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Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Officers C

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Officers C: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Ts’ai Fang 蔡方
Rebel who killed Licheng county’s governor Xu Zhi.
Ts‘ai Kung 蔡貢
Attacked Bu Chan of Xiling, traitor to Wu, who turned from the country in 272.
Ts‘ai Ku 蔡谷
Warned his cousin Cai Yong that fleeing Dong Zhuo would fail due to Yong’s fame.
Ts‘ai Ho 蔡和
Cai Mao’s brother. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but executed by Zhou Yu.
Ts‘ai Lin 蔡林
Officer of Zhuge Ke, he defected to Wei with his entire company at Xincheng.
蔡瑁 (德珪)
Ts‘ai Mao (Tê-kuei) 蔡瑁 (德圭)
Assisted Liu Biao in taking control of Jingzhou, prevented Liu Qi from visiting father.
Ts’ai Hsün 蔡埙
Relative of Cai Mao, killed with an arrow by Gan Ning in a navy battle.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

Ts‘ai Yang 蔡扬
Sent to take Runan from Liu Bei and Liu Pi but failed and was killed.

Notes: His given name may be either ’揚’ or ’陽’.

Ts‘ai I 蔡遗
Filed complaints against the uncultured Lü Meng. Later recommended by Meng for a job.
蔡邕 (伯喈)
Ts‘ai Yung (Po-chieh) 蔡邕 (伯喈)
Advised Emperor Ling’s court. Hated the eunuchs. Died honoring Dong Zhuo.

Notes: In some Wade-Giles translations of the novel Cai Yong is incorrectly listed as Ch’ai Yung.

Ts‘ai Chung 蔡中
Cai Mao’s cousin. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but was killed by Gan Ning.
倉慈 (孝仁)
Ts‘ang Tz‘ŭ (Hsiao-jên) 仓慈 (孝仁)
Governor of Dunhuang, his handling of foreign affairs gave him a great reputation.
Ts‘ang Hsün 仓恂
Son of Cang Ci. Served as a military official in Jinping.
曹昂 (子脩)
Ts‘ao Ang (Tzŭ-hsiu) 曹昂 (子脩)
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s first son. Died to save his father.
Ts‘ao Anmin 曹安民
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s nephew. Died in the battle against Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Cao Amin’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Ts‘ao Pao 曹豹
Beaten and later slain by Zhang Fei. He caused Lü Bu’s attack on Xuzhou.
曹彪 (朱虎)
Ts‘ao Piao (Chu-hu) 曹彪 (朱虎)
Cao Zhi wrote a poem about him. Cao Biao would later be found guilty of treason.
Ts‘ao Puhsing 曹不兴
Such a good painter, his pictures seemed to come alive.
曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

Ts‘ao Ch‘an 曹阐
Replaced his deceased brother as Cao Zheng’s descendant.
Ts‘ao Ch‘ên 曹谌
Grandson of Cao Jun, inherits his father’s rank.
Ts‘ao Ch‘êng 曹乘
Prince, died without issue.
曹沖 (倉舒)
Ts‘ao Ch‘ung (Ts‘ang-shu) 曹冲 (仓舒)
One of Cao Cao’s sons. Possessed an adult’s intelligence at age 5, but died young.
曹純 (子和)
Ts‘ao Ch‘un (Tzŭ-ho) 曹纯 (子和)
Cao Ren’s younger brother. Defeated by Zhou Yu in the southern cities.
Ts‘ao Tê 曹德
Brother of Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Kai with his father Cao Song.
Ts‘ao Fan 曹范
Adopted to continue the line of the deceased Cao Zheng. Died without issue.
曹芳 (蘭卿)
Ts‘ao Fang (Lan-ch‘ing) 曹芳 (兰卿)
Cao Rui’s crown prince. Became Emperor at age eight. Deposed by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Fu 曹馥
Son of Cao Hong. Inherited his father’s fief and title.
Ts‘ao Kan 曹干
Son of Cao Cao, contemplated revolt against Cao Rui.
Ts‘ao Kun 曹衮
Noted for his scholarship and quiet conduct. Wrote essays when young.

Notes: Called Cao Kun in the ZZTJ.

