Officer Names (CH/EN): All Officers

Three Kingdoms Officer Names: All Officers Category

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All Officers Category: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Akuei 阿贵
In 213, joined with ally Qianwan and Ma Chao. Defeated and killed by Xiahou Yuan.
Ahuinan 阿会喃
Served and executed by Meng Huo. Marshal of the Third Cave. Captured by Zhang Yi.

Notes: Some translations depict his name as Ahui Nan.

巴祇 (敬祖)
Pa Chih (Ching-tsu) 巴只 (敬祖)
An Inspector of Xu who held command against the Yellow Turbans, and reported on the excellent conduct of Zhao Yu.
Pai Ch‘i 白起
General of Qin, rumored to have been undefeated. Conquered the state of Chu.
鮑出 (文才)
Pao Ch‘u (Wên-ts‘ai) 鲍出 (文才)
Saved his mother and sister-in-law from bandits. Invited to office for his actions, but he refused.
Pao Hung 鲍鸿/洪
A colonel in the northern army who would later be reported embezzling local funds.
Pao Lung 鲍隆
Served Zhao Fan. Fell two tigers with a few arrows. Executed by Zhao Yun.
Pao Jung 鲍融
Son of Bao Shao, to whom the inheritance went after Bao Shao’s death.
Pao Sanniang 鲍三娘
Guan Suo’s wife. Both beautiful and skilled in combat. Fictional.
Pao Shao 鲍邵
Enfeoffed in memory of the loyalty of his father Bao Xin.
Pao Su 鲍素
Fictional officer of Jiang Wei. Acted as a decoy but was defeated and killed by Chen Tai.
Pao T’ao 鲍韬
Younger brother of Bao Xin who accompanied him against Dong Zhuo. Died in battle.
Pao Hsin 鲍信
Urged Yuan Shao to attack Dong, invited Cao Cao to govern Yan. Died fighting Turbans.
鮑勛 (叔業)
Pao Hsün (Shu-yeh) 鲍勋 (叔业)
Strict morality meant Xun had conflicts with Cao Pi, was eventually executed.
Pao Chung 鲍忠
Served Bao Xin, his brother. Died in battle with Hua Xiong.
Pei Tou 北斗
God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Beidou (in Big Dipper).
Pei Yen 卑衍
Served Gongsun Yuan. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, fell in a duel against Xiahou Ba.
Pei Yü 贝羽
A county magistrate in Nan. Independent in AD 190, later submitted to Liu Biao.
Peikung Poyü 北宮伯玉
Lead mutiny of troops then Qiang revolt. Huangfu Song and Zhang Wen failed to put him down.
Pi Ch‘ên 毕谌
Aide to Cao Cao, his family was captured and he left only to be captured later.

Notes: Also called Bi Cheng in the SGZ.

畢軌 (昭先)
Pi Kuei (Chao-hsien) 毕轨 (昭先)
Officer of Cao Shuang’s faction, executed by Sima Yi after Sima Yi’s coup.
Pi Lan 毕岚
One of the 12 Regular Attendants who was known for his engineering achievements.
Pi Yü 毕瑜
Sent with seal to Liu Yu who rejected the appointment and may have executed Bi Yu.
Pien Ping 卞秉
Served Wei. Brother of Empress Bian.
Pien Ho 卞和
Historically, a statesman of Chu. Discovered the jade from which the imperial seal was crafted.
Pien Hung 边鸿
Part of Sun Yi’s escort, he assassinated his master after dusk. Executed by his co-conspirators.
Pien Lan 卞蘭
Close to both Cao Pi and Cao Rui, an honest advisor. Suffered from diabetes.
邊讓 (文禮)
Pien Jang (Wên-li) 边让 (文礼)
Governor of Jiujiang. Killed by Xiahou Dun reinforcing Tao Qian against Cao Cao.
Pien Hsi 卞喜
Met Guan Yu with mock hospitality at Sishui Pass, and died for his trouble.
Pien Yüan 卞远
Father of Empress Bian. Posthumously enfeoffed as marquis.
Pien Chang 边章
Forced into leading the Qiang’s in revolt against the Han alongside Han Sui.

Notes: Originally named Bian Yuan (元).

? Ping ?昺
General who took part in a stele about Cao Pi’s rise to the Imperial Throne.
邴良 (文鸞)
Ping Liang (Wên-luan) 邴良 (文鸾)
Son of Bing Zhi, he served under Sun Ce.
邴玄 (文表)
Ping Hsüan (Wên-piao) 邴玄 (文表)
Succeeded Bing Liang in his post. His daughter married Sun Deng. Mourned by Sun Quan.
邴原 (根矩)
Ping Yüan (Kên-chü) 邴原 (根矩)
Friend of Hua Xin. Belly of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars.
邴祉 (宣嗣)
Ping Chih (Hsüan-ssŭ) 邴祉 (宣嗣)
An Administrator under Sun Jian who died in the early 190s
Po Po 白波
A leader of the Black Mountain Bandits who hailed from the Bobo valley.

Notes: While 白 is translated as ‘Bo’ in this case, and in the name of the valley from which Bo Bo hailed, 白 is most commonly translated as Bai. As such you may read of a Bai Bo who came from Baibo valley.

Po Ts‘ai 波才
Defeated Zhu Jun then lost to the combined armies of Zhu Jun, Huangfu Song and Cao Cao.
Po Jao 白绕
Black Mountain Bandit leader. Plundered Wan but was defeated by Cao Cao.
Po Shou 白寿
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Po Hsiaoch‘ang 柏孝长
An officer of Merit who first hid when Liu Biao attacked, but took part in fighting after 5 days.
Poku 伯固
King of a tribe as a minor in 130, he survived to give tribute to Gongsun Du in 190.

Notes: Known to Korean history as Paekko.

Poch‘üeh [White Sparrow] 白雀
Part of the Black Mountain Bandits in 185.
Pu Ch‘an (Chung-ssŭ) 步阐
Served Wu. Bu Zhi’s son. Surrendered his city to Jin. Killed by Lu Kang.
Pu Chi 步玑
Son of Bu Xie, sent by Bu Chan to Luoyang when the Bu family revolted.
卜靜 (玄風)
Pu Ching (Hsüan-fêng) 卜靜 (玄风)
Widely admired, he became a magistrate of Kuaiji under Sun Quan.
Pu Ssŭ 卜巳
Local leader, captured and killed by Fu Xie.

Notes: Also named Bu Yi

Pu Hsieh 步协
Son of Bu Zhi, became General who Consoles the Army.
Pu Hsüan 步璇
Youngest son of Bu Zhi, he took part in Bu Chan’s defection to Jin.
步騭 (子山)
Pu Chih (Tzŭ-shan) 步骘 (子山)
Served Sun Quan. Accurately predicted Guan Yu’s invasion of Jing.
Putukên 步度根
A Lord of the Xianbei. Allied with Wei, then allied and got killed by Kebineng.
Ts’ai Fang 蔡方
Rebel who killed Licheng county’s governor Xu Zhi.
Ts‘ai Kung 蔡貢
Attacked Bu Chan of Xiling, traitor to Wu, who turned from the country in 272.
Ts‘ai Ku 蔡谷
Warned his cousin Cai Yong that fleeing Dong Zhuo would fail due to Yong’s fame.
Ts‘ai Ho 蔡和
Cai Mao’s brother. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but executed by Zhou Yu.
Ts‘ai Lin 蔡林
Officer of Zhuge Ke, he defected to Wei with his entire company at Xincheng.
蔡瑁 (德珪)
Ts‘ai Mao (Tê-kuei) 蔡瑁 (德圭)
Assisted Liu Biao in taking control of Jingzhou, prevented Liu Qi from visiting father.
Ts’ai Hsün 蔡埙
Relative of Cai Mao, killed with an arrow by Gan Ning in a navy battle.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

Ts‘ai Yang 蔡扬
Sent to take Runan from Liu Bei and Liu Pi but failed and was killed.

Notes: His given name may be either ’揚’ or ’陽’.

Ts‘ai I 蔡遗
Filed complaints against the uncultured Lü Meng. Later recommended by Meng for a job.
蔡邕 (伯喈)
Ts‘ai Yung (Po-chieh) 蔡邕 (伯喈)
Advised Emperor Ling’s court. Hated the eunuchs. Died honoring Dong Zhuo.

Notes: In some Wade-Giles translations of the novel Cai Yong is incorrectly listed as Ch’ai Yung.

Ts‘ai Chung 蔡中
Cai Mao’s cousin. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but was killed by Gan Ning.
倉慈 (孝仁)
Ts‘ang Tz‘ŭ (Hsiao-jên) 仓慈 (孝仁)
Governor of Dunhuang, his handling of foreign affairs gave him a great reputation.
Ts‘ang Hsün 仓恂
Son of Cang Ci. Served as a military official in Jinping.
曹昂 (子脩)
Ts‘ao Ang (Tzŭ-hsiu) 曹昂 (子脩)
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s first son. Died to save his father.
Ts‘ao Anmin 曹安民
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s nephew. Died in the battle against Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Cao Amin’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Ts‘ao Pao 曹豹
Beaten and later slain by Zhang Fei. He caused Lü Bu’s attack on Xuzhou.
曹彪 (朱虎)
Ts‘ao Piao (Chu-hu) 曹彪 (朱虎)
Cao Zhi wrote a poem about him. Cao Biao would later be found guilty of treason.
Ts‘ao Puhsing 曹不兴
Such a good painter, his pictures seemed to come alive.
曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

Ts‘ao Ch‘an 曹阐
Replaced his deceased brother as Cao Zheng’s descendant.
Ts‘ao Ch‘ên 曹谌
Grandson of Cao Jun, inherits his father’s rank.
Ts‘ao Ch‘êng 曹乘
Prince, died without issue.
曹沖 (倉舒)
Ts‘ao Ch‘ung (Ts‘ang-shu) 曹冲 (仓舒)
One of Cao Cao’s sons. Possessed an adult’s intelligence at age 5, but died young.
曹純 (子和)
Ts‘ao Ch‘un (Tzŭ-ho) 曹纯 (子和)
Cao Ren’s younger brother. Defeated by Zhou Yu in the southern cities.
Ts‘ao Tê 曹德
Brother of Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Kai with his father Cao Song.
Ts‘ao Fan 曹范
Adopted to continue the line of the deceased Cao Zheng. Died without issue.
曹芳 (蘭卿)
Ts‘ao Fang (Lan-ch‘ing) 曹芳 (兰卿)
Cao Rui’s crown prince. Became Emperor at age eight. Deposed by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Fu 曹馥
Son of Cao Hong. Inherited his father’s fief and title.
Ts‘ao Kan 曹干
Son of Cao Cao, contemplated revolt against Cao Rui.
Ts‘ao Kun 曹衮
Noted for his scholarship and quiet conduct. Wrote essays when young.

