shu records his style as Jiyou. SGZ: Yuan Shao.

Huo Tu 霍笃
Had a few hundred followers, he died young and his brother inherited his troops.
Huo Hu 火虎
Huo Hu, self-proclaimed master of powders, joins Liu Bei in Capcom’s Destiny of an Emperor.

Notes: Huo Hu 火虎 literally translates as Fire Tiger. As such, it was probably intended to be a title rather than a name. Furthermore, Huo 火 is not a proper surname. In Japanese, Huo Hu is pronounced Kako. Discussion. Also, Huo is actually pronounced Huo3 in Chinese, but because Hu3 is after it, it changes Huo3 to Huo2.

霍峻 (仲邈)
Huo Chün (Chung-miao) 霍峻 (仲邈)
Held Jiameng against Liu Zhang’s generals before his countering and defeating them.
Huo Nu 霍奴
Killed the Inspector of Youzhou and Governor of Zhuojun. Defeated and executed by Cao Cao.
Huo Hsing 霍性
Petitioned against Cao Pi’s inspection of the south. Tortured and executed before Pi changed his mind.
霍弋 (紹先)
Huo I (Shao-hsien) 霍弋 (绍先)
Son of Huo Jun, was concerned about lack of defences at Chengdu.
Ch‘i Chi 戚寄
Persuaded by Liu Fu to defect around the year 197.
嵇康 (叔夜)
Chi K‘ang (Shu-yeh) 嵇康 (叔夜)
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was exeuted by Sima Zhao.

Notes: Sometimes translated incorrectly as Xi Kang.

Chi Ling 纪灵
Served under Yuan Shu. A fierce warrior who was killed by Zhang Fei.
吉邈 (文然)
Chi Miao (Wên-jan) 吉邈 (文然)
Son of Ji Ping. Joined Geng Ji’s coup to avenge his father but was killed in the fighting.

Notes: Ji Miao sometimes appears as Ji Mao. The correct translation of 邈 is Miao.

吉穆 (思然)
Chi Mu (Ssŭ-jan) 吉穆 (思然)
Son of Ji Ping. Fled the capital but returned secretly. Died in Geng Ji’s coup.
Chi P‘ing 吉平
Court physician from Luoyang. Forced to commit suicide by Cao Cao.

Notes: Also referenced by the name Chi T’ai in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Called Ji Ben in SGZ and ZZTJ.

Chi Shao 嵇绍
Son of Ji Kang. Nominated to office after his father’s death by Shan Tao.

Notes: Sometimes translated incorrectly as Xi Shao.

賈充 (公閭)
Chia Ch‘ung (Kung-lü) 贾充 (公闾)
Suggested usurpation of the throne to Sima Yan and opposed invasion of Wu.
Chia Fan 贾范
Officer of Gongsun Yuan. Was executed by Yuan for opposing his declaration of independence.
Chia Hua 贾华
Officer of Wu. Guarded Sun Quan at the battle of Hefei.
賈逵 (梁道)
Chia K‘uei (Liang-tao) 贾逵 (梁道)
Served as strategist to Cao Xiu, seeing through Zhou Fang’s plot.
Chia Hsin 贾信
Left to guard Liyang while Cao Cao went to fight Liu Biao. Defeated two rebels.
賈詡 (文和)
Chia Hsü (Wên-ho) 贾诩 (文和)
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.

Notes: Jia Xu is pronounced Jia2 Xu3 because of the 3rd tone preceeding the second in his normal given name. His name and style name should be pronounced and said as “Jia3 Wen2 He2”, not “Jia2 Wen2 He2”

Chien Shuo 蹇硕
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by fellow eunuch Guo Sheng.

Notes: The character 碩 can also be translated as Shi and in some academic sources this is considered to be the standard translation (e.g. anything by Rafe de Crespigny). We are using Jian Shuo because that is the most commonly used Romanization.

簡雍 (憲和)
Chien Yung (Hsien-ho) 简雍 (宪和)
Trusted friend of Liu Bei, a wit and often used as envoy. Persuaded Liu Zhang to surrender.

Notes: Jian Yong’s family name may have originally been ‘Geng’ (耿), but in the Youzhou dialect ‘Geng’ it was pronounced ‘Jian’, so he changed it.

Chiang Pan 蒋班
Advised Zhuge Dan to force a battle to escape but was rejected. Surrendered to Wei.
Chiang Pin 蒋斌
Served Shu as a general under Liu Shan. Later surrendered to Zhong Hui.
蔣幹 (子翼)
Chiang Kan (Tzŭ-i) 蒋干 (子翼)
Friend of Zhou Yu, he was sent to spy on Wu but was tricked, helping to cause Wei’s defeat at Chibi.
Chiang Kung 江宫
Bandit who was defeated and killed by Li Tong.
蔣濟 (子通)
Chiang Chi (Tzŭ-t‘ung) 蒋济 (子通)
Advised against moving the capital when Guan Yu attacked. Helped Sima Yi deal with Cao Shuang.

Notes: Known as Drunkard Jiang in his early days. Also known as Master Jiang for the works he wrote.

蔣欽 (公奕)
Chiang Ch‘in (Kung-i) 蒋钦 (公奕)
Led the volunteer forces that joined Sun Ce in the battle of Qu’e.
Chiang Shih 蒋石
Local leader, sent Han Sui’s head to Cao Cao. May have killed Han Sui.
Chiang Shu 蒋舒
Jiang Wei highly prized his talent, was disgruntled and defected in Wei’s invasion.
蔣琬 (公琰)
Chiang Wan (Kung-yen) 蒋琬 (公琰)
Served Shu starting with the Yi invasion. Trusted and influential. Died as Regent.
姜維 (伯約)
Chiang Wei (Po-yüeh) 姜维 (伯约)
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
Chiang Hsien 蒋显
Sent by Liu Shan to order Jiang Wei to surrender.
姜敘 (伯奕)
Chiang Hsü (Po-i) 姜叙 (伯奕)
Helped to drive out Ma Chao, but Ma Chao killed his mother, defeated Ma Chao again later on.
Chiang Ich‘ü 蒋义渠
Officer of Yuan Shao. Comforted Yuan Shao after his defeat at Guandu.
姜子牙[呂望] (子牙)
Chiang Tzŭya [Lü Wang] (Tzŭ-ya) 姜子牙[吕望] (子牙)
Zhou Dynasty. Legendary historical figure. Resided by the Weishu River 3,000 years ago.

Notes: Lü Wang is most commonly referred to as ‘Jiang Ziya’ a combination of his ancestral name, Jiang (姓), and his style name, Ziya (子牙). ‘Lü Wang’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ‘Jiang Ziya’ in Warriors Orochi 2.

Chiao Ch‘u 焦触
Served Yuan Xi with Zhang Nan. Betrayed to Cao Cao. Killed by Han Dang at Chibi.
Chiao Chiao (Chiao Chêngch‘iang) 焦矫(焦征羌)
Head of a powerful family in Runan. Treated Bu Zhi poorly when he came for aid.