Ts‘ao Hung 曹宏
Friend of Tao Qian, he killed many innocent people and disturbed the province.
曹洪 (子廉)
Ts‘ao Hung (Tzŭ-lien) 曹洪 (子廉)
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s cousins and a vital element of his army.
曹奐 (景明)
Ts‘ao Huan (Ching-ming) 曹奂 (景明)
Son of Cao Yu. Last Emperor of the Wei Dynasty. Abdicated to Sima Yan.

Notes: Originally named Cao Huang (曹璜). An Emperor’s given name was ineffable. As such, it was stricken from use (sometimes changing city names and re-writing literature). Cao Huang changed his name to Huan to lessen the impact of this practice (learn more).

Ts‘ao Hui 曹徽
Maintained Cao Yu’s line. When Cao Cao died, he went hunting until reigned in.
Ts‘ao Chi 曹棘
Died early and was later made a Prince.
曹節 (元偉)
Ts‘ao Chieh (Yuan-wei) 曹节 (元伟)
The Chief of the Ten Regular Attendants under Emperors Huan and Ling of Han.
Ts‘ao Ching 曹京
Son of Cao Cao. Died young. Posthumously enfeoffed as a duke.
Ts‘ao Chiung 曹冏
First son of Cao Rui. Prince of Qinghe. Died the year he was born.
Ts‘ao Chü 曹据
Punished for having his men produce illegal goods. Lived in south for his health.
Ts‘ao Chün 曹均
Transferred to the line of his uncle, had a child.
Ts‘ao K‘ang 曹犺
Wei Duke, had son.
Ts‘ao Mao 曹茂
Arrogant, vicious and sinful, he had to wait a long time to be King, had large family.
曹髦 (彥士)
Ts‘ao Mao (Yen-shih) 曹髦 (彥士)
Grandson of Cao Pi. Was made Emperor after Cao Fang’s abdication by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Mu 曹穆
Second son of Cao Rui. Prince of Fanyang. Died young.
曹丕 (子桓)
Ts‘ao P‘i (Tzŭ-huan) 曹丕 (子桓)
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
曹全 (景完)
Ts‘ao Ch‘üan (Ching-yüan) 曹全 (景完)
Helped defeat the Turbans, a generous offical who was much admired.
曹仁 (子孝)
Ts‘ao Jên (Tzŭ-hsiao) 曹仁 (子孝)
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
曹儒 (俊林)
Ts‘ao Ju (Chün-lin) 曹儒 (俊林)
Served under Cao Zhang and then later against Wu. Became a Minister.
Ts‘ao Jui 曹蕤
Son of Cao Pi.
曹叡 (元仲)
Ts‘ao Jui (Yüan-chung) 曹睿 (元仲)
Emperor of Wei, he defended the dynasty from Shu and Wu, but was criticized for his spending.
Ts‘ao Ch‘in 曹勤
Died early without issue.
曹肇 (長思)
Ts‘ao Shao (Ch‘ang-ssŭ) 曹肇 (长思)
Son of Cao Xiu.
Ts‘ao Shên 曹参
Prime Minister under Liu Bang. Ancestor of Cao Cao.

Notes: Sometimes Romanized ‘Cao Can’.

Ts‘ao Shu 曹淑
Cao Rui’s daughter and fourth child. Died in infancy.
曹爽 (昭伯)
Ts‘ao Shuang (Chao-po) 曹爽 (昭伯)
Regent of Cao Fang. Underestimated Sima Yi, was stripped of power, and executed.
Ts‘ao Shuo 曹铄
Served Wei. The Prince of Xiangshang. Died at a young age.
曹嵩 (巨高)
Ts‘ao Sung (Chü-kao) 曹嵩 (巨高)
Adopted son of Cao Teng and father of Cao Cao. Also called Xiahou Song.

Notes: Occasionally listed as, and once named, Xiahou Song (夏侯嵩).