Notes: Called Cao Kun in the ZZTJ.

Ts‘ao Hung 曹宏
Friend of Tao Qian, he killed many innocent people and disturbed the province.
曹洪 (子廉)
Ts‘ao Hung (Tzŭ-lien) 曹洪 (子廉)
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s cousins and a vital element of his army.
曹奐 (景明)
Ts‘ao Huan (Ching-ming) 曹奂 (景明)
Son of Cao Yu. Last Emperor of the Wei Dynasty. Abdicated to Sima Yan.

Notes: Originally named Cao Huang (曹璜). An Emperor’s given name was ineffable. As such, it was stricken from use (sometimes changing city names and re-writing literature). Cao Huang changed his name to Huan to lessen the impact of this practice (learn more).

Ts‘ao Hui 曹徽
Maintained Cao Yu’s line. When Cao Cao died, he went hunting until reigned in.
Ts‘ao Chi 曹棘
Died early and was later made a Prince.
曹節 (元偉)
Ts‘ao Chieh (Yuan-wei) 曹节 (元伟)
The Chief of the Ten Regular Attendants under Emperors Huan and Ling of Han.
Ts‘ao Ching 曹京
Son of Cao Cao. Died young. Posthumously enfeoffed as a duke.
Ts‘ao Chiung 曹冏
First son of Cao Rui. Prince of Qinghe. Died the year he was born.
Ts‘ao Chü 曹据
Punished for having his men produce illegal goods. Lived in south for his health.
Ts‘ao Chün 曹均
Transferred to the line of his uncle, had a child.
Ts‘ao K‘ang 曹犺
Wei Duke, had son.
Ts‘ao Mao 曹茂
Arrogant, vicious and sinful, he had to wait a long time to be King, had large family.
曹髦 (彥士)
Ts‘ao Mao (Yen-shih) 曹髦 (彥士)
Grandson of Cao Pi. Was made Emperor after Cao Fang’s abdication by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Mu 曹穆
Second son of Cao Rui. Prince of Fanyang. Died young.
曹丕 (子桓)
Ts‘ao P‘i (Tzŭ-huan) 曹丕 (子桓)
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
曹全 (景完)
Ts‘ao Ch‘üan (Ching-yüan) 曹全 (景完)
Helped defeat the Turbans, a generous offical who was much admired.
曹仁 (子孝)
Ts‘ao Jên (Tzŭ-hsiao) 曹仁 (子孝)
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
曹儒 (俊林)
Ts‘ao Ju (Chün-lin) 曹儒 (俊林)
Served under Cao Zhang and then later against Wu. Became a Minister.
Ts‘ao Jui 曹蕤
Son of Cao Pi.
曹叡 (元仲)
Ts‘ao Jui (Yüan-chung) 曹睿 (元仲)
Emperor of Wei, he defended the dynasty from Shu and Wu, but was criticized for his spending.
Ts‘ao Ch‘in 曹勤
Died early without issue.
曹肇 (長思)
Ts‘ao Shao (Ch‘ang-ssŭ) 曹肇 (长思)
Son of Cao Xiu.
Ts‘ao Shên 曹参
Prime Minister under Liu Bang. Ancestor of Cao Cao.

Notes: Sometimes Romanized ‘Cao Can’.

Ts‘ao Shu 曹淑
Cao Rui’s daughter and fourth child. Died in infancy.
曹爽 (昭伯)
Ts‘ao Shuang (Chao-po) 曹爽 (昭伯)
Regent of Cao Fang. Underestimated Sima Yi, was stripped of power, and executed.
Ts‘ao Shuo 曹铄
Served Wei. The Prince of Xiangshang. Died at a young age.
曹嵩 (巨高)
Ts‘ao Sung (Chü-kao) 曹嵩 (巨高)
Adopted son of Cao Teng and father of Cao Cao. Also called Xiahou Song.

Notes: Occasionally listed as, and once named, Xiahou Song (夏侯嵩).

Ts‘ao T‘ai 曹泰
Son of Cao Ren. Succeeded his father’s fief and later became a general of Wei.
曹騰 (季興)
Ts‘ao T‘êng (Chi-hsing) 曹腾 (季兴)
Adopted Cao Song (formerly Xiahou), father of Cao Cao, into the Cao family. Eunuch.
Ts‘ao Hsi 曹羲
Warned his brother about his excesses but was ignored. Recommended surrender.
Ts‘ao Hsing 曹性
Slain by Xiahou Dun in battle, who lost an eye to the archery of this man.
Ts‘ao Hsiung 曹熊
Fourth son of Cao Cao from second wife Lady Bian.
曹休 (文烈)
Ts‘ao Hsiu (Wên-lieh) 曹休 (文烈)
Performed well against Shu and Wu but fell for Zhou Fang’s ploy at Shiting.
Ts‘ao Hsün 曹训
Cao Zhen’s third son. Younger brother of Cao Shuang. Executed by Sima Yi.
Ts‘ao Yen 曹演
Held military rank. In the 240’s, the fief he inherited was raised in rank.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹殷
Third son of Cao Rui. Posthumously Prince Ai of Anping. Died the year after he was born.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹寅
Prefect of Wuling. Forged a decree to Sun Jian calling for Wang Rui’s execution.
Ts‘ao Yung 曹永
General of Cao Ren. Killed by Pang De, who also took his horse.
曹宇 (彭祖)
Ts‘ao Yü (P‘êng-tsu) 曹宇 (彭祖)
Son of Cao Cao. Refused to be Regent to Cao Fang due to his modest nature.
曹彰 (子文)
Ts‘ao Chang (Tzŭ-wên) 曹彰 (子文)
Cao Cao’s second son by Empress Bian. Fond of martial arts. Died not long after Cao Cao.
曹真 (子丹)
Ts‘ao Chên (Tzŭ-tan) 曹真 (子丹)
Served Wei. Adopted into Cao family. Managed affairs after Cao Pi’s death.

Notes: Cao Zhen’s original family name was Qin. He was adopted into the Cao clan.

Ts‘ao Chêng 曹整
Adopted into the Cao Shao line but died without issue.
曹植 (子建)
Ts‘ao Chih (Tzŭ-chien) 曹植 (子建)
Cao Cao’s third son by Empress Bian. Originally favored as heir over Cao Pi. Famous poet.
Ts‘ao Tsun 曹遵
Relative of Cao Zhen. Appointed as vanguard against Zhuge Liang. Killed by Wei Yan.
Ts‘ên Pi 岑璧
Tried to taunt Yuan Shang into a duel but got Lü Kuang instead and was soon killed.
Ts‘ên Hun 岑昏
Eunuch and favourite of Sun Hao, he was killed and eaten by palace officials.
Ts‘ên Wei 岑威
Escort for the captured Wooden Horses but was killed by Wang Ping.
岑桎 (公孝)
Ts‘ên Chih (Kung-hsiao) 岑桎 (公孝)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Nanyang.
Ch‘ai Yü 柴玉
Well known bell maker, argued with Du Kui over a pair of them. Cao Cao made him a horse herder.
Ch‘ang Tiao 常雕
Led an attack on Ruxu but was ambushed and killed by Zhu Huan.
Ch‘ang Chi 常纪
Lost husband in 192, father killed in 195. Admired for her fine bearing in such times.
常林 (伯槐)
Ch‘ang Lin (Po-huai) 常林 (伯槐)
Advised Cao Pi to not lead the army against Su Bo and Tian Yin but to leave it to a vassal.
Ch‘ang Nu 苌奴
Helped Dong Cheng block Cao Hong from reaching Emperor Xian.
Ch‘ang Hsi 昌豨
One of the Taishan Bandits. Joined and rebelled against Cao Cao several times.
常洽 (茂尼)
Ch‘ang Hsia (Mao-ni) 常洽 (茂尼)
Claimed that Li Jue would not harm Zhao Wen. Killed during Emperor Xian’s flight.

Notes: Also called Chang Qia.

Ch‘ê Chou 车胄
Served Cao Cao. Provisional Protector/Imperial Inspector of Xuzhou.
Ch‘ên Pao 陈宝
General; sent to get Sun Ce’s family and bring them to Wu.
Ch‘ên Pao 陈宝
Tried to ravage and kill Lady Lu Rong.
陳寶 (盛先)
Ch‘ên Pao (Shêng-hsien) 陈宝 (盛先)
Celebrated throughout the west, honest and maintained strict conduct.

Notes: Also known as Chen Shi (陳實).