Notes: Jiao Jiao, as Magistrate of Zhengqiang, also became known as Jiao Zhengqiang (as such you may see him referenced by this name). The name Qiao has also been associated with him and we are attempting to source it.

Chiao I 焦彝
Advisor of Zhuge Dan, slipped over the walls and surrendered to Wei.
伊籍 (機伯)
Yin Chi (Chi-po) 伊籍 (机伯)
Received favour comparable to Mi Zhu, helped compile the administrative code.

Notes: ‘Yi Ji’ in novel translations and games. ’伊’, Romanized, is Yin, as is the case in Rafe de Crespigny’s works and is the standard Romanization of other instances in names. As such, Yin Ji instead of Ji Yi [Wade-Giles: I Chi].

Chin Shang 金尚
Imperial Protector of Yangzhou. Executed after declining office from Yuan Shu.
金旋 (元機)
Chin Hsüan (Yüan-chi) 金旋 (元机)
Served as Governor of Wuling. Defeated by Zhang Fei.

Notes: Called Jin Shun in Liu Bei’s SGZ.

金祎 (德禕)
Chin I (Tê-i) 金禕 (德祎)
Descendant of Jin Midi. Advised Geng Ji on killing Wang Bi. Died fighting in the coup.

Notes: May also have been Jin Wei, son of Jin Shang.

Chinhuansanchieh 金环三结
An officer of Meng Huo, he died fighting the Shu army during their attack.

Notes: ‘Jinhua Sanjie’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Chü Ku 沮鹄
Maintained Handan. Defeated by Zhang Liao and shot while fleeing.

Notes: Appears in some Koei games, and a few other sources, as Ju Hu.

Chü Kuang 鞠光
Rebelled against Wei in Xiping, but was killed by his own followers.
Chü Shou 沮授
Urged caution when attacking Cao Cao but was ignored and demoted.
闞澤 (德潤)
K‘an Tsê (Tê-jun) 闞泽 (德润)
Delivered Huang Gai’s false letter of defection to Cao Cao.
King Ch‘êlichi 彻里吉大王
Fictional. King of Western Qiang. Ally of Cao Rui.

Notes: Frequently written ‘King Cheli Ji’.

King Tossŭ 思朵大王
Officer of Meng Huo. Said to be the wisest man in all of Nanman.
King K‘opinêng 轲比能大王
Unifier of the Xianbei tribe. Fought often with Wei until he was assassinated.

Notes: You may also see him as Kebinang, Ke Binang, Kebe Neng, Kebe Nang, etc.

King Mêng Huo 孟獲大王
Ruled Nanman after Shamoke’s death. Captured and released seven times by Kongming.

Notes: In pronunciation, Meng is his surname, Huo his given name. Da means “big/large” and Wang means King, for your information, Wang2 is only one word for King, Emperors have different titles, usually Huang2 Di4.

King Mulu 木鹿大王
A Nanman chieftan. Initially drove back Zhuge Liang’s armies with his magic.
King Shamok‘o 沙摩柯大王
Originally a tribal leader, he helped Liu Bei at Yiling but died fighting Wu.
King Wut‘uku 兀突骨大王
Ruled the cave dwelling Wuguo Kingdom in south China. Twelve spans tall.
孔融 (文舉)
K‘ung Jung (Wên-chü) 孔融 (文举)
A famed scholar who did not always get on with his lords. One of the Seven Masters.
K‘ung Shang 孔尚
Great-great-grandfather of Kong Rong, who served Wei.
K’ung Hsien 孔羡
Descendant of Confucius who was enfeoffed by Cao Pi for the purpose of offering sacrifice to Confucius.
K‘ung Hsiu 孔秀
One of the defenders of the Passes killed by Guan Yu.
孔昱 (世元)
K‘ung Yü (Shih-yüan) 孔昱 (世元)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. Scholar who took a moral line on when to serve.

Notes: Also known as Kong Yi (Yi4 翊). Styled Shiyuan or Yuanshi (Yuan4shi4 元世).

K‘ung Chou (Chi-chiang) 孔宙
Father of Kong Rong and Kong Bao. Steele was set up on his death.
孔伷 (公緒)
K‘ung Chou (Kung-hsü) 孔伷 (公绪)
Known for his eloquent way of speaking. He joined alliance against Dong Zhuo.

Notes: Sometimes you can find his name incorrectly translated as Kong You2.

蒯良 (子柔)
K‘uai Liang (Tzŭ-jou) 蒯良 (子柔)
Adviser of Liu Biao. Came up with the plan that resulted in Sun Jian’s death.
K‘uai Ch‘i 蒯祺
Governor of Fangling. Killed by Meng Da’s troops. Supposedly related to Kuai Yue.
蒯越 (異度)
K‘uai Yüeh (I-tu) 蒯越 (异度)
Younger brother of Kuai Liang. Became a vassal of Wei when Cao Cao took Jing.
Lü Yu 吕由
Officer of Tao Qian. Defeated by Cao Ren when Cao Cao attacked Xuzhou.
Lady Pao 鲍夫人
Mother of Bao Chu. She lived more than 100 years.
Lady Pu [Pu Lienshih] 步夫人[步练师]
Lian Shi in Dynasty Warriors 7. Made Empress upon her death, was noted for not being jealous.

Notes: Lian Shi (步夫人) in Dynasty Warriors 7. Also Bu Lianshi (步練師).

Lady Ting 丁夫人
Cao Cao’s first wife, she blamed him for Cao Ang’s death and they divorced.
Lady Tung 董夫人
Arrested and executed due to her father’s plots against Cao Cao despite being pregnant.
Lady Tu 杜夫人
Married to Qin Yilu. Guan Yu wished to marry her but Cao Cao took her instead.

Notes: Du Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Li 李夫人
Killed herself when her husband Ma Miao surrendered to Wei.

Notes: Appears as ‘Li Shi’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Liu 刘夫人
Yuan Shao’s wife. Mother of Yuan Shang.
Lady Mi 糜夫人
Consort of Liu Bei. Mi Zhu’s sister. Took her own life so Zhao Yun could save Liu Shan.
Lady P‘an 潘夫人
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Was a native of Juzhang in Kuaiji.
Lady Sun [Sun Shanghsiang] 孙妃[孙尚香]
Sun Quan’s sister. Married to Liu Bei by Sun Quan, but later returned to Wu.

Notes: Sun Shangxiang is Lady Sun’s name in most Koei Games. ‘Sun Ren’ (孫仁) in the seventh chapter of Romance of the Three Kingdoms (learn more; not a duplicate mention of Sun Lang). Also appears as Sun Li at times. Both Sun Ren and Sun Li are incorrect and have no bearing on her true name, which is unknown.

Lady Sun 孙夫人
Daughter of Sun Ce. Wife of Lu Xun. Her marriage bonded the Lu and Sun families.

Notes: Sun Shi in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Lady T‘ang Chi 唐姫夫人
Favorite concubine of Liu Bian, danced for him as he died. Daughter of Tang Mao.