Ts‘ao T‘ai 曹泰
Son of Cao Ren. Succeeded his father’s fief and later became a general of Wei.
曹騰 (季興)
Ts‘ao T‘êng (Chi-hsing) 曹腾 (季兴)
Adopted Cao Song (formerly Xiahou), father of Cao Cao, into the Cao family. Eunuch.
Ts‘ao Hsi 曹羲
Warned his brother about his excesses but was ignored. Recommended surrender.
Ts‘ao Hsing 曹性
Slain by Xiahou Dun in battle, who lost an eye to the archery of this man.
Ts‘ao Hsiung 曹熊
Fourth son of Cao Cao from second wife Lady Bian.
曹休 (文烈)
Ts‘ao Hsiu (Wên-lieh) 曹休 (文烈)
Performed well against Shu and Wu but fell for Zhou Fang’s ploy at Shiting.
Ts‘ao Hsün 曹训
Cao Zhen’s third son. Younger brother of Cao Shuang. Executed by Sima Yi.
Ts‘ao Yen 曹演
Held military rank. In the 240’s, the fief he inherited was raised in rank.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹殷
Third son of Cao Rui. Posthumously Prince Ai of Anping. Died the year after he was born.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹寅
Prefect of Wuling. Forged a decree to Sun Jian calling for Wang Rui’s execution.
Ts‘ao Yung 曹永
General of Cao Ren. Killed by Pang De, who also took his horse.
曹宇 (彭祖)
Ts‘ao Yü (P‘êng-tsu) 曹宇 (彭祖)
Son of Cao Cao. Refused to be Regent to Cao Fang due to his modest nature.
曹彰 (子文)
Ts‘ao Chang (Tzŭ-wên) 曹彰 (子文)
Cao Cao’s second son by Empress Bian. Fond of martial arts. Died not long after Cao Cao.
曹真 (子丹)
Ts‘ao Chên (Tzŭ-tan) 曹真 (子丹)
Served Wei. Adopted into Cao family. Managed affairs after Cao Pi’s death.

Notes: Cao Zhen’s original family name was Qin. He was adopted into the Cao clan.

Ts‘ao Chêng 曹整
Adopted into the Cao Shao line but died without issue.
曹植 (子建)
Ts‘ao Chih (Tzŭ-chien) 曹植 (子建)
Cao Cao’s third son by Empress Bian. Originally favored as heir over Cao Pi. Famous poet.
Ts‘ao Tsun 曹遵
Relative of Cao Zhen. Appointed as vanguard against Zhuge Liang. Killed by Wei Yan.
Ts‘ên Pi 岑璧
Tried to taunt Yuan Shang into a duel but got Lü Kuang instead and was soon killed.
Ts‘ên Hun 岑昏
Eunuch and favourite of Sun Hao, he was killed and eaten by palace officials.
Ts‘ên Wei 岑威
Escort for the captured Wooden Horses but was killed by Wang Ping.
岑桎 (公孝)
Ts‘ên Chih (Kung-hsiao) 岑桎 (公孝)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Nanyang.
Ch‘ai Yü 柴玉
Well known bell maker, argued with Du Kui over a pair of them. Cao Cao made him a horse herder.
Ch‘ang Tiao 常雕
Led an attack on Ruxu but was ambushed and killed by Zhu Huan.
Ch‘ang Chi 常纪
Lost husband in 192, father killed in 195. Admired for her fine bearing in such times.
常林 (伯槐)
Ch‘ang Lin (Po-huai) 常林 (伯槐)
Advised Cao Pi to not lead the army against Su Bo and Tian Yin but to leave it to a vassal.
Ch‘ang Nu 苌奴
Helped Dong Cheng block Cao Hong from reaching Emperor Xian.
Ch‘ang Hsi 昌豨
One of the Taishan Bandits. Joined and rebelled against Cao Cao several times.
常洽 (茂尼)
Ch‘ang Hsia (Mao-ni) 常洽 (茂尼)
Claimed that Li Jue would not harm Zhao Wen. Killed during Emperor Xian’s flight.

Notes: Also called Chang Qia.

Ch‘ê Chou 车胄
Served Cao Cao. Provisional Protector/Imperial Inspector of Xuzhou.
Ch‘ên Pao 陈宝
General; sent to get Sun Ce’s family and bring them to Wu.
Ch‘ên Pao 陈宝
Tried to ravage and kill Lady Lu Rong.
陳寶 (盛先)
Ch‘ên Pao (Shêng-hsien) 陈宝 (盛先)
Celebrated throughout the west, honest and maintained strict conduct.

Notes: Also known as Chen Shi (陳實).