陳表 (文奧)
Ch‘ên Piao (Wên-ao) 陈表 (文奥)
Chen Wu’s son. Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Zhang Xiu, and Gu Tan.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ê 陈策
Bandit defeated in 200 by Cao Cao, thanks to Liu Ye’s advice.
Ch‘ên Ch‘ao 陈超
Rose in revolt against Liu Yan with Ren Qi.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ung 陈琮
Son of Chen Qiu, became an administrator under Cao Cao.
陳耽 (漢公)
Ch‘ên Tan 陈耽 (汉公)
Loyal Minister that, due to slander by the eunuchs, was arrested and died in jail.
陳到 (叔至)
Ch‘ên Tao (Shu-chih) 陈到 (叔至)
Served Liu Bei since he held Yizhou. Held office just under Zhao Yun.
陳登 (元龍)
Ch‘ên Têng (Yüan-lung) 陈登 (元龙)
Spied on Lü Bu with his father, Gui, for Cao Cao. Joined Liu Bei, then surrendered to Cao.
Ch‘ên Tuan 陈端
One of the seven heroes who gave their lives so Zhao Qian could escape Turbans.
陳端 (子正)
Ch‘ên Tuan (Tzŭ-chêng) 陈端 (子正)
Advisor to Sun Ce, along with fellow countrymen Zhang Hong and Qin Song.
Ch‘ên Fan 陈蕃
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Imperial Guardian. Died opposing the eunuchs.
Ch‘ên Fêng 陈凤
Captured by Xie Jing and Li Yi, he surrendered to Wu.
Ch‘ên Kung 陈恭
Friend of Li Tong, helped him kill Zhou Zhi. Killed by his in-law Chen He.
陳宮 (公臺)
Ch‘ên Kung (Kung-t‘-ai) 陈宫 (公臺)
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
Ch‘ên Ho 陈郃
Killed Chen Gong, the husband of his sister but was defeated by Li Tong.
Ch‘ên Hêng 陈横
Van leader with Xue Li under Liu Yao. Shot by Jiang Qin when ambushed by Sun Ce.
Ch‘ên Hu 陈曶
Sent by Zhuge Liang to attack Huang Yuan.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈济
Served Shu. Chen Zhen’s son.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈纪
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
陳紀 (元方)
Ch‘ên Chi (Yüan-fang) 陈纪 (元方)
A highly respected minister, opposed Dong Zhuo’s plan to move the capital.
陳矯 (季弼)
Ch‘ên Chiao (Chi-pi) 陈矫 (季弼)
Known as a righteous, happy yet calm person. Highly respected governor.
Ch‘ên Chiu 陈就
Chief Controller, led Huang Zu’s navy but was killed by Lü Meng.
Ch‘ên Chün 陈俊
General of Sima Zhao. Participated in Sima Zhao’s campaign against Zhuge Dan.
Ch‘ên Lan 陈兰
Serves Yuan Shu, then later joined the Songshan Bandits with Lei Bo.

Notes: Chen Jian in To Esablish Peace

陳琳 (孔璋)
Ch‘ên Lin (K‘ung-chang) 陈琳 (孔璋)
Served under Emperor Ling, then under Yuan Shao. A superior writer.
Ch‘ên Mao 陈茂
Member of a powerful local family, slandered the family of Han Ji. Assassinated by Han Ji.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
Officer of Chen Yu, he was killed by Lü Fan.
Ch‘ên P‘ing 陈平
Former Han. A minister who served under Liu Bang.
Ch‘ên P‘u 陈仆
Leader of barbarians in the south, conquered by He Qi in 208.
陳騫 (休淵)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ien (Hsiu-yüan) 陈骞 (休渊)
A key Wei officer in the suppression of Zhuge Dan. Brigadier General of Jin.

Notes: Appears in some sources under the name Chen Xuan (陳鶱).

Ch‘ên Ch‘in 陈勤
Abused his power, insulted Ling Tong and Ling Cao at banquet, later killed.
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün 陈群
Served Cao Rui. Captain under Sima Yi in his campaign against Gongsun Yuan.
陳群 (長文)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün (Ch‘ang-wên) 陈群 (长文)
Served Wei. Imperial Censor under Cao Cao. Supreme Commander under Cao Pi.

Notes: Sometimes his style is referenced incorrectly as ‘Zhangwen’.

Ch‘ên Jung 陈容
Embarrassed Yuan Shao by rebuking him over Zang Hong’s revolt and was executed.
Ch‘ên Jung 陈融
Served Wu and compiled Precepts.
Ch‘ên Shêng 陈生
Rode out aid the exhausted Zhang Hu but was shot in the face by Sun Jian.

Notes: Also known as Chen Zuo.

Ch‘ên Shih 陈式
Rumored father of Chen Shou. Traded for Xiahou Shang at Hanzhong. Executed.
陳寔 (仲躬)
Ch‘ên Shih (Chung-kung) 陈寔 (仲躬)
A government official who was well-liked by many. Admired throughout the Empire.
陳壽 (承祚)
Ch‘ên Shou (Ch‘êng-tso) 陈寿 (承祚)
Served Shu and later Jin. Author of the highly-respected Three Kingdoms history, Sanguozhi.
Ch‘ên Su 陈肃
Made an imperial courtier by Cao Pi in honour of Chen Gui’s accomplishments.
Ch‘ên Sun 陈孙
Began pillaging the people of Jiangxia. Zhang Fei killed him in one blow.
陳泰 (玄伯)
Ch‘ên T‘ai (Hsüan-po) 陈泰 (玄伯)
Defended Wei against Jiang Wei. Wept at Cao Mao’s death, and died soon after.
Ch‘ên T‘ao 陈桃
Was said to have seen Yu Fan meeting with sages and immortals in his dreams.
陳調 (元化)
Ch‘ên T‘iao (Yüan-hua) 陈调 (元化)
Local strongman, tried to avenge his master but was wounded and died in battle.
Ch‘ên Wei 陈炜
Served Han as High Minister. Advisor to Li Ying. Mocked in jest by young Kong Rong.
陳溫 (元悌)
Ch‘ên Wên (Yüan-t‘i) 陈温 (元悌)
Inspector of Yangzhou, he helped Cao Hong raise troops and died of illness.
陳武 (子烈)
Ch‘ên Wu (Tzŭ-lieh) 陈武 (子烈)
Served Sun Ce as Commandant. Surrounded at Hefei and fought to his death.
陳翔 (仲麟)
Ch‘ên Hsiang (Chung-lin) 陈翔 (仲麟)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
An officer of Yan Baihu. Defeated by Lü Fan.
Ch‘ên I 陈祎
Protected Empress Bian but joined in Wei Feng’s plot. Then revealed the plot out of fear.
Ch‘ên Ying 陈应
Officer of Zhao Fan. Fought with Zhao Yun, but was later executed by him.

Notes: In Destiny of an Emperor 2 his name is incorrectly mistranslated as Chen Shu.

Ch‘ên Yü (Kung-wei) 陈禹
Tried to destroy Sun Ce by getting lords in the south to ally against him.
Ch‘ên Yüan 陈元
Officer of Yang Hu, advised against drinking wine sent by Lu Kang.
Ch‘ên Tsao 陈造
Vanguard of Cao Zhen’s army. Slain by Ma Dai.
陳震 (孝起)
Ch‘ên Chên (Hsiao-ch‘i) 陈震 (孝起)
Local official, was sent as emissary to Wu, swearing oath of alliance with Sun Quan.
程秉 (德樞)
Ch‘êng Ping (Tê-shu) 程秉 (德枢)
Advisor to Sun Quan. Sent as diplomat, with Zhang Fei’s head, to Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: ‘Cheng Deshu’ in chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms despite being Cheng Bing elsewhere.

Ch‘êng Kungying 成公英
Served Han Sui as a strategist. Suggested hiding among the Qiang. Submitted to Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng K‘o 程克
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
Ch‘êng K‘uang 程旷
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng Lien 成廉
General noted for his courage under Lü Bu. In novel, killed by Yue Jin.
Ch‘êng Liang 程良
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
程普 (德謀)
Ch‘êng P‘u (Tê-mou) 程普 (德谋)
Served three generations of the Sun family. From Tuyin in Youbeiping.

Notes: Incorrectly referred to as ‘Chen Pu’ once in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Ch‘êng Wu 程武
Served Wei. Son of Cheng Yu. Advised Xiahou Mao against Zhao Yun.
Ch‘êng I 成宜
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Attacked Chang’an with Ma Chao. Killed by Xiahou Yuan.
Ch‘êng Yin 程银
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Died fighting Cao Cao at Wei Nan.
程昱 (仲德)
Ch‘êng Yü (Chung-tê) 程昱 (仲德)
Served Wei as an advisor. From Dong’e in Dongjun.

Notes: Cheng (程) Li (立) was his original name, he dreamed about the mount Tai Shan when he was young, holding the sun (日) with both hands. Hence Cao Cao changed his name to Yu (昱) [Cheng Yu]. As you can see the word of Yu is composed with the word ‘sun’ (日) and the word ‘stand’ Li (立), together they form the word of Yu (昱).

Ch‘êng Yüanchih 程远志
Served Yellow Scarves as a chieftain. Killed by Guan Yu.
郗慮 (鴻豫)
Ch‘ih Lü (Hung-yü) 郗虑 (鸿豫)
Slandered Kong Rong leading to his death and took away the Empress’ seal.
Ch‘ung Fu (Ying-po) 种拂
Served Han as Minister of Ritual. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Ch‘ung Chi 种辑
Served Han as Changshui Commandant. Friend of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ch‘ung Shao (Shên-fu) 种邵
Han Court Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ch‘ung’êrh [Duke Wên of Chin] 重耳[晋文公]
Spring and Autumn Period. Chong’er, literally “Double Ears”, came to lead state of Jin.

Notes: ‘Er Chong’ in the Moss Roberts novel translation. ‘Er Chong’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. “Chong’er” literally translates to ‘Double Ears’, though there is no historic basis pointing out that he had unusual ears.

Wuhuan Ch‘u [Ch‘u of Wuhuan] 乌桓触
Tribal chief, swore fealty to Cao Cao rather then help the Yuan sons.

Notes: The characters of 烏桓 (wuhuan) are the same as those used for the Wuhuan tribe, thus ‘Chu of Wuhuan’ in many respected sources.