Notes: ‘Lady Tang’ in various translations of the novel.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Second only to Madam Bu, Sun Luban slandered her to death.

Notes: Lady Wang of Langya. Not to be confused with Lady Wang of Nanyang.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Mother of Sun Xiu. Was a native of Nanyang.

Notes: Lady Wang of Nanyang. Not to be confused with Lady Wang of Langya.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Mother of Liu Xie (Emperor Xian). Concubine to Emperor Ling. Poisoned by Empress He.
Lady Wu 夫人吴
Mother of Sun Quan and Sun Ce. Wife to Sun Jian. Endorsed marriage of lady Sun.
Lady Hsi Shih 西施夫人
Spring and Autumn Period. One of the Four Beauties of Ancient China. Lived in Zhuji, capital of Yue.
Hsiahou Lingnü 夏侯夏侯
Married to Cao Wenshu, a relative of Cao Shuang, mutilated herself rather then marry again.
Lady Hsü 夫人徐
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Was a native of Fuchun in Wu Commandary.
Lady Yang 杨夫人
Admired Wang Yi so convinced Ma Chao to trust Zhao Ang. Ang’s revolt led to her death.

Notes: Yang Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Chujung 祝融妃
Wife of King Meng Huo. Said to be descended from the Goddess of Fire.

Notes: Zhu4rong2 is her name, but Fei1 means literally “imperial concubine”

Lady Tsou 邹氏
Former wife of Zhang Ji. Caught Cao Cao’s fancy while staying with Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Appears as ‘Lady Zhou’ in Koei games, and in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Lady Zou’s name is strange in meaning. Zou1 is a surname as expected, but Shi4 is a clan or maiden name.

Lai Kung 赖恭
Driven away by Wu Ju, he later became a senior minister for Liu Bei.
來敏 (敬達)
Lai Min (Ching-ta) 来敏 (敬达)
Tested Fei Yi over a game of Weiqi, educated Liu Shan but may have been slightly crazy.

Notes: Called Liu Min in poisonpie’s novel listing.

Lang Chih 郎稚
Rose up in revolt in 211 but was defeated by He Qi.
Lei Po 雷薄
Serves Yuan Shu, then later leaves to join the Mt. Songshan Bandits with Chen Lan.

Notes: Also known as Lei Pu and possibly the same as Lei Xu.

Lei T‘ung 雷铜
Officer of Liu Zhang and, later, Liu Bei. Killed by Zhang He at Baxi.
Lei Hsü 雷绪
Leader of dissidents, driven away by Xiahou Yuan with his many followers.

Notes: May be Lei Bo.

Lêng Pao 冷苞
Fought Wei Yan and Huang Zhong, he was captured twice. He was executed the second time.

Notes: Sometimes erroneously referred to as Ling Bao.

Hired Hua Tuo but rejected his warning that his wife carried twins. Lost both children.
Li Ch‘êng 李成
A patient of Hua Tuo, he was cured but was unable to get medicine after a relapse.
Li Ch‘êng 栗成
Overthrown by Heishan bandits led by Yu Du and killed.
李典 (曼成)
Li Tien (Man-ch‘êng) 李典 (曼成)
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
Li Fêng (Hsüan-kuo) 李丰
Famed from a young age, had a habit of faking illness. Plotted against Sima Shi.

Notes: Also styled Anguo

Li Fêng 李丰
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Li Deng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Li Fêng 李封
Served Lü Bu. Killed by Xu Chu after neglecting his post in Yanzhou.

Notes: ‘Li Fang’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Li Fu (Sun-tê) 李辅
Chief Secretary. Sent by Liu Shan to check on the dying Zhuge Liang.
李孚 (子憲)
Li Fu (Tzŭ-hsien) 李孚 (子宪)
Snuck through the Wei lines into Ye and then back out again.

Notes: ‘Li Mu’ in chapter 32 and ‘Li Qu’ in chapters 79 and 80, and ‘Li Zu’ in chapter 97 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish from others named Li Fu.

Li Ku 李固
Sent by Emperor Xian to give Li Jue rank as Grand Marshal.
Li Hu 李虎
Zong chieftain who submitted to Cao Cao. Moved North when Liu Bei took Hanzhong.
李恢 (德昂)
Li Hui (Tê’-ang) 李恢 (德昂)
Begged Liu Zhang not to let Liu Bei in, persuaded Ma Chao to surrender to Liu Bei.
Li Chi 李基
Son of Li Tong who inherited his rank.
Li Chin 李进
Defeated Lü Bu’s attack of his home town Shengshi.
李傕 (稚然)
Li Chüeh (Chih-jan) 李傕 (稚然)
Served Dong Zhuo. Later took control of the imperial court with Guo Si.
Li Chün 李俊
Local lord used by Jiang Xu to defeat Ma Chao. Was later enoffed and became a general.
Li K‘an 李堪
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Accidentally killed by Yu Jin’s arrow.
Li Lê 李乐
Bandit who helped Xian escape Li Jue’s grasp, found the boat used to cross the river.
Li Li 李利
Performed badly against Ma Teng so slandered his commander Fan Chou.
李立 (建賢)
Li Li (Chien-hsien) 李立 (建贤)
Appointed as Inspector of Jing after Liu Cong’s surrender.
Li Mêng 李蒙
Helped Li Jue take Chang’an but was later executed by Ma Teng.
李密 (令伯)
Li Mi (Ling-po) 李密 (令伯)
Student of Qiao Zhou, evaluated the abilities of Liu Shan and his works were highly valued.
Li Min 李旻
Captured alive by Xu Rong after Sun Jian’s defeat and boiled to death.
Li Ch‘ien 李乾
Had heroic qualities, served Cao Cao early on but was killed in Lü Bu’s revolt.
Li Ch‘iu 李球
Officer of Shu. Died defending Mianzhu during Deng Ai’s attack on the city.
李權 (伯豫)
Li Ch‘üan (Po-yü) 李权 (伯豫)
Influential man in Shu, executed by Liu Yan on a pretext.
李仁 (德賢)
Li Jên (Têhsien) 李仁 (德贤)
Studied in Nanyang, was widely read and an expert in many fields.
Li Ju 李儒
Served Dong Zhuo as an advisor. Died with his lord’s ambitions.
李邵 (永南)
Li Shao (Yung-nan) 李邵 (永南)
Clerical officer, Jiang Wei was later compared to Li Shao by Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Style also known as Weinan.

Li Shêng 李升
Killed by Ma Xing’s revolt in one of their first acts.

Notes: Also called Yi Pou.