陳表 (文奧)
Ch‘ên Piao (Wên-ao) 陈表 (文奥)
Chen Wu’s son. Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Zhang Xiu, and Gu Tan.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ê 陈策
Bandit defeated in 200 by Cao Cao, thanks to Liu Ye’s advice.
Ch‘ên Ch‘ao 陈超
Rose in revolt against Liu Yan with Ren Qi.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ung 陈琮
Son of Chen Qiu, became an administrator under Cao Cao.
陳耽 (漢公)
Ch‘ên Tan 陈耽 (汉公)
Loyal Minister that, due to slander by the eunuchs, was arrested and died in jail.
陳到 (叔至)
Ch‘ên Tao (Shu-chih) 陈到 (叔至)
Served Liu Bei since he held Yizhou. Held office just under Zhao Yun.
陳登 (元龍)
Ch‘ên Têng (Yüan-lung) 陈登 (元龙)
Spied on Lü Bu with his father, Gui, for Cao Cao. Joined Liu Bei, then surrendered to Cao.
Ch‘ên Tuan 陈端
One of the seven heroes who gave their lives so Zhao Qian could escape Turbans.
陳端 (子正)
Ch‘ên Tuan (Tzŭ-chêng) 陈端 (子正)
Advisor to Sun Ce, along with fellow countrymen Zhang Hong and Qin Song.
Ch‘ên Fan 陈蕃
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Imperial Guardian. Died opposing the eunuchs.
Ch‘ên Fêng 陈凤
Captured by Xie Jing and Li Yi, he surrendered to Wu.
Ch‘ên Kung 陈恭
Friend of Li Tong, helped him kill Zhou Zhi. Killed by his in-law Chen He.
陳宮 (公臺)
Ch‘ên Kung (Kung-t‘-ai) 陈宫 (公臺)
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
Ch‘ên Ho 陈郃
Killed Chen Gong, the husband of his sister but was defeated by Li Tong.
Ch‘ên Hêng 陈横
Van leader with Xue Li under Liu Yao. Shot by Jiang Qin when ambushed by Sun Ce.
Ch‘ên Hu 陈曶
Sent by Zhuge Liang to attack Huang Yuan.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈济
Served Shu. Chen Zhen’s son.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈纪
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
陳紀 (元方)
Ch‘ên Chi (Yüan-fang) 陈纪 (元方)
A highly respected minister, opposed Dong Zhuo’s plan to move the capital.
陳矯 (季弼)
Ch‘ên Chiao (Chi-pi) 陈矫 (季弼)
Known as a righteous, happy yet calm person. Highly respected governor.
Ch‘ên Chiu 陈就
Chief Controller, led Huang Zu’s navy but was killed by Lü Meng.
Ch‘ên Chün 陈俊
General of Sima Zhao. Participated in Sima Zhao’s campaign against Zhuge Dan.
Ch‘ên Lan 陈兰
Serves Yuan Shu, then later joined the Songshan Bandits with Lei Bo.

Notes: Chen Jian in To Esablish Peace

陳琳 (孔璋)
Ch‘ên Lin (K‘ung-chang) 陈琳 (孔璋)
Served under Emperor Ling, then under Yuan Shao. A superior writer.
Ch‘ên Mao 陈茂
Member of a powerful local family, slandered the family of Han Ji. Assassinated by Han Ji.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
Officer of Chen Yu, he was killed by Lü Fan.
Ch‘ên P‘ing 陈平
Former Han. A minister who served under Liu Bang.
Ch‘ên P‘u 陈仆
Leader of barbarians in the south, conquered by He Qi in 208.
陳騫 (休淵)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ien (Hsiu-yüan) 陈骞 (休渊)
A key Wei officer in the suppression of Zhuge Dan. Brigadier General of Jin.

Notes: Appears in some sources under the name Chen Xuan (陳鶱).

Ch‘ên Ch‘in 陈勤
Abused his power, insulted Ling Tong and Ling Cao at banquet, later killed.
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün 陈群
Served Cao Rui. Captain under Sima Yi in his campaign against Gongsun Yuan.
陳群 (長文)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün (Ch‘ang-wên) 陈群 (长文)
Served Wei. Imperial Censor under Cao Cao. Supreme Commander under Cao Pi.

Notes: Sometimes his style is referenced incorrectly as ‘Zhangwen’.