Ch‘unyü Tan 淳于丹
Sent by Lu Xun to test Liu Bei’s encampments. Is defeated and wounded.
淳于瓊 (仲簡)
Ch‘unyü Ch‘iung (Chungchien) 淳于琼 (仲简)
Served Yuan Shao. Mutilated by Cao Cao after failing Yuan Shao at Guandu.
Ch‘unyü Shih 淳于式
Complained to Sun Quan that Lu Xun was unnecessarily disrupting the people. Later was praised for Lu Xun as an excellent officer.
Ts‘uan Ku 爨谷
Governor of Jiaozhi. Allied with Jin and became powerful in the region.
Ts‘uan Hsi 爨习
A resident of Nanzhong. He later surrendered to Zhuge Liang, and his clan became powerful.
Ts‘ui Chün 崔钧
Joined alliance despite his father serving Dong Zhuo. Had reputation as fighting man.
Ts‘ui Liang 崔谅
Governor of Anding, tried to lure Shu army into trap but was killed by Zhang Bao.
崔烈 (威考)
Ts‘ui Lieh (Wei-k’ao) 崔烈 (威考)
Commandant of the Capital Gates. Cui Yi’s brother. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Yi’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

崔林 (德儒)
Ts‘ui Lin (Tê-ju) 崔林 (德儒)
Cui Yan’s younger cousin, discussed the scholars of Ji province with Chen Qun.
崔琰 (季珪)
Ts‘ui Yen (Chi-kuei) 崔琰 (季珪)
Scholar who served Yuan Shao then Cao Cao, who executed him for his opposition.
Ts‘ui I 崔毅
Served Han under Emperor Ling. Cui Lie’s brother.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Lie’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

Ts‘ui Yung 崔勇
Served Guo Si. Killed by Xu Huang after taunting Yang Feng.
Ts‘ui Yü 崔禹
Went to Sun Huan’s aid instead of Zhu Ran but was captured and executed.
崔均 (元平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Yüanp‘ing) 崔均 (元平)
Accompanied his father, wanted to avenge him but died of illness.
崔鈞 (州平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Choup‘ing) 崔钧 (州平)
One of Zhuge Liang’s close childhood friends. Friend of Xu Shu as well. From Boling.
Ta Ch‘iao 大乔
Elder of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Xiao Qiao. Married to Sun Ce.

Notes: Da (大), in this context, translates to ‘Big’, thus ‘Elder’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Older Qiao’, the name Da Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by Koei in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

Tai Kan 戴干
Recommended by Chen Qun to Cao Cao. Died fighting against Wu.
Tai Ling 戴陵
Served as assistant general to Zhang He during battle against Zhuge Liang.
Tai Yüan 戴员
Killed Sun Yi, Bian Hong and Sun He before he was assassinated.
Tailaitungchu 带来洞主
Younger brother of Zhurong. Participated in the battle against Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Sometimes appears as Chief or King. ‘King Dai Lai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Tan Mêng 儋萌
Executed a quarrelling officer, Pan Xin but was killed in battle with Pan Miao.
Tang Chün 党均
Served as advisor to Deng Ai. Spread false rumours about Jiang Wei.
鄧艾 (士載)
Têng Ai (Shih-tsai) 邓艾 (士载)
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
Têng Tang 邓当
Fought against the Shanyu under Sun Ce. Tried to persuade a young Lü Meng to stay home.
鄧方 (孔山)
Têng Fang (K‘ung-shan) 鄧方 (孔山)
Followed Liu Bei into Shu and was later given command of the south.
Têng Fu 邓辅
In 219, he was attacked and defeated by Lu Xun.
Têng Chi 邓济
In 197, he and his garrison at Nanyang were defeated by Cao Cao.
Têng Ching 邓靜
An expert vocalist, he served the Han orchestra under Cao Cao.
Têng K‘ai 邓凯
Raised non-Chinese people to resist Sun Quan. Lost to Xie Jing and fled to Shu.
Têng Liang 邓良
Served Liu Shan. Surrended to Deng Ai on behalf of Liu Shan.
Têng Lung 邓龙
Attempted to attack Zhou Yu at Chaisang, Deng Long was defeated and captured.
Têng Mao 邓茂
Served Yellow Scarves under Cheng Yuanzhi. Killed by Zhang Fei.
Têng P‘in 邓聘
Accompanied Emperor Xian during his flight but was killed.
Têng Shêng 邓升
Officer of Gao Gan. Left to guard Shangdang as Gan went to seek aid.
Têng T‘ung 邓铜
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Têng Hsi 邓羲
Resigned in protest at Liu Biao’s continued alliance with Yuan Shao.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
Meng Da’s nephew. Under orders from Sima Yi, he betrayed Meng Da.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
One of the many generals that fights Liu Bei. Is killed by Huang Zhong in the novel.
Têng Hsüanchih 邓玄之
Used by Lü Meng to persuade the Governor of Lingling to surrender the city.
Têng I 邓义
Served under Liu Cong with Liu Xian. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.
鄧禹 (仲華)
Têng Yü (Chung-hua) 邓禹 (仲华)
Han Dynasty general and statesman. Major contributor to Emperor Guangwu’s effort to reestablish the Han.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Zheng Yu’ in chapter 43 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation and the Moss Roberts translation.

Têng Yüan 邓渊
Detained by Guo Si when sent by Emperor Xian as envoy and later killed.
Teng Chan 邓展
A noted weapons expert who discussed swordplay with Cao Pi.
鄧芝 (伯苗)
Têng Chih (Po-miao) 邓芝 (伯苗)
Served Zhuge Liang. Was responsible for restoration of alliance with Wu.
Têng Chung 邓忠
Served Wei. Deng Ai’s talented son. Died attempting to aid his father.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Deng Zong’ in some online historical sources.

Têng Tzŭhsiao 邓子孝
In 196, fled with Xu Jing to Jiao. In 208, met Wang Lang in Jing and gave him news.
Tien Man 典满
Served Wei. Dian Wei’s son, became a member of Cao Cao’s bodyguard.
Tien Wei 典韦
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.

Notes: We originally listed Dian Wei’s style as Ziman (子曼). As we are no longer able to locate the source, and a few possible causes for error have turned up, we no longer have reason to believe he had the name.

Tiaoch‘an [Sable Cicada] 貂婵
Wang Yun’s adopted daughter. Helped to kill Dong Zhuo. Fictional.

Notes: Also known as Sable Cicada.

Tilu Horse [Hex Mark] 的卢马
Liu Bei’s horse. Saved Liu Bei at the river Tan. Killed at Fallen Phoenix Slope, along with Pang Tong.

Notes: Called ‘Hex Mark’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Ting Ch‘ung 丁冲
Early advisor to Cao Cao and Yang Feng, he died of overdrinking.
Ting Fan 丁蕃
Under He Qi’s command, reluctant to accept a humble post so He Qi killed him.
Ting Fei 丁斐
Magistrate of Weinan. Set free animals at Tong Gate to confuse Ma Chao’s army.
丁奉 (承淵)
Ting Fêng (Ch‘êng-yüan) 丁奉 (承渊)
Famous Wu officer, assassinated Sun Chen with Zhang Bu. Defeated Wei at Dongxing.
Ting Fêng 丁封
Served Sun Xiu under Ding Feng with Sun Yi. Dispatched to aid Zhuge Zhan.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Ding Fung’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

丁宮 (元雄)
Ting Kung (Yüan-hsiung) 丁宫 (元雄)
Recommended Shi Yi to the court, held high posts for the Han.
Ting Kuan 丁管
Served Han as Imperial Secretary. Opposed Dong Zhuo’s change of Emperors.
丁覽 (孝連)
Ting Lan (Hsiao-lien) 丁览 (孝连)
An orphan, he was an honourable and generous man but died before he could rise further.
Ting Li 丁立
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
丁謐 (彥靖)
Ting Mi (Yen-ching) 丁谧 (彦靖)
Supporter of Cao Shuang, part of the clever four club led by Xiahou Xu.
Ting Hsü 丁諝
Head of convict soldiers, he was befriended by Gu Shao. Would rise through the ranks.
丁廙 (敬礼)
Ting I (Ching-li) 丁廙 (敬礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi, a man of literary talent. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yì (丁儀). Sometimes incorrectly translated (perhaps in the name of disambiguation) as Ding Yin.

丁儀 (正禮)
Ting I (Chêng-li) 丁仪 (正礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi after Cao Pi slandered him. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yí (丁廙).

丁原 (建陽)
Ting Yüan (Chien-yang) 丁原 (建阳)
An excellent horseman and archer, assassinated by Lü Bu on Dong Zhuo’s orders.
Ting (Tzŭ-su) (子嗣)
A local officer, one of the Seven Heroes who shielded Zhao Qian after losing to Turbans.
Tiwu Chün 第五儁
In 188, was ordered to raise a regiment to help He Xun defeat Liang rebels.
Tung Pa 董巴
Historian who wrote several works on the Han. Linked Cao Pi to Yellow Emperor.
Tung Pai 董白
Granddaughter of Dong Zhuo. Made a Lord even before she came of age.
Tung Ch‘ao 董朝
Objected to Pang De as leader for battle against Guan Yu.
Tung Ch‘êng 董承
Served Han as General of Cavalry and Chariots. Plots to assassinate Cao Cao.
Tung Ch‘ung 董重
Served Han as General of the Flying Cavalry. Lady Dong’s brother.

Notes: Is also known as Dong Zhong in the ZZTJ.

Tung Fang 董访
His service to Zhang Miao led to Dong Zhao losing favour with Yuan Shao.
Tung Fên 董芬
Tried to copy Gan Shi’s breathing style but failed, almost killing himself in the attempt.
董扶 (茂安)
Tung Fu (Mou-an) 董扶 (茂安)
Famed teacher and debater, he advised Liu Yan to go to Yi.

Notes: Professor Rafe has style name as Mao’an.