李勝 (公昭)
Li Shêng (Kung-chao) 李胜 (公昭)
Member of Cao Shuang’s faction, he was sent to check on Sima Yi’s health.
Li Shu 李术
Killed Wei’s Yan Xiang but then rebelled again against Quan and was executed.
李肅 (偉恭)
Li Su (Wei-kung) 李肃 (伟恭)
Using Red Hare and other gifts he persuaded Lü Bu to kill Ding Yuan and join Dong Zhuo.
Li Su (Wei-kung) 李肃
An excellent judge of talents, he would later be held in high honour by the people.
李通 (文達)
Li T‘ung (Wên-ta) 李通 (文达)
An officer of Wei. Saved Cao Cao’s rearguard in the retreat from Zhang Xiu.
Li Wênhou 李文侯
Part of Beigong Boyu’s rebellion. Killed by Han Sui, who took command of his troops.
Li Hsien 李暹
Nephew of Li Jue. Helped Li Jue smuggle out the Emperor. Killed by Xu Chu.
Li Hsin 李歆
Officer of Shu. Achieved merit in Jiang Wei’s first northern campaign.
Li Hsü 李绪
Son of Li Tong who was stationed at Fancheng, where he achieved some merit.
李嚴 (正方)
Li Yen (Chêng-fang) 李严 (正方)
A talented officer, exiled after he forged a decree to cover up failure of supplies.

Notes: Li Yan changed his name to Li Ping (李平)after rising in Shu authority.

Li I 李异
General of Sun Huan. Slain by Guan Xing in the novel.
Li I 李意
Immortal who warned Liu Bei what would happen should he attack Wu.

Notes: Known as Li Yi in the novel.

Li I 李遗
Li Hui’s son.

Notes: There are two ways to display 遺 in Pinyin: Yi and Wei. We use Yi2.

Li Ying 李膺
Governor of Henan. Visited and impressed by a young Kong Rong.
Li Ying 李应
Opposed Li Jue’s wish to execute his former superior Zhao Wen and won.
Li Itzŭ 李移子
Oath brother of Gongsun Zan, disreputable cloth seller.
Li Yung 李永
An attentive man, he was murdered by Dian Wei on order of a rival.
Li Chên 李祯
An acquittance of Li Jue, he reassured the general about the courtiers being armed.
Li Chêng 李整
Sent to collect his father’s troops, he defeated Xue Lan and Li Feng.
李譔 (欽仲)
Li Chuan (Ch‘in-chung) 李譔 (钦仲)
Fond of practical jokes, admired by Liu Xuan but not given important tasks. Skilled scholar
Liang Poning 梁伯宁
A Yellow Scarves leader in Yingchuan. Defeated and killed by Fu Xie in AD 184
Liang Ta 梁大
Vassal of Liu Bei, he was defeated by Yue Jin.
Liang Kang 梁綱
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
梁鵠 (孟皇)
Liang Ku (Mêng-huang) 梁鹄 (孟皇)
Famed writer, the Wei Heng’s Siti Shu Shixu accuses him of fraud.
Liang K‘uan 梁宽
Revolted against Ma Chao at Yicheng, executing Ma Chao’s family.
Liang Lung 粱龙
Led a rebellion in Jiaozhi. Was defeated and killed by Zhu Jun.

Notes: Long may not have been his given name. It might have been his nickname: “Dragon Liang”

涼茂 (伯方)
Liang Mao (Po-fang) 凉茂 (伯方)
Advised Gongsun Du against attacking Ye while Cao Cao was on campaign elsewhere.
Liang Ch‘i 梁岐
Surrendered his county to Cao Cao in 204.
Liang Shao 粱绍
Had arguments with Yuan Shao and held hostage by Li Jue. Held eunuch rank yet was a man.

Notes: Dr. Rafe de Crespigny notes his personal name as either 邵 or 紹

Liang Shuang 梁双
In 210, as a local rebel he stormed Xi city but later made peace with the authorities.
梁習 (子虞)
Liang Hsi (Tzŭ-yü) 梁习 (子虞)
He pacified the Xiongnu and some of Bing, noted for good governance.
Liang Hsing 梁兴
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Killed by Ma Chao in an attempt to protect Sui.
Liang Hsü 梁绪
Originally of Wei, he submitted to Zhuge Liang and was made Governor of Tianshui.
Liang Yen 梁衍
Advised Huangfu Song to raise troops against Dong Zhuo.
梁寓 (孔儒)
Liang Yü (K‘ung-ju) 梁寓 (孔儒)
Sent to spy on Wei court and ask for permission to attack Guan Yu.
Liao Ch‘un 廖淳
Served at Yiling, Jiang Wan recommended him for rank.
廖化 (元儉)
Liao Hua (Yüan-chien) 廖化 (元俭)
Officer in service of Shu. Served through the full span of the Shu Kingdom.

Notes: Also known as Liao Chun (廖淳).

廖立 (公淵)
Liao Li (Kung-yüan) 廖立 (公渊)
Arrogant officer who neglected his duties, was demoted by Zhuge Liang.
Ling Ts‘ao 凌操
Served Wu. Was killed in one of Gan Ning’s arrow attacks fighting Huang Zu.
凌統 (公績)
Ling T‘ung (Kung-chi) 凌统 (公绩)
Served Wu. Resented Gan Ning for killing his father, Ling Cao, but later forgave him.
Linghu Yü 令弧愚
Plotted against Sima Yi but died before it could begin.
Liu A 刘阿
Defeated by Liu Bei at Yi Ling. Later defeated by Zhang He.
Liu Ai 劉艾
Chief Clerk to Dong Zhuo. A famous historian who authored the Lingdi Ji.

Notes: ‘Liu Cai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉巴 (子初)
Liu Pa (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 刘巴 (子初)
Rescued Shu’s economy after Liu Bei’s troops had plundered the treasury.
Liu Pang [Kaotsu] 刘邦[高祖]
Founder of the Han dynasty. Fought with Xiang Yu for control of China and eventually won.

Notes: Also known by his temple name, Emperor Gaozu of Han. Originally Liu Ji (劉季). Emperor Gao (高帝). Gao Huangdi (高皇帝).

Liu Pao 刘豹
United many Hun tribes so Deng Ai suggest stirring up trouble. Father of Liu Yuan.
劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

劉表 (景升)
Liu Piao (Ching-shêng) 刘表 (景升)
Inspector of Jing province under the Han. Opposed the Sun family militarily.
Liu Ch‘an 刘阐
Described as affectionate and generous with other people.
Liu Ch‘ên 刘谌
Liu Shan’s fifth son. Rather than surrender to Wei, he committed suicide.

Notes: Also known as Liu Chan in some versions of the novel.

Liu Ch‘êng 刘丞
Guarded the gates of the palace. Executed by Sun Chen for taking part in Sun Liang’s plot.
Liu Ch‘ung 刘宠
During the Yellow Scarves rebellion he created his own kingdom. Killed by Yuan Shu.
Liu Ts‘ung 刘琮
Inherited Liu Biao’s kingdom upon his death, then surrendered it to Cao Cao.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Liu Zong’, but this is incorrect.

劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Fought Liu Bei with Wang Zhong but had no success.
劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Governor of Yan. Attacked the Qingzhou Yellow Scarves, but was killed.
Liu Tan 刘诞
Son of Liu Yan, executed alongside Liu Fan after a failed coup against Li Jue.
Liu Têjan 刘德然
A student of Lu Zhi’s, related to Liu Bei whose own studies were paid for by Deran’s father.
Liu Tu 刘度
Governor of Lingling. He surrendered to Liu Bei after his son was defeated.
Liu Fan 刘范
Han Left Imperial Corps Commander. Helped Ma Teng. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
劉放 (子棄)
Liu Fang (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘放 (子弃)
Recommended Cao Shuang as joint regent of Cao Fang. A brilliant writer, Han lineage.
Liu Fêng 刘封
Liu Bei’s adopted son. Executed after the death of Guan Yu at Zhuge Liang’s suggestion.

Notes: ‘Kou Feng’ (寇封) before Liu Bei adopted him.

劉馥 (元穎)
Liu Fu (Yüan-ying) 刘馥 (元颖)
His farming and defence improvements in Yangzhou allowed Wei to keep control of the area.
Liu Kuei 刘璝
Sent to hold Luocheng, he advised visiting a local sage. Cut down by Zhang Yi.

Notes: Sometimes appears in games as Liu Kui.

Liu Ho 刘郃
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Liu Ho 刘何
General, captured by Cao Ren.
Liu Ho 刘和
Ordered to escape capital and seek help for Xian. Captured by Yuan’s, later sent against Zan.
Liu Hung 刘弘
Liu Bei’s father. Son of Liu Xiong, said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.

Notes: His given name was originally Shan (山) and later Yi (義).

劉弘 (于高)
Liu Hung (Yü-kao) 刘弘 (于高)
Occupied high post but was sacked so Dong Zhuo could have his job.
Liu Hu 刘虎
Sent to aid Huang Zu while he was being attacked by Sun Ce.
Liu Hui 刘徽
Mathematician and cartographer of the Wei Dynasty. He obtained a more precise value of Pi, and edited the “The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art”
劉基 (敬輿)
Liu Chi (Ching-yü) 刘基 (敬舆)
Favoured in court by Sun Quan. Stopped a drunken Quan from executing Yu Fan.
Liu Chün 刘俊
Attacked Mianzhu while Liu Bei welcomed Ma Chao. Killed by Zhao Yun.
Liu Chün 刘隽
A county magistrate in Wuwei. Killed by Qu Sheng during the Liang Rebellion.
Liu K‘ungtz‘ŭ 刘孔慈
Skilled at speaking quickly. He and Wang Zifa were favorites of Kong Rong.
Liu K‘uan (Wên-yao) 刘宽
A kind man, once fell into drunken sleep during court meeting. Warned about the Turbans,
劉理 (奉孝)
Liu Li (Fêng-hsiao) 刘理 (奉孝)
Third son of Liu Bei. Married to Ma Chao’s daughter.
Liu Liang 刘良
Predicted Lady Zhen would have a great future.
劉梁 (曼山)
Liu Liang (Man-shan) 刘梁 (曼山)
Confucian Scholar. Wrote books advocating the elimination of court factionalism.
刘伶 (伯倫)
Liu Ling (Po-lun) 刘伶 (伯伦)
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.
Liu Lüeh 留略
General under Zhuge Ke, defended against Wei.
Liu Mao 刘瑁
A favourite of Liu Yan, illness incapacitated when Zhang took control.
Liu Min 刘敏
Was of some renown, agreed with Wang Ping’s Hanzhong plan.
Liu Ning 刘宁
Participated in Liu Bei’s attack on Wu, but was defeated and surrendered.
Liu P‘an 刘磐
Attempted guerilla warfare against Sun Ce but was foiled by Taishi Ci.
Liu P‘i 刘辟
After rebelling with the Yellow Scarves, moved to Runan. Later joined Liu Bei.
Liu P‘ing 留平
Officer of Wu. Was executed by Sun Hao for objecting to his cruelty.
Liu P‘ing 刘平
Either noted Liu Bei’s talent or tried to kill Liu Bei, depends what source.

Notes: Also known as Liu Ziping.

Liu Ch‘i 刘琦
Eldest son of Liu Biao and legitimate heir of Jing. Became close friends with Liu Bei.
Liu Jo 刘若
High on list of petitioners to make Cao Cao a Duke and Cao Pi emperor.
劉禪 (公嗣)
Liu Shan (Kung-ssŭ) 刘禅 (公嗣)
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.

Notes: Also known by his infant name, A-Dou (阿斗). See Liu Shan’s Comprehensive Officer Biography for more information on his name.

Liu Shao 刘邵
Sent with Mi Fang to take Qichun and took Jin Zong captive.
劉劭 (孔才)
Liu Shao (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘劭 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Rui to save Jiangxia from Wu. Compiled a considerable number of works.
Liu Shêng 刘胜
Liu Bei’s ancestor. Prince of Jing of Zhongshan. Son of Emperor Jing of Han.
Liu Shih 刘石
Defeated by Yuan Shao.
劉寔 (子真)
Liu Shih (Tzŭ-chên) 刘寔 (子真)
Predicted Shu would fall but also that neither Deng Ai nor Zhong Hui would return.
劉陶 (子奇)
Liu T‘ao (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘陶 (子奇)
Accused the eunuchs of bringing down the Han and was murdered.
Liu Wangchih 刘望之
Gave honest criticism that wasn’t received well, asked to go home.
Liu Wei 刘卫
Killed by local Yellow Turban forces.
Liu Hsien 刘贤
Liu Du’s son. Defended Lingling with Xing Daorong against Liu Bei, but failed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xiang’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsien (Shih-tsung) 刘先
Served under Liu Cong with Deng Yi. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xin’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsiang 刘详
Sent to defend Kuangting, reinforced by Yuan Shu when Cao Cao attacked.
Liu Hsieh 刘偕
Failed to get supplies from local tribe so advised a quick attack on them.
Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Liu Bei’s grandfather. Said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.
Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Defeated by Xiahou Yuan, took in refugees and was popular with the people.
劉璿 (文衡)
Liu Hsüan (Wên-hêng) 刘璿 (文衡)
Son of Liu Shan, and his crown prince. Died during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.

Notes: Called Liu Rui in Moss Roberts and Brewitt Taylor translations of the novel.

Liu Hsün 刘循
Raised a force against Yuan Tan at Tayin.
劉勳 (子臺)
Liu Hsün (Tzŭ-t‘-ai) 刘勋 (子台)
Tricked into abandoning his city by Sun Ce and fled to Cao Cao. Executed for extortion and corruption.

Notes: ‘Liu Xu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Liu Yen 刘延
Grand Administrator of Dong commandery. Yuan Shao sent Yan Liang to attack him.

Notes: ‘Liu Yue’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉焉 (君郎)
Liu Yen (Chün-lang) 刘焉 (君郎)
Liu Zhang’s father. Magistrate in the Yi territory after fighting Yellow Scarves.
劉琰 (威碩)
Liu Yen (Wei-shih) 刘琰 (威硕)
Former Administrator of Yizhou. Executed after accusing Liu Shan of seducing his wife.

Notes: Liu Yan’s style, Weishi, is also translated as Weishuo. Either may turn up in references. Called Liu Yang in the Brewett-Taylor version of the novel.