Ch‘ên Jung 陈容
Embarrassed Yuan Shao by rebuking him over Zang Hong’s revolt and was executed.
Ch‘ên Jung 陈融
Served Wu and compiled Precepts.
Ch‘ên Shêng 陈生
Rode out aid the exhausted Zhang Hu but was shot in the face by Sun Jian.

Notes: Also known as Chen Zuo.

Ch‘ên Shih 陈式
Rumored father of Chen Shou. Traded for Xiahou Shang at Hanzhong. Executed.
陳寔 (仲躬)
Ch‘ên Shih (Chung-kung) 陈寔 (仲躬)
A government official who was well-liked by many. Admired throughout the Empire.
陳壽 (承祚)
Ch‘ên Shou (Ch‘êng-tso) 陈寿 (承祚)
Served Shu and later Jin. Author of the highly-respected Three Kingdoms history, Sanguozhi.
Ch‘ên Su 陈肃
Made an imperial courtier by Cao Pi in honour of Chen Gui’s accomplishments.
Ch‘ên Sun 陈孙
Began pillaging the people of Jiangxia. Zhang Fei killed him in one blow.
陳泰 (玄伯)
Ch‘ên T‘ai (Hsüan-po) 陈泰 (玄伯)
Defended Wei against Jiang Wei. Wept at Cao Mao’s death, and died soon after.
Ch‘ên T‘ao 陈桃
Was said to have seen Yu Fan meeting with sages and immortals in his dreams.
陳調 (元化)
Ch‘ên T‘iao (Yüan-hua) 陈调 (元化)
Local strongman, tried to avenge his master but was wounded and died in battle.
Ch‘ên Wei 陈炜
Served Han as High Minister. Advisor to Li Ying. Mocked in jest by young Kong Rong.
陳溫 (元悌)
Ch‘ên Wên (Yüan-t‘i) 陈温 (元悌)
Inspector of Yangzhou, he helped Cao Hong raise troops and died of illness.
陳武 (子烈)
Ch‘ên Wu (Tzŭ-lieh) 陈武 (子烈)
Served Sun Ce as Commandant. Surrounded at Hefei and fought to his death.
陳翔 (仲麟)
Ch‘ên Hsiang (Chung-lin) 陈翔 (仲麟)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
An officer of Yan Baihu. Defeated by Lü Fan.
Ch‘ên I 陈祎
Protected Empress Bian but joined in Wei Feng’s plot. Then revealed the plot out of fear.
Ch‘ên Ying 陈应
Officer of Zhao Fan. Fought with Zhao Yun, but was later executed by him.

Notes: In Destiny of an Emperor 2 his name is incorrectly mistranslated as Chen Shu.

Ch‘ên Yü (Kung-wei) 陈禹
Tried to destroy Sun Ce by getting lords in the south to ally against him.
Ch‘ên Yüan 陈元
Officer of Yang Hu, advised against drinking wine sent by Lu Kang.
Ch‘ên Tsao 陈造
Vanguard of Cao Zhen’s army. Slain by Ma Dai.
陳震 (孝起)
Ch‘ên Chên (Hsiao-ch‘i) 陈震 (孝起)
Local official, was sent as emissary to Wu, swearing oath of alliance with Sun Quan.
程秉 (德樞)
Ch‘êng Ping (Tê-shu) 程秉 (德枢)
Advisor to Sun Quan. Sent as diplomat, with Zhang Fei’s head, to Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: ‘Cheng Deshu’ in chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms despite being Cheng Bing elsewhere.

Ch‘êng Kungying 成公英
Served Han Sui as a strategist. Suggested hiding among the Qiang. Submitted to Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng K‘o 程克
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
Ch‘êng K‘uang 程旷
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng Lien 成廉
General noted for his courage under Lü Bu. In novel, killed by Yue Jin.
Ch‘êng Liang 程良
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
程普 (德謀)
Ch‘êng P‘u (Tê-mou) 程普 (德谋)
Served three generations of the Sun family. From Tuyin in Youbeiping.