Tung Ho 董和
Captured in 214 by Sun Quan with Zhu Guang.
董和 (幼宰)
Tung Ho (Yu-tsai) 董和 (幼宰)
Suggested asking Zhang Lu for aid against Liu Bei. Admired for his honesty and plain living.
Tung Huang 董璜
Privy Counsellor under Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo’s nephew. Killed by Huangfu Song.
董恢 (休緒)
Tung Hui (Hsiu-hsü) 董恢 (休绪)
As an ambassador to Wu, advised Fei Yi on how to reply to Sun Quan.
董厥 (龔襲)
Tung Chüeh (Kung-hsi) 董厥 (龚袭)
Brought troops to defend Saber Pass from Deng Ai and Zhong Hui.
Tung Meng 董蒙
Petitioned Cao Cao to become Duke.
董旻 (叔穎)
Tung Min (Shu-yin) 董旻 (叔颖)
Served Dong Zhuo as Lord of Hu. Dong Zhuo’s brother. Killed by Huangfu Song.
Tung Ssŭ 董祀
Sentenced to death for some crime, Cai Yan appealed to Cao Cao and saved him.
Tung T‘ai 董台
A local gentleman, unsuccessfully sought the hand of the widow Han Jiang. His clients had her kidnapped.
董襲 (元代)
Tung Hsi (Yüan-tai) 董袭 (元代)
Historically killed two generals, drowned with his ship, refusing pleas to leave it.
董遇 (季直)
Tung Yü (Chi-chih) 董遇 (季直)
Loved to study and a quiet man, highly venerated Confucian scholar.
Tung Yüeh 董越
Sent to guard Mianchi against the Coalition. Killed by Niu Fu on advice of soothsayer.
董允 (休昭)
Tung Yün (Hsiu-chao) 董允 (休昭)
Served Shu as a High Minister during Liu Shan’s reign.
董昭 (公仁)
Tung Chao (Kung-jên) 董昭 (公仁)
Served Han then Wei. Advised Cao Cao to move the capital to Xuchang.
董卓 (仲穎)
Tung Cho (Chung-ying) 董卓 (仲颖)
Siezed control of Luoyang and the Han government before being killed by Lü Bu.
Tungkuo Yennien (Kung-yu) 东郭延年
Noted for long life and youthful appearance, obtained by various methods.
Tungli Kun 東里袞
He fought bravely to escape when Wan rebelled. Later aided Cao Ren in retaking the city.
Tungt‘una 董荼那
Fought against Zhao Yun and Wei Yan. Captured by Zhang Ni.

Notes: Appears as Dong Tu Na or Dong Tu Ne in Koei games.

Tou Fu 窦辅
Grandson of Dou Wu, escaped being executed due to family friends.
Tou Wu 窦武
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Regent-Marshal. Died opposing the eunuchs.
Tou-mao 窦茂
King of Di who assisted Zhang Lu against Cao Cao.
Tu Ch‘ang 杜长
Sent to assist Gongsun Zan against Yuan Shao but was defeated.
杜畿 (伯侯)
Tu Chi (Po-hou) 杜畿 (伯侯)
Judged the best administrator in the empire, kept the people of Hedong loyal to Wei.
杜夔 (公良)
Tu K‘uei (Kung-liang) 杜夔 (公良)
Gentleman of the Court Music. Reprimanded Liu Biao for creating an orchestra for his court.
Tu P‘u 杜普
Advance guard against Yue Jin in Xiangyang but was driven back.
Tu Ch‘i 杜祺
Subordinate of Wang Lian, he rose up to become a high ranking officer.
杜瓊 (伯瑜)
Tu Ch‘iung (Po-yü) 杜琼 (伯瑜)
A teacher of Qiao Zhou and famed scholar, generally avoided public affairs despite rank.
Tu Sung 杜松
Garrisoned in Donghai, his men mutinied and Song was replaced by Lü Qian.
Tu T‘ung 杜通
In 220, was arrested by Zhang Jin and his position usurped. Restored by Su Ze.
杜微 (國輔)
Tu Wei (Kuo-fu) 杜微 (国辅)
Faked illness, even faked being deaf, to avoid serving Liu Bei.
杜襲 (子緒)
Tu Hsi (Tzŭ-hsü) 杜袭 (子绪)
Proposed to the troops that Zhang He take command after Xiahou Yuan was killed.
杜預 (元凱)
Tu Yü (Yüan-k‘-ai) 杜预 (元凯)
Served Jin to unification. The Field Marshal that led the invasion of Wu.
Tuan Kuei (Tzŭ-yin) 段圭
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Min Gong searching for Emperor Ling.
Tuan Wei (Chung-ming) 段煨
Supplied Emperor Xian’s court despite being attacked. Destroyed Li Jue.
Tuan Hsü 段训
Sent to reward Liu Yu and Gongsun Zan, instead was forced to execute Liu Yu.

Notes: Also called Yin Xun (殷訓)

Tuan Chao 段昭
Defeated the rebel Cai Fang.
Tuhu 杜濩
Tribe leader, took in Zhang Lu and later surrendered to Cao Cao.
O Huan 鄂焕
General under Gao Ding. Captured by Shu forces.
Oho Shaoko 饿何烧戈
Sent with Chen Tai, he was tricked and fell into a pit. Committed suicide.
Emperor Kuangwu [Liu Hsiu] 光武皇帝[刘秀]
Emperor Guangwu restored the Han Dynasty in AD 25, making him the first Emperor of the Later Han.

Notes: Shizu (世祖) was his Temple Name. His style name is Wenshu (Wên-shu) (文叔).

Emperor Huan [Liu Chih] 桓帝[刘志]
Emperor Huan of the Han. Destroyed the Liang family, but empowered the eunuchs.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Huan (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Ling [Liu Hung] 灵帝[刘宏]
Emperor Ling of Han (AD 156–189). Ruled through the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Ling (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Shao [Liu Pien] 少帝[刘辩]
Emperor Shao of Han (AD 189). Deposed and poisoned by Dong Zhuo.

Notes: ‘Emperor Bian’ at times in the Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Emperor Shun 舜帝
Ancient Chinese Emperor. One of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Ruled for a half-century.

Notes: Born Yao Chonghua (姚重華). Other names include Youyu-shi (有虞氏), the Great Shun (大舜) and Yu Shun (虞舜).

獻帝[劉協] (伯和)
Emperor Hsien [Liu Hsieh] (Po-ho) 献帝[刘协] (伯和)
Son of Emperor Ling. Reigned AD 189–220. Forced to abdicate by Cao Pi.

Notes: Called by the name ‘Prince of Chenliu’ frequently in novel translations. In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Xian (the name) Di (emperor). In this case, Emperor Xian also has a style name attached to his normal name, therefore if you were addressing him as emperor you would say Xian Di, if you knew his name and were close you may use Liu Xie, or if you wanted his style name you’d call him Liu Bohe.

Empress Pien 卞皇后
Wife of Cao Cao and mother of Cao Pi. Made empress dowager when Cao Pi became emperor.

Notes: Called ‘Bian Shi’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Ts‘ao Chieh 曹节皇后
Emperor Xian’s empress after death of Empress Fu, opposed Cao Pi becoming Emperor.

Notes: Also known as Empress Cao, Empress Xianmu (獻穆皇后) and Duchess Shanyang.

Empress Fu Shou 伏寿皇后
Wife of Emperor Xian. From Langya. Daughter of Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: Commonly referenced simply as ‘Empress Fu’.

Empress Kan 甘皇后
Concubine and later Empress of Liu Bei. She was a native of Pei.
Empress Kuo (Nü-wang) 郭皇后
One of Cao Pi’s wives, said to have spread doubts about Cao Rui’s birth.

Notes: Guo Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Ho 何皇后
Emperor Shao’s mother. He Jin’s half-sister. Died of grief or through suicide.
Empress Mu 穆皇后
Consort and later Empress of Liu Bei. From Chenliu. Wu Yi’s sister.

Notes: Empress Mu (穆皇后) is her traditional name. Informally, you will find her referenced as Empress Wu (吳皇后).

Empress Chang 张皇后
Daughter of Zhang Qi. Empress to Cao Fang. Ordered executed by Sima Shi.
Empress Chang 張皇后
Sister to Lady Zhang, second wife of Liu Shan.
Empress Chang [Hsingts‘ai] 张皇后[星彩]
Zhang Fei’s daughter. Empress Zhang married to Liu Shan. Zhang Xingcai in Koei games.

Notes: ‘Empress Zhang’ or ‘Lady Zhang’ in the novel and other historic sources, she has been given a fictional personality by Koei under the name ‘Zhang Xingcai’ or simply ‘Xing Cai’. Both names refer to the same person, but the story given her in Koei games is fictional. I’ve recorded this as the English translation presents itself (so, Huanghou Zhang (empress Zhang) and Xing1cai3 as her given name)

Empress Chên [Chên Chi] 甄皇后[甄姫]
Formerly Yuan Xi’s wife. Later married to Cao Pi. Became Empress.

Notes: Empress Zhen is frequently called Zhen Ji, as she is named by Koei. Referenced elsewhere as Zhen Luo (甄洛) or Empress Wenzhao (文昭皇后). I’ve recorded this as Huang2hou4 Zhen1 (Empress Zhen), with Ji1 as her given name. To say her name as Koei suggests, use Zhen (surname) and Ji1 (given name) together.