劉繇 (正禮)
Liu Yao (Chêng-li) 刘繇 (正礼)
Imperial Inspector of Yangzhou. Liu Dai’s brother. Defeated by Sun Ce, then died of illness.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Liu Yong’ in many Koei games, along with a few other video games. Historical sources, and nearly all novel translations, use ‘Liu Yao’ instead.

劉曄 (子揚)
Liu Yeh (Tzŭ-yang) 刘晔 (子扬)
With other officials, went to Emperor Xian to petition his abdication to Cao Pi.
Liu I 刘翊
Sent to trick Xun Yu into giving Lü Bu supplies but Xun Yu saw through the lie.
劉廙 (恭嗣)
Liu I (Kung-ssŭ) 刘廙 (恭嗣)
Among the officials that petitioned Emperor Xian to abdicate to Cao Pi.
劉翊 (子相)
Liu I (Tzŭ-hsiang) 刘翊 (子相)
Saved several hundred people from famine during the Yellow Scarves Rebellion.
劉邕 (南和)
Liu Yung (Nan-ho) 刘邕 (南和)
Joined Liu Bei during the Yizhou Campaign. Made Administrator of Jiangyang.
劉虞 (伯安)
Liu Yü (Po-an) 刘虞 (伯安)
Governor of Youzhou during the Later Han. Quelled Zhang Ju’s rebellion.
劉淵 (元海)
Liu Yüan (Yüan-hai) 刘渊 (元海)
Grandson of the Xiongnu chief Yufuluo. Founded the Han-Zhao dynasty.
Liu Yüanch‘i 刘元起
Liu Bei’s uncle. Recognized Liu Bei’s ambition, and worked to maintain the family.
Liu Yün 贇贇
King of Ji’nan. Killed by Yellow Turbans in 207.
留贊 (正明)
Liu Tsan (Chêng-ming) 留赞 (正明)
Father of Liu Lue. Marched to meet Wei’s invasion on Zhuge Ke’s orders.
劉璋 (季玉)
Liu Chang (Chi-yü) 刘璋 (季玉)
Son of Liu Yan. Governed Ba-shu before Liu Bei took his kingdom out from under his feet.
劉楨 (公幹)
Liu Chên (Kung-an) 刘桢 (公干)
A brilliant writer, he admonished Cao Zhi for not listening to Xing Yong.
Liu Chêng 刘正
Left Beihai for Liaodong, gathering followers. Later returned to Beihai with Taishi Ci.
Liu Chêng 刘政
Administrator of Youbeiping. Killed in the rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju.
劉助 (孔才)
Liu Chu (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘助 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Cao to reinforce Zhao Yan, who was having trouble with mutineers.
Liu Tzŭhui 刘子惠
Advised Han Fu to wait and see what the other lords did before joining in.
Liu Tzŭching 刘子敬
Liu Yuanqi’s brother
Liu Chou 刘胄
Led revolt against Shu but was defeated by Ma Zhong.
K‘ou 侯寇
Father of Liu Feng, who Liu Bei adopted as his heir. His family held a county fief in Changsha.
Lou Fa 娄发
Rebelled against Liu Zhang but was defeated and fled to Jing.
婁圭 (子伯)
Lou Kuei (Tzŭ-po) 娄圭 (子伯)
A former officer of Jing, assured Cao Cao that Liu Cong’s surrender was real.

Notes: ‘Lou’ and ‘Lu’ are both accepted ways of writing 婁. As such, his name is sometimes written ‘Lu Gui’.

樓玄 (承先)
Lou Hsüan (Ch‘êng-hsien) 楼玄 (承先)
Executed for rebuking Sun Hao about his tyranny.
Lou I 楼异
Offers up his horse to the injured Cao Cao, helping him escape from Lü Bu’s troops.
Liu Chan 刘展
Was part of the petition to make Cao Cao Duke.
Lou-pan 楼班
Along with Tadun, assisted Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi in opposing Cao Cao.
Lü Pa 吕霸
Son of Lü Meng, was given hereditary nobility.
Lü Poshê 吕伯奢
Friend of Cao Song. Killed by the fleeing Cao Cao.
呂布 (奉先)
Lü Pu (Fêng-hsien) 吕布 (奉先)
Said to be the finest warrior of the Three Kingdoms era. Executed by Cao Cao.
Lü Ch‘ang 吕常
Father of Lü Yi (Jiyang). He served Liu Yan and followed him into Yizhou.
路粹 (文蔚)
Lu Ts‘ui (Wên-yü) 路粹 (文蔚)
Slandered Kong Rong which resulted in Kong Rong’s execution. Executed by Cao Cao.
呂岱 (定公)
Lü Tai (Ting-kung) 吕岱 (定公)
General of Wu. Executed the last vestiges of the Shi clan in Jiao province.
呂範 (子衡)
Lü Fan (Tzŭ-hêng) 吕范 (子衡)
Was an aide to Yuan Shu, but left for Sun Ce. Suggested Lady Sun’s marriage.
陸績 (公紀)
Lu Chi (Kung-chi) 陆绩 (公纪)
During his youth, he was said to have stolen an orange from Yuan Shu to give to his mother.
陸景 (士仁)
Lu Ching (Shih-jên) 陆景 (士仁)
The second son of Lu Kang and Wu Grand Admiral. Died in battle with Jin forces.
呂據 (世議)
Lü Chü (Shih-i) 吕据 (世议)
Second son of Lü Fan and an officer of Wu. Killed by Sun Chen.
陸凱 (敬風)
Lu K‘ai (Ching-fêng) 陆凯 (敬风)
Together with Wan Yu, shared the responsibility of Prime Minister under Sun Hao.

Notes: Listed incorrectly as ‘Lu Kuai’ in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

呂凱 (季平)
Lü K‘ai (Chi-p‘ing) 吕凯 (季平)
Served Shu with Wang Kang. Was Kongming’s guide while battling against the Nanman.
陸康 (季寧)
Lu K‘ang 陆康 (季宁)
Criticised Emperor Ling and the eunuchs, held out for two years despite facing Sun Ce.
陸抗 (幼節)
Lu K‘ang (Yu-chieh) 陆抗 (幼节)
Lu Xun’s second son. Known to be as capable a commander as his father.
Lü K‘uang 吕旷
Served Yuan Shang. Defected to Yuan Tan then Cao Cao. Attacking Liu Bei, killed by Zhao Yun.
Lu K‘uei 鲁馗
Served Han as Court Steward. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
呂蒙 (子明)
Lü Mêng (Tzŭ-ming) 吕蒙 (子明)
Served Wu. Originally a skilled warrior, turned out to be a scholar as well.

Notes: The Lü surname is pronounced Lü2 because of the preceeding Meng, which is 3rd tone, the same rule applies when pronouncing the style name because Zi3 is also third tone.