Notes: Incorrectly referred to as ‘Chen Pu’ once in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Ch‘êng Wu 程武
Served Wei. Son of Cheng Yu. Advised Xiahou Mao against Zhao Yun.
Ch‘êng I 成宜
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Attacked Chang’an with Ma Chao. Killed by Xiahou Yuan.
Ch‘êng Yin 程银
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Died fighting Cao Cao at Wei Nan.
程昱 (仲德)
Ch‘êng Yü (Chung-tê) 程昱 (仲德)
Served Wei as an advisor. From Dong’e in Dongjun.

Notes: Cheng (程) Li (立) was his original name, he dreamed about the mount Tai Shan when he was young, holding the sun (日) with both hands. Hence Cao Cao changed his name to Yu (昱) [Cheng Yu]. As you can see the word of Yu is composed with the word ‘sun’ (日) and the word ‘stand’ Li (立), together they form the word of Yu (昱).

Ch‘êng Yüanchih 程远志
Served Yellow Scarves as a chieftain. Killed by Guan Yu.
郗慮 (鴻豫)
Ch‘ih Lü (Hung-yü) 郗虑 (鸿豫)
Slandered Kong Rong leading to his death and took away the Empress’ seal.
Ch‘ung Fu (Ying-po) 种拂
Served Han as Minister of Ritual. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Ch‘ung Chi 种辑
Served Han as Changshui Commandant. Friend of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ch‘ung Shao (Shên-fu) 种邵
Han Court Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ch‘ung’êrh [Duke Wên of Chin] 重耳[晋文公]
Spring and Autumn Period. Chong’er, literally “Double Ears”, came to lead state of Jin.

Notes: ‘Er Chong’ in the Moss Roberts novel translation. ‘Er Chong’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. “Chong’er” literally translates to ‘Double Ears’, though there is no historic basis pointing out that he had unusual ears.

Wuhuan Ch‘u [Ch‘u of Wuhuan] 乌桓触
Tribal chief, swore fealty to Cao Cao rather then help the Yuan sons.

Notes: The characters of 烏桓 (wuhuan) are the same as those used for the Wuhuan tribe, thus ‘Chu of Wuhuan’ in many respected sources.

Ch‘unyü Tan 淳于丹
Sent by Lu Xun to test Liu Bei’s encampments. Is defeated and wounded.
淳于瓊 (仲簡)
Ch‘unyü Ch‘iung (Chungchien) 淳于琼 (仲简)
Served Yuan Shao. Mutilated by Cao Cao after failing Yuan Shao at Guandu.
Ch‘unyü Shih 淳于式
Complained to Sun Quan that Lu Xun was unnecessarily disrupting the people. Later was praised for Lu Xun as an excellent officer.
Ts‘uan Ku 爨谷
Governor of Jiaozhi. Allied with Jin and became powerful in the region.
Ts‘uan Hsi 爨习
A resident of Nanzhong. He later surrendered to Zhuge Liang, and his clan became powerful.
Ts‘ui Chün 崔钧
Joined alliance despite his father serving Dong Zhuo. Had reputation as fighting man.
Ts‘ui Liang 崔谅
Governor of Anding, tried to lure Shu army into trap but was killed by Zhang Bao.
崔烈 (威考)
Ts‘ui Lieh (Wei-k’ao) 崔烈 (威考)
Commandant of the Capital Gates. Cui Yi’s brother. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Yi’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

崔林 (德儒)
Ts‘ui Lin (Tê-ju) 崔林 (德儒)
Cui Yan’s younger cousin, discussed the scholars of Ji province with Chen Qun.
崔琰 (季珪)
Ts‘ui Yen (Chi-kuei) 崔琰 (季珪)
Scholar who served Yuan Shao then Cao Cao, who executed him for his opposition.
Ts‘ui I 崔毅
Served Han under Emperor Ling. Cui Lie’s brother.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Lie’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

Ts‘ui Yung 崔勇
Served Guo Si. Killed by Xu Huang after taunting Yang Feng.
Ts‘ui Yü 崔禹
Went to Sun Huan’s aid instead of Zhu Ran but was captured and executed.
崔均 (元平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Yüanp‘ing) 崔均 (元平)
Accompanied his father, wanted to avenge him but died of illness.
崔鈞 (州平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Choup‘ing) 崔钧 (州平)
One of Zhuge Liang’s close childhood friends. Friend of Xu Shu as well. From Boling.



Novel and History

Officers and Kingdoms

Literature and Language


March 7, 2014