Fa Miao 法邈
Served Shu. Son of Fa Zheng.
法真 (高卿)
Fa Chên (Kao-ch‘ing) 法真 (高卿)
A distinguished scholar but refused all office. A quiet man with few desires.
法正 (孝直)
Fa Chêng (Hsiao-chih) 法正 (孝直)
Served Liu Zhang then Liu Bei. Was integral to the foundation of Shu.
Fan A 樊阿
Expert at Acupuncture, studied under Hua Tuo around AD 200.
Fan Ch‘êng 范成
Appointed a prefect of Luoyang when Cao Cao moved the capital to Xuchang.
Fan Ch‘ou 樊稠
Controlled the Han court alongside Li Jue and Guo Si. A brave general, killed by Li Jue.
Fan Fang 范方
Sent with cavalry to help Liu Dai but Liu later turned to Yuan Shao and Fan went home.
樊建 (長元)
Fan Chien (Ch‘ang-yüan) 樊建 (长元)
Secretary under Jiang Wei. Went with Liu Shan when Shu fell.
Fan Chiang 范强
Assassinated Zhang Fei with Zhang Da and then fled to Wu.
范康 (仲真)
Fan K‘ang (Chung-chên) 范康 (仲真)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Bohai.
Fan Li 范蠡
Spring and Autumn Period. Advisor in the state of Yue. Resigned after Yue defeated Wu.
Fan Ling 范陵
Sent by Guanqiu Xing as diplomat to the Qiang but Fan abused his position.
樊陵 (德雲)
Fan Ling (Tê-yün) 樊陵 (德云)
Appointed by the eunuchs after He Jin’s death but was executed by Yuan Shao.
樊敏 (升達)
Fan Min (Shêng-ta) 樊敏 (升达)
An expert at Chunqiu, he would become an elder statesmen under Liu Zhang.
Fan Nêng 樊能
Served Liu Yao. Died after Sun Ce shouted at him in battle.
范滂 (孟博)
Fan P‘ang (Mêng-po) 范滂 (孟博)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Fan Hsien 范先
Aided Gao Gan against Cao Cao but Du Ji’s work ensured their failure.
Fan Yu 樊友
Governor of Yidu, fled his post to Lu Xun during Wu’s invasion of Jing.
范曾 (子閔)
Fan Tsêng (Tzŭ-min) 范曾 (子闵)
Serving under He Jin, he defeated Turbans in Nanyang.
Fan Chou 樊怞
From prestigious family, tried to raise forces for Liu Bei but was defeated by Pan Jun.
Fang Yüeh 方悦
A famous officer from Henei, he served Wang Kuang. Killed by Lü Bu.
Fei (Po-jên) (伯仁)
Invited west by his cousin in 200, looked after Fei Yi.
Fei Ch‘angfang 费长房
A local guard who met an exiled immortal. Had a dragon staff and did many feats of magic.
Fei Ch‘êng 费承
Served Shu. Son of Fei Yi, and his heir. Older brother to Fei Gong.
Fei Kung 费恭
Noted throughout the land but died young.
費觀 (賓伯)
Fei Kuan (Pin-po) 费观 (宾伯)
Relative of Liu Zhang, he recommended Li Yan and later surrendered to Liu Bei.
費詩 (公舉)
Fei Shih (Kung-chü) 费诗 (公举)
Gave refuge to Liu Zhang’s officers. Protested against Liu Bei becoming Emperor.
Fei Yao 费曜
Officer of Wei. Reached rank of Grand Commander, but died in battle.
費禕 (文偉)
Fei I (Wên-wei) 费祎 (文伟)
Shu official. Took over affairs of state after Jiang Wan’s death.
Fei Chan 费栈
Served the Shanyue. Later submitted to Wei, and rebelled against Sun Quan.
One of many that sponsored a stele commemorating Cao Pi becoming Emperor.
Fêng Tan (Shao-chou) 冯紞
Close to Sima Yan and part of Jia Chong’s clique. Opposed Yang Hu’s proposal to attack Wu.
Fêng Fang 冯方
Father of Yuan Shu’s wife, a Han offical willing to slander those that excluded him.
封衡 (君達)
Fêng Hêng (Chün-ta) 封衡 (君达)
Taoist Sage. Teacher of Zuo Ci. Taught him magics and path to longevity.
逢紀 (元圖)
Fêng Chi (Yüan-t‘u) 逢纪 (元图)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Shang as Shao’s successor.

Notes: ‘Peng Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Pang Ji’ in the ZZTJ.

Fêng K‘ai 冯楷
One of the commanders in Nanyang under Zhao Yan.
Fêng Li 张礼
Served Yuan Shang. Punished for intoxication. Betrayed to Wei. Killed by Shen Pei.
Fêng Jên 封仁
Around 215, Cao Cao told Feng of his confidence in the loyalty of Jiang Ji.
Fêng Su 冯肃
A dancer who helped keep the Han traditions alive.
馮習 (休元)
Fêng Hsi (Hsiu-yüan) 冯习 (休元)
Officer of Shu. Died fighting at the battle of Yiling.
馮熙 (子柔)
Fêng Hsi (Tzŭ-jou) 冯熙 (子柔)
Used as a historian by Sun Quan and as a diplomat to both Shu and Wei.
Fêng Hsü 封胥
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. An agent of Zhang Jue of the Yellow Scarves.
Fêng Tsê 冯则
A cavalry trooper, he pursued and personally cut down Huang Zu.
Fu Tê 伏德
Brother of Empress Fu, carried her into a boat when they attempted to escape Li Jue.
傅幹 (彦材)
Fu Kan (Yen-ts‘ai) 傅幹 (彥材)
Advised Cao Cao to concentrate on civil affairs rather then campaign against Wu.
傅嘏 (蘭石)
Fu Ku (Lan-shih) 傅嘏 (兰石)
Chair of the Secretariat, he opposed Sima Shi’s invasion of Wu.
Fu Chin 扶禁
Besieged Huo Jun at Jiameng for a year but was defeated in surprise attack.
輔匡 (元弼)
Fu K‘uang (Yüan-pi) 辅匡 (元弼)
Leader of the vanguard against Wu. Fought under Zhuge Liang against the Nanman.
Fu Ch‘ien 傅佥
Fu Tong’s son, served Shu. Captured Li Peng and Wang Zhen. Died in battle.
Fu Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-shên) 服虔
A noted scholar, one of his works circulating for several hundred years. Backed Tao Qian’s petition.
Fu Ch‘ün 傅羣
Inspector of Jing in 210.
傅士仁 (君義)
Fu Shihjên (Chün-i) 傅士仁 (君义)
Persuaded by Lü Meng to betray Guan Yu. Killed by Guan Xing after trying to return to Shu.

Notes: Just known as Shi Ren in ZZTJ and Generals of the South.

Fu T‘ung 傅彤
Central military advisor for the Shu forces. Died during the battle of Yiling.

Notes: Called Fu Rong by SGZ.

Fu Wan 伏完
Married a Princess, took a lesser position in Cao Cao’s court.
Fu Hsi 伏羲
The first of three noble emperors, the San Huang, in Chinese mythology.
傅燮 (南容)
Fu Hsieh (Nan-jung) 傅燮 (南容)
Loyal minister who fought against the Turbans with Zhu Jun.
Fu Hsüan 傅玄
Wrote the Fuzi and helped compile Wei’s history, a famed poet in his day.
傅巽 (公悌)
Fu Hsün (Kung-t‘i) 傅巽 (公悌)
Advised Liu Cong to surrender, urged Cao Cao to become a Duke and Cao Pi to become Emperor.

Notes: Incorrectly Romanized as ‘Fu Xuan’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Fu Yang 服养
A dancer who helped keep the Han traditions alive.
Fu Ying 傅婴
General of Sun Yi, avenged his master’s murder by killing Gui Lan.
Fuhu 朴胡
Chieftain who shielded Zhang Lu, latter surrendered to Wei. Defeated by Huang Quan.
Fulohan 扶罗韩
Passed over for succession so set up his own state. Assassinated by rival Kebineng.
Kan Huai 甘瑰
Exiled from Wu some time after his father’s death for causing trouble.
Kan Chi 干吉
A Taoist priest. In the novel, sent to execution by Sun Ce and said to have cursed him to death.

Notes: Gan Ji frequently referenced as ‘Yu Ji’, especially in games. Historically, ‘Gan Ji’ (干吉) is correct, and it is thought Luo Guanzhong may have confused the character for his family name and thus entered him as ‘Yu Ji’ (于吉). Notice the similarity between Gan ‘干’ and Yu ‘于’. Our recording features both “Gan4 Ji2” and “Yu2 Ji2.”

甘寧 (興霸)
Kan Ning (Hsing-pa) 甘宁 (兴霸)
Known to be brave and strong. Served Huang Zu, then Wu. Died of illness.
Kan Shih 甘始
Claimed to Cao Zhi, that he had been alive during the reign of the First Emperor.
Kan Shu 甘述
Gained rank in the Secretariat despite his brother’s exile.
Kao Ch‘êng 高承
Local officer, sent by Sun Ce with tribute gifts to the Han court.
高岱 (孔文)
Kao Tai (K‘ung-wên) 高岱 (孔文)
Took his lord to Xu Zhao for protection. Later executed by Sun Ce for contempt.
Kao Ting (Yüan) 高定
Shu vassal that revolted in the southern Man region.
Kao Fan 高蕃
Sent by Yuan Shang to block the Yellow River but he was defeated by Li Dian.
高幹 (元才)
Kao Kan (Yüan-ts‘ai) 高干 (元才)
Nephew of Yuan Shao. Defeated Li Dian and Yue Jin at Huguan Pass.

Notes: Gan written as 干 in HHS.

Kao Lan 高览
Originally a talented officer of Yuan Shao. Defected with Zhang He to Wei.
Kao P‘ei 高沛
Officer of Liu Zhang. Executed after an attempt to assassinate Liu Bei.
高柔 (文惠)
Kao Jou (Wên-hui) 高柔 (文惠)
Minister of the Interior. Given provisional command of the army to seize Cao Shuang’s camp.
Kao Shêng 高升
Yellow Scarf officer. Fought with Liu Bei at Quyang, but was slain by Zhang Fei.
Kao Shêng 高胜
Raised up large bandit force but, despite advantage of numbers, lost to Li Yan.
Kao Shun 高顺
Defeated Xiahou Dun. Caught and executed by Cao Cao at Xiapi.
Kao Wang 高望
An officer of medicines, he was close to Prince Liu Bian. Killed in the massacre.
Kao Hsiang 高翔
Officer of Shu. Participated in many of Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kao Ya 高雅
In 193, he was defeated by Yu Jin at Dongping.
Kao Yen 高焉
Gongsun Zan alleged that Yuan Shao executed Yan as Shao was greedy for Yan’s property.
Kao I (K‘uan-fang) 高颐
Served Liu Zhang in civil roles and died in office.
Kao Yu 高诱
Noted scholar and student of Lu Zhi, held a number of middle-range appointments under Cao Cao.
Kao (Yüan-lü) (元吕)
An expert physiognomist, about 217 he reassured Cao Pi about his prospects as a future ruler.
Kao Chên 高朕
Arranged the reconstruction of a ceremonial hall in honour of the sage Duke of Zhou.
Kao Tso 高祚
Sent with others to launch a sneak attack, they took Yang Ren’s head.
高棠隆 (升平)
Kaot‘ang Lung (Shên-p‘ing) 高棠隆 (升平)
A valued officer, created a calender for Wei, was Tutor to Cao Rui.
Ko Hsüan 葛玄
One of the founders of modern Daoism. Survived drowning apparently thanks to his advanced breathing methods.
Kêng Pao 耿苞
Suggested Yuan Shao take up the Imperial Title, called insane and was executed.
耿紀 (季行)
Kêng Chi (Chi-hsing) 耿纪 (季行)
Launched a coup against Cao Cao. Wounded Wang Bi. Executed after his failure.
Kêng Yen 耿眼
Historic reference from chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
Kung Tu 龚都
Joined Liu Bei. Former Yellow Scarve. Killed by Xiahou Yuan at Ru Nan.
Kung Ching 龚景
Imperial Protector of Qingzhou. Attacked by the Yellow Scarves. Supported by Liu Bei.
Kung Chih 巩志
Advised Jin Xuan to surrender. When Jin Xuan returned defeated, Gong Zhi shot him.
公孫度 (升濟)
Kungsun Tu (Shêng-chi) 公孙度 (升济)
Established an independent government in Liaodong, expanding against several tribes.
Kungsun Fan 公孙范
Cousin of Gongsun Zan. Given the seal to the Prefecture of Bohai by Yuan Shao.
Kungsun Fang 公孙方
Studied under Zheng Xuan with his friend Cui Yan. He died young.
Kungsun Kung 公孙恭
Advised Kang to kill Yuan Xi and Shang. Impotent and weak, he was deposed by Gongsun Yuan.
Kungsun Huang 公孙晃
Sent as hostage to Wei, warned of the likelihood of war. Executed when war did happen.
Kungsun K‘ang 公孙康
Executed the Yuan sons, extended power in Korea and restored communication with Japan.
Kungsun Hsü 公孙续
Sent to get help from Zhang Yan and succeeded, later killed by the Xiongnu.
Kung-sun Yang 公孙阳
Wu general who was captured during Wei’s invasion via Ruxukou.