呂虔 (子恪)
Lü Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-k‘o) 吕虔 (子恪)
Served Cao Cao, and later Cao Pi, as Military Aide.
Lu Shu 鲁淑
The son of Lu Su. Praised as a capable military commander.
Lu Shui-hu 盧水胡
Rebel based in Liangzhou.
魯肅 (子敬)
Lu Su (Tzŭ-ching) 鲁肃 (子敬)
Brilliant and insightful Wu commander. Was ambassador to Shu.

Notes: When saying Lu Su’s surname and style name together the surname should be pronounced Lu2 instead of Lu3 because of the tone preceeding it.

Lü Weihuang 吕威璜
Officer of Yuan Shao. Guarded Wuchao as a lieutenant of Chunyu Qiong.
Lü Hsiang 吕翔
Younger brother of Lü Kuang, whom he followed everywhere.

Notes: He is known as Lü Xiang in SGZ and SGYY, and Gao Xiang (高翔) in HHS and ZZTJ.

Lu Hsün 卢逊
Officer of later-Shu. Defeated Zhong Hui at Nanzheng, but was later killed by Xun Kai.
陸遜 (伯言)
Lu Hsün (Po-yen) 陆逊 (伯言)
Famous and brilliant Wu commander that defeated Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: Originally named Lu Yi (陸議).

呂乂 (季阳)
Lü I (Chi-yang) 吕乂 (季阳)
Served Shu as Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time.

Notes: Some Brewitt-Taylor translations incorrectly list Lü Yi as ‘Lu Yin’. Some books, historical or simplified, including some Chinese Moss Roberts translations, list Lü Yi’s name as 呂義 or its simplified variant 呂义. They are presented as the same person because the two names are both used in reference to the same person, a Lü Yi who was Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time, and because there is no reference to another Lü Yi in Shu.

盧毓 (子家)
Lu Yü (Tzŭ-chia) 卢毓 (子家)
Lost his family in civil war, he rose up through the ranks to become an Excellency.
陸雲 (士龍)
Lu Yün (Shih-lung) 陆云 (士龙)
Son of Lu Kang. Served Wu and later Jin. Executed during the War of the Eight Princes.
Lu Yüshêng 陆郁生
Daughter of Lu Ji of Wu.
Lu Chao 路招
Dispatched with Liu Bei to block Yuan Shu’s attempts to get to Yuan Shao.
盧植 (子幹)
Lu Chih (Tzŭ-kan) 卢植 (子干)
Imperial Corps Commander in service of Han. Was Liu Bei’s teacher and friend.
Lun Chih 伦直
He was beheaded for criticizing Gongsun Yuan’s plan to revolt.
羅本 (貫中)
Lo Pên (Kuan-chung) 罗本 (贯中)
Better known as Luo Guanzhong. Credited for having authored the Sanguo yanyi.

Notes: In discussion and reference his style name is nearly always used, hence ‘Luo Guanzhong’.

駱俊 (孝遠)
Lo Chün (Hsiao-yüan) 骆俊 (孝远)
Many children were named after him. Killed by Yuan Shu’s agents over supplies.
Lo Mêng 罗蒙
Luo Xian (Lingze)’s father. Served in Shu to avoid the chaos in the land.
駱統 (公緒)
Lo T‘ung (Kung-hsü) 骆统 (公绪)
Vassal of Sun Quan, famed for being a poor yet honourable man, loyal to his step mother.
羅憲 (令則)
Lo Hsien (Ling-tsê) 罗宪 (令则)
Luo Meng’s son. Served in Shu under Liu Shan. Did not support Huang Hao.
Ma Ai 马艾
Held office as Administrator of Dunhuang.
Ma Ping 马秉
Son of Ma Liang.
馬超 (孟起)
Ma Ch‘ao (Mêng-ch‘i) 马超 (孟起)
Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
Ma Ch‘êng 马承
Son of Ma Chao, inherited his father’s titles.
Ma Tai 马岱
Ma Chao’s cousin. He surrendered to Liu Bei with Ma Chao.
馬鈞 (德衡)
Ma Chün (Tê-hêng) 马钧 (德衡)
Master of Works for Cao Rui. Advised the Emperor to drink Celestial Elixir.
馬良 (季常)
Ma Liang (Chi-ch‘ang) 马良 (季常)
Administered Jing after Liu Bei took Shu. Nicknamed ‘White Eyebrows’.
馬隆 (孝興)
Ma Lung (Hsiao-hsing) 马隆 (孝兴)
Fought the Xianbei and defeated the rebel Tufa Shujineng.
Ma Miao 马邈
Surrendered Jiangyou castle prompting his wife to commit suicide.
馬日磾 (翁叔)
Ma Miti (Wêng-shu) 马日磾 (翁叔)
Sent as envoy to stop the war between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan.
Ma P‘u 马普
A scholar of history, he fled south during the civil war. Sun Yu lavished him with gifts.
馬齊 (承伯)
Ma Ch‘i (Ch‘êng-po) 马齐 (承伯)
Became a Minister of Writing, known for his ability.
Ma Ch‘in 马秦
Bandit leader with Gao Sheng, killed by Li Yan.
Ma Ch‘iu 马秋
Son of Ma Chao, handed over to Zhang Lu by Cao Cao and was killed.
馬謖 (幼常)
Ma Su (Yu-ch‘ang) 马谡 (幼常)
Ma Liang’s younger brother. Executed by Zhuge Liang after his failure at Jie Ting.
馬騰 (壽成)
Ma T‘êng (Shou-ch‘êng) 马腾 (寿成)
Governed Xiliang. Descendant of the famous warrior Ma Yuan. Ma Chao’s father.
Ma T‘ieh 马铁
Killed in a volley of arrows as Cao Cao attacks the Ma’s outside Xuchang.
Ma Wan 马玩
Served under Han Sui. Tried to protect Han Sui from Ma Chao, but failed.
Ma Hsiu 马休
Second son of Ma Teng. Executed by Cao Cao on his way to Xuchang.
Ma Hsiu 马脩
Son of Ma Zhong (Dexin). His family continued service in Jin after Shu’s surrender.
馬勳 (盛衡)
Ma Hsün (Ch‘êng-hêng) 马勋 (盛衡)
Served in varying positions under Liu Bei, showed ability and was trusted.
Ma Yen 马延
Served Yuan Shang, and later Cao Cao. Killed by Gan Ning.
Ma Yü 马宇
Han Privy Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ma Yü 马玉
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
馬援 (文淵)
Ma Yüan (Wên-yüan) 马援 (文渊)
General of the Han who campaigned against the Vietnamese. Ma Teng was descended from him.
Ma Yüani 马元义
Follower of Zhang Jue and the Yellow Scarves. Torn asunder by chariots for treason.
Ma Yünlu 马云騄
Fictional character from Fan Sanguo Yanyi. Ma Teng’s daughter. Married to Zhao Yun.

Notes: Sometimes appears incorrectly as Ma Yunli.