Notes: Called Gongsun Yan by Professor Rafe.

Kungsun Yüan 公孙渊
Originally subject to Wei. Declared himself King of Yan, but was executed by Sima Yi.
Kungsun Yüeh 公孙越
Assassinated by Yuan Shao after a diplomatic mission. Served as envoy to Yuan Shu.
公孫瓚 (伯珪)
Kungsun Tsan (Po-ku) 公孙瓒 (伯珪)
Magistrate of Beiping. Fought Yuan Shao. Committed suicide with his family.
Kou An 句安
Drunkard officer under Li Yan. Beaten for arriving late with supplies, and fled to Wei.
顧譚 (子默)
Ku T‘an (Tzŭ-mo) 顾谭 (子默)
Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Zhang Xiu, and Chen Biao. Exiled as a supporter of Sun He.
顧雍 (元嘆)
Ku Yung (Yüan-t‘-an) 顾雍 (元叹)
Studied under Cai Yong. Convinced to join Wu by Zhang Hong. Became Prime Minister.
Kuan Ch‘êng 管承
Pirate, he was defeated by combined attacks from Li Dian, Yue Jin and Zhang He.
Kuan Ting 关定
Father of Guan Ping, housed Guan Yu while Sun Qian went to Yuan Shao.
Kuan Ku 观鹄
Commanded the religious bandit group which, after he died, passed to Guo Shi and Zhou Chao.
Kuan Hai 管亥
Former member of the Yellow Scarves. Besiged Beihai and was killed by Guan Yu.
關靖 (士起)
Kuan Ching (Shih-ch‘i) 关靖 (士起)
Adviser to Gongsun Zan. Died fighting Yuan Shao’s army at Beiping.
Kuan Chün 灌均
Criticized Cao Zhi for drunkenness and irreverence.
管輅 (公明)
Kuan Lu (Kung-ming) 管辂 (公明)
A soothsayer able to foresee the coming deaths of others.
管寧 (幼安)
Kuan Ning (Yu-an) 管宁 (幼安)
Former friend of Hua Xin. Tail of “The Dragon”, a group of scholars. Became a hermit.
Kuan Ning 关宁
Brother of Guan Ping. Was a student when Guan Yu came to the farm.

Notes: ‘Guan Neng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Kuan P‘ing 关平
Served Shu. Guan Yu’s son (adopted in novel). Executed with Guan Yu by Sun Quan.
Kuan So 关索
Fictional son of Guan Yu. Greatly involved in Shu’s Southern Campaigns in the novel.
Kuan T‘ung 关统
Son of Guan Xing. Succeeded his father’s position as Marquis of Hanshou.
Kuan T‘ung 管统
Asked by Yuan Tan to provide aid on advice of Wang Xiu. Pardoned by Cao Cao in AD 205.
關興 (安國)
Kuan Hsing (An-kuo) 关兴 (安国)
Son of Guan Yu. Served in Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kuan I 关彝
Son of Guan Xing by concubine. Died fighting Wei troops during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.
Lady Kuan [Yinp‘ing] 関夫人[银屏]
Daughter of Guan Yu. Sun Quan wanted to arrange a marriage between her and Sun Deng.

Notes: Guan Yinping is a fictional name given to her by Koei.

關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

管夷吾 ()
Kuan Iwu (Chung) 管夷吾 ()
Famed prime minister of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn period.
毌丘甸 (子邦)
Kuanch‘iu Tien (Tzŭ-pang) 毌丘甸 (子邦)
Son of Guanqiu Jian, he advised his father to rebel.
毌丘儉 (仲恭)
Kuanch‘iu Chien (Chung-kung) 毌丘俭 (仲恭)
Officer of Wei. Revolted against Sima Shi when he deposed Cao Fang.

Notes: Sometimes mistranslated in Koei games as Wuqiu Jian.

Kuanch‘iu Hsing 毌丘兴
Warned by Cao Cao not to send anyone to the Qiang but ignored the advice.
Kuanch‘iu Hsiu 毌丘秀
Younger brother of Guanqiu Dian.
郭淮 (伯濟)
Kuo Huai (Po-chi) 郭淮 (伯济)
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
郭嘉 (奉孝)
Kuo Chia (Fêng-hsiao) 郭嘉 (奉孝)
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
Kuo Ma 郭马
Originally an officer of Wu, Guo Ma revolted in Nanhai. Eventually defeated by Tao Huang.
Kuo Shêng 郭胜
Warned close friend He Jin about Jian Shi’s plot. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.

Notes: In the notes section of To Esablish Peace he is referenced with two names from different sources: 1) HHJ25 as Guo Mai; 2) Jiuzhou chunqiu as Lang Sheng.

Kuo Shih 郭石
With Zhou Chao, Ravaged Lingling, Guiyang, and Changsha until destroyed by Sun Jian.
Kuo Ssŭ (To) 郭汜
Served Dong Zhuo. Later took control of the imperial court with Li Jue.

Notes: Guo Si is sometimes called Guo Duo, a name that is listed as an alternate personal name in a few different sources.

郭圖 (公則)
Kuo T‘u (Kung-tsê) 郭图 (公则)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Tan as Shao’s successor.
郭奕 (伯益)
Kuo I (Po-i) 郭奕 (伯益)
Son of Guo Jia, became Imperial Tutor. Well educated.
郭攸之 (演長)
Kuo Yuchih (Yen-ch‘ang) 郭攸之 (演长)
Described by Zhuge Liang as loyal and honest, advised Liu Shan on palace matters.
Kuo Yüan 郭援
Yuan Shang general. Zhong Yao’s sister’s son. Slain by Pang De at Pingyang.
國淵 (子尼)
Kuo Yüan (Tzŭ-ni) 国渊 (子尼)
Student of Zheng Xuan who described Zini as a state treasure. Impressed with honest counsel.
韓? (士元)
Han ? (Shih-yuan) 韩? (士元)
Noted by Chen Shou that no name, achievements or place of origin were available.
韓當 (義公)
Han Tang (I-kung) 韩当 (义公)
Veteran general in service to the Sun family. Served three generations.
Han Tê 韩德
Served Wei. Father to Han Ying, Yao, Qiong, and Qi. Died at Changshan facing Zhao Yun.
Han Fan 韩范
Feigned surrender to Cao Cao but was persuaded by Xu Huang to genuinely surrender.
韓馥 (文節)
Han Fu (Wên-chieh) 韩馥 (文节)
Surrendered to Yuan Shao but was abused. Fled to Zhang Miao and later committed suicide.
Han Fu 韩福
Governor of Luoyang, killed by Guan Yu while guarding the passes. Related to Wang Zhi.

Notes: ‘Han Qu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation (to differentiate from the historic Han Fu), and in some Koei games.

韓浩 (元嗣)
Han Hao (Yüan-ssŭ) 韩浩 (元嗣)
Rescued Xiahou Dun from being held hostage. Supported the farm reforms.
韓暨 (公至)
Han Chi (Kung-tzŭ) 韩暨 (公至)
Sent by Cao Rui to tell Cao Zhen not to give battle against Zhuge Liang.
韓嵩 (德高)
Han Sung (Tê-kao) 韩嵩 (德高)
A tactician of Liu Biao, he served as one of Biao’s ministers.
韓遂 (文約)
Han Sui (Wên-yüeh) 韩遂 (文约)
Worked with Ma Chao, before defecting to Cao Cao. Lost his hand to Ma Chao.
Han Hsien 韩暹
White Wave Rebel. Helped Emperor Xian. Served Yuan Shu, Lü Bu. Killed by Bei’s men.
Han Hsin 韩信
Reknowned commander who served Xiang Yu and later Liu Bang. Rose from a childhood of destitution.
Han Hsüan 韩玄
Magistrate of Changsha. Wei Yan killed him and surrendered to Liu Bei.
韩荀 (莒子)
Han Hsün (Chü-tzŭ) 韓荀 (莒子)
Cavalry officer at Wuchao, beheaded by Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Han Juzi’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Han Yin 韩胤
Sent by Yuan Shu to Lü Bu as a messenger for marriage, and later executed.
Han Chung 韩忠
A member of the Yellow Scarves. Fought with Zhu Jun and Liu Bei at Wan, but was killed.
Hao Mêng 郝萌
Served under Lü Bu. Helped fight Cao Cao at Puyang.
郝昭 (伯道)
Hao Chao (Po-tao) 郝昭 (伯道)
A talented officer of Wei. Successfully defended against Zhuge Liang at Chencang.
Hao Chou (K‘ung-i) 浩周
Captured at Fan, he would later assure Cao Pi that Sun Quan would keep his promise.
何進 (遂高)
Ho Chin (Sui-kao) 何进 (遂高)
Grand Administrator in the Han courts, but was assassinated by the eunuchs.
Ho Ching 贺景
Served Wu. Son of He Qi. Strict but kind. Died young.
何夔 (叔龍)
Ho K‘uei (Shu-lung) 何夔 (叔龙)
Claimed Yuan Shu lacked support if he declared himself Emperor. Noted for proper behaviour.
Ho Man 何曼
Nicknamed ‘The Shooting Devil’ in novel. Yellow Scarves commander. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ho Miao 何苗
Empress He’s older half-brother. Later killed by Wu Kuang.

Notes: Was born Zhu Miao.

賀齊 (公苗)
Ho Ch‘i (Kung-miao) 贺齐 (公苗)
Served Wu, first under Sun Ce. Became governor of Xuzhou. Father of He Da.
Ho Shao (Hsin-po) 贺邵
Urged Sun Hao to change his ways. Executed when Sun Hao didn’t believe He Shao had a stroke.
Ho Hsi (Mêng-sun) 何熙
Noted for height, died of sickness after successfully fighting tribes.
和洽 (陽士)
Ho Hsia (Yang-shih) 和洽 (阳士)
Rescued Mao Jie from jail but unable to restore his rank. Supported Cao Pi’s succession and ascension.

Notes: Also known as He Qia. Appears as He He in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

何晏 (平叔)
Ho Yen (P‘ing-shu) 何晏 (平叔)
Was a trusted friend of Cao Shuang, a leading writer and philosopher. Took drugs.
Ho I 何仪
Yellow Scarves commander. Captured Runan after the Yellow Scarves rebellion.
何颙 (伯求)
Ho Yong (Po-ch‘iu) 何顒 (伯求)
Recognised Cao Cao and Xun Yu as men who could deal with the troubles.

Notes: Known name is He Yu (何禺) in SGYY.

何曾 (穎考)
Ho Tsêng (Ying-k‘-ao) 何曾 (颖考)
Son of He Kui. Advised Sima Zhao to make his eldest son Sima Yan his heir.

Notes: Occasionally turns up as He Ceng.

何楨 (元幹)
Ho Chên (Yüan-kan) 何桢 (元幹)
Father of Empress He, became General of Chariots and Cavalry.
Ho Chih 何植
Grandson of He Qi. Son of He Da. Sun Hao’s Minister of the Interior.
Name is Japanese N/A
Queen Himiko was the female ruler of pre-Japan’s Yamatai region. Contacted Wei in AD 238.

Notes: Sometime also called Pimiku or Pimiko. Precise pronunciation of her name is unknown as the kanji of her name were written prior to mid-20th century kanji reforms. Himiko may be a Chinese corruption of himemiko (princess priestess or lady shaman), which translates to ‘Sun Child’.

Hou Ch‘êng 侯成
Cavalry commander under Lü Bu. Defected to Cao Cao.
Hou Lan 侯览
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Tried to make off with Emperor Shao.
Hou Hsüan 侯选
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Surrendered to Cao Cao along with Han Sui.
Hou Yin 侯音
Led a revolt in Wan, capturing Dongli Gun but was defeated by Cao Ren.
Hu Pan 胡班
Son of Hu Hua. Helped Guan Yu during his 1,000 li journey from Cao Cao.
Hu Ch‘ê–êrh 胡赤儿
Advisor to Niu Fu. He betrayed him and sided with Lü Bu, who executed him.

Notes: Hu Che’er is frequently confused with Hu Juer of Zhang Xiu, but they are, indeed, separate people. Hu Che’er’s name is sometimes typed with or without an apostrophe (Che’er or Cheer), and at times with a hypen instead (Che-er). To complicate matters further, sometimes his name is mistranslated as ‘Chi’er’, with all the according grammatical variations.

Hu Ch‘ung 胡冲
Persuaded Sun Hao not to commit suicide but to surrender to Jin instead.

Notes: Also appears sometimes as Hu Zhong.

胡奮 (玄威)
Hu Fên (Hsüan-wei) 胡奋 (玄威)
Killed Zhuge Dan of Wu. Advised Du Yu to wait before attacking Jianye.
Hu Hua 胡华
Father of Hu Ban. Retired officer of the court under Emperor Huan. Met Guan Yu.
胡濟 (偉度)
Hu Chi (Wei-tu) 胡济 (伟度)
Based in Hanshou, went to Chengdu to get help to repel Wei’s invasion.
Hu Chüêrh 胡车儿
Served Zhang Xiu. Stole Dian Wei’s weapons as part of Jia Xu’s plan to defeat Cao Cao.

Notes: Ju1 is the former pronunciation of 車, which is now pronounced Che1. We hold true to the standard set by Moss Roberts and others, using the old pronunciation for an old historical figure. Besides, it helps to alleviate confusion between him and Hu Che’er of Niu Fu.

胡烈 (武玄)
Hu Lieh (Wu-hsüan) 胡烈 (武玄)
Took part in invasion of Shu, got former a vassal to warn his son about Zhong Hui’s revolt.
Hu Miao 胡邈
Privy counselor to Emperor Xian. Tried to calm an angry Huangfu Li to protect him.
Hu Shou 壶寿
Governor of Jizhou. Formed an alliance with Poison Yu. Defeated and executed by Yuan Shao.
胡淵 (世元)
Hu Yüan (Shih-yüan) 胡渊 (世元)
Son of Hu Lie, his army killed Zhong Hui and defeated Jiang Wei’s revolt.
胡軫 (文才)
Hu Chên (Wên-ts‘ai) 胡轸 (文才)
He led 5,000 men against Sun Jian but was killed by Cheng Pu after a few bouts.
胡質 (文德)
Hu Chih (Wên-tê) 胡质 (文德)
Governor of Dongwan, took part in Cao Xiu’s invasion of Wu.
胡綜 (偉則)
Hu Tsung (Wei-tse) 胡綜 (偉則)
Joined Sun Ce as a refugee, noted scholar for his liteary achievements.
Hu Tsun 胡遵
Led the van against Gongsun Yuan then led the van in an invasion of Wu’s Dongxing.
華覈 (永先)
Hua Ho (Yung-hsien) 华覈 (永先)
Told Sun Hao not to attack but to gain the love of the people. Left court bemoaning Wu’s fate.

Notes: Incorrectly translated in the Brewitt-Taylor edition as Hua Jiao.

Hua Man 花鬘
Hua Man is the fictional daughter of Meng Huo, as found in Koei games.
華佗 (元化)
Hua T‘o (Yüan-hua) 华佗 (元化)
A famous doctor from the Three Kingdoms period. Killed trying to avoid treating Cao Cao.
華歆 (子魚)
Hua Hsin (Tzŭ-yü) 华歆 (子鱼)
Head of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars. Promoted Emperor Xian’s abdication.
Hua Hsiung 华雄
Brave general in service to Dong Zhuo. Died in battle with Sun Jian.

Notes: Usually Hua is pronounced Hua2, but in the case of a Surname, is pronounced Hua4, hence Hua4 in the audio file.

桓範 (元則)
Huan Fan (Yüan-tsê) 桓范 (元则)
Known as “Bag of Wisdom”, his advice was not heeded by Cao Shuang. Jailed by Sima Yi.
桓階 (伯緒)
Huan Chieh (Po-hsü) 桓阶 (伯绪)
Negotiated the return of Sun Jian’s body. Involved with Xian’s abdication.

Notes: ‘Huan Jie’ 桓階 in novel chapters 7 and 8; ‘Huan Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition chapters 7 and 8. ‘Huan Jie’ (桓楷) in chapters 79 and 80. We recognize them as the same person; see ‘Fact vs. Fiction’ for more information.

Huan Shao 桓邵
Belittled Cao Cao, fled south when Cao Cao became powerful. Shi Xie sent him back and Cao Cao executed Shao.
Huang Ch‘êngyen 黄承彦
Father of Zhuge Liang’s wife. A prominent scholar of the Later Han Dynasty.

Notes: Incorrectly referenced as Huang Chenyan (承 [Cheng2] as ‘Chen’) in many sites, biographies, and in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Huang Ch‘ung 黄崇
Advised Zhuge Zhan to seize the high ground but was ignored. Killed by his soldiers.
黃蓋 (公覆)
Huang Kai (Kung-fu) 黄盖 (公覆)
Veteran general in Wu. Came up with the “Bitter Meat Plan” for Chibi.
Huang Hao 黄皓
Eunuch in service to Liu Shan. His advice helped to destroy Shu.
Huang Hua 黄华
Warlord of Jiuquan, due to the death of another warlord, he surrendered to Wei.
黃權 (公衡)
Huang Ch‘üan (Kung-hêng) 黄权 (公衡)
Served Liu Zhang and later Liu Bei. Surrendered to Wei out of necessity.
Huang Shao 黄邵
Yellow Scarves commander. Served with He Yi and He Man. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: In the novel, Sanguo yanyi, the Chinese characters used for Huang Shao’s name are huang2 shao4 黃劭. In Sanguozhi, the Chinese characters are huang2 shao4 黃邵. We have chosen to use the historic rendering.

Huang Shê 黄射
Defeated at Shaxian, then lost at Xiakou, friend of Mi Heng. Fate unsure.
Huang Hsü 黄叙
Served Shu. Huang Zhong’s son, died young without children.
Huang Yung 黄邕
Son of Huang Quan, who served Liu Zhang then Shu. Died without issue.
Huang Yüan 黄元
When Liu Bei became ill after Yiling, he rebelled. Defeated by Chen Hu.
Huang Yüehying 黄月英
Zhuge Liang’s wife. Huang Chengyan’s daughter. Was very smart, but not beautiful.
黃忠 (漢升)
Huang Chung (Han-shêng) 黄忠 (汉升)
Joined Liu Bei after Han Xuan’s defeat. One of the Five Tiger Generals.
Huang Chu 黃柱
Employed at Guiyang. Chen Shou recorded that most other information had been lost.
Huang Tsu 黄祖
Served under Liu Biao. Later killed by Gan Ning at Xiakou.
Huangfu K‘ai 皇甫闓
Officer of Wei and, later, Jin. Joined Zhong Hui in his conquest of Hanzhong.
Huangfu Li 皇甫郦
Served Emperor Xian. Charged with making peace between Li Jue and Guo Si.
皇甫嵩 (義真)
Huangfu Sung (I-chên) 皇甫嵩 (义真)
Imperial Commander under Han. Fought heavily against the Yellow Turban Rebellion.
Huch‘uch‘üan 呼厨泉
Helped Gao Gan against Zhong