Ma Chung 马忠
Captured Guan Yu and Guan Ping. Executed to satiate Liu Bei in the novel.
馬忠 (德信)
Ma Chung (Tê-hsin) 马忠 (德信)
Served Shu notably during the northern and southern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as Hu Du (狐篤). Mistranslated as Ma Zheng in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

Ma Tsun 马遵
Was defeated by Shu and fled to Hu, drives Jiang Wei into Shu by his paranoia.
滿寵 (伯寧)
Man Ch‘ung (Po-ning) 满宠 (伯宁)
Served Cao Cao as Military Aide. Helped to repel Shu’s fifth northern campaign.
Mangyach‘ang 忙牙长
Second in command to the Nanman’s armies. Killed by Ma Dai.
Mao Kan 毛甘
Leader of a group of Chinese renegades, conquered by He Qi in 208.
Mao Chia 毛嘉
A joke among the court, Cao Rui held drinking parties at his house.
毛玠 (孝先)
Mao Chieh (Hsiao-hsien) 毛玠 (孝先)
Served as Military Aide to Cao Cao. Later Staff Supervisor, then Naval Commander.
Mao Chiung 毛炅
Made General, plotted to raid Tao Huang but was discovered and executed.
毛綸 (聲山)
Mao Lun (Shêng-shan) 毛纶 (声山)
Father of Mao Zonggang. One of two authors behind the Mao edition of Sanguo yanyi.
毛宗崗 (序始)
Mao Tsungkang (Hsü-shih) 毛宗岗 (序始)
Son of Mao Lun. One of two authors behind the Mao edition of Sanguo yanyi.
Mei Ch‘êng 梅成
Bandit lord with Chen Lan, he feigned surrender to Yu Jin and revolted again.
Mei Fu 梅敷
His defection left a hole in the local area that turned into no man’s land.
Mei P‘ing 梅平
Forced to return home due to illness, Hua Tuo warned him he had only five days to live.
[Mêng K‘o] 孟子[孟轲]
Chinese philosopher. Often considered to the most famous Confucian outside Confucius himself.

Notes: Rarely referenced as Meng Ke (sometimes Meng Ko), his actual name. Best known as ‘Mencius’, a variation of the name Mengzi (孟子). Posthumously named Master Meng the Second Sage (亞聖孟子; Yàshèng Mèngzǐ).

The Dugu clan of Tang trace their ancestry through this man.
孟達 (子敬)
Mêng Ta (Tzŭ-ching) 孟达 (子敬)
Refused aid to Guan Yu. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, kills Xu Huang.

Notes: Meng Da was originally styled Zijing (子敬), but later changed his style to Zidu (子度) because the uncle of his lord, Liu Bei, was named Liu Jing.

Mêng Tai 孟岱
Warned Yuan Shao that Shen Pei planned to rebel but Shen Pei was too loyal.
孟光 (孝裕)
Mêng Kuang (Hsiao-yü) 孟光 (孝裕)
Raised concerns over Liu Xuan’s education, an arrogant but bright scholar.
孟建 (公威)
Mêng Chien (Kungwei) 孟建 (公威)
Friend of Xu Shu and Zhuge Liang. Joined Wei. Became Inspector of Liang Province.

Notes: ‘Meng Gongwei’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

Mêng Yao 孟曜
Helped Du Kui create music fit for the Imperial Court. Music which Du Kui’s moral objections meant it never got used.
Mêng I 孟溢
Sent to aid Gongsun Zan in the failed camapign against Zhang Ju and Zhang Chun.
Mêng Yu 孟优
Meng Huo’s brother. Captured by Zhuge Liang.
孟宗 (恭武)
Mêng Tsung (Kung-wu) 孟宗 (恭武)
One of the 24 paragons of filial piety, almost executed for leaving post to attend funeral.

Notes: Originally named Meng Ren (孟仁).

麋芳 (子方)
Mi Fang (Tzŭ-fang) 麋芳 (子方)
Mi Zhu’s brother. Served all three kingdoms. Surrendered to Wu after threat of punishment from Guan Yu.
彌衡 (正平)
Mi Hêng (Chêng-p‘ing) 弥衡 (正平)
Reputable scholar. Infuriated Cao Cao’s officers with his audacious ways.

Notes: Called Ni Heng in the ZZTJ.

麋竺 (子仲)
Mi Chu (Tzŭ-chung) 麋竺 (子仲)
Served Shu. Mi Fang’s brother. Died shortly after Mi Fang’s betrayal.
繆裴 (文雅)
Miao P‘ei (Wên-ya) 缪裴 (文雅)
Widely read in the classics, refused all offers of employment.
Miao Shang 缪尚
Was left behind by Zhang Yang’s killer to guard the area.
Miao Ssŭ 苗祀
In charge of the residence of Empress Fu. Killed during the fighting in Hongnong.
繆襲 (熙伯)
Miao Hsi (Hsi-po) 缪袭 (熙伯)
One of the historians that worked on the Wei shu.
Michia 弥加
Allied with Tanshihuai, Wei and Kebineng. Established trading links with Wei.
Michia 弥加
Xianbei chieftain who offered trade with Wei.
閔純 (伯典)
Min Ch‘un (Po-tien) 闵纯 (伯典)
Opposed surrendering to Yuan Shao and was executed.

Notes: Guan Chun (關純) in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. These characters are from the original text, so Guan Chun is the proper novel translation.

Min Kung 闵贡
Han commander in the Henan district. Killed eunuch Duan Gui. Helped Emperor Shao.
Mo Ssŭ 莫嗣
Disapproved of the outlandish fashions among men and women’s clothing
沐并 (德信)
Mu Ping (Tê-hsing) 沐并 (德信)
A poor orphan, became a man of strong principle, willing to face down powerful opposition.
Mu Shun 穆顺
General of Governor Zhang Yang. Killed by Lü Bu in a duel.
Mu Shun 穆顺
Plotted to save Emperor Xian with Empress Fu and Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.
Nan Tou 南斗
God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Nandou (in Sagittarius).
Nalou 那楼
A Wuhuan chieftain. Surrendered to Cao Cao after the Wuhuan’s defeat.
Nêngch‘ênti 能臣抵
Wuhuan chieftain. Surrendered to Cao Cao in 207, but rebelled with Pufulu later on.
Ning Sui 宁随
Officer in Shu’s later years. Offered Jiang Wei a plan that repelled Deng Ai.
Niu Tan 牛亶
Sent by the Han to replace Liu Zhang when Zhao Wei rebelled.
Niu Fu 牛辅
Fought against Lü Bu and Li Su, after Dong Zhuo’s death. Killed by Hu Che’er.

Notes: In Koei’s Dynasty Warriors 2-4 his name was presented as ‘Niou Fu’.

Niu Kai 牛盖
Also known as 朱蓋 Zhu Gai. Helped defeat Chen Lan in 209. Accompanied Xu Huang to Fan.
Niu Chin 牛金
Subordinate of Cao Ren. Attacked Zhou Yu’s camp at Nanjun, but was defeated and rescued by Cao Ren.
Nüwa (Nu Wa) 女娲
Chinese goddess. Created mankind from the yellow earth and repaired the Wall of Heaven.



Novel and History

Officers and Kingdoms

Literature and Language


March 7, 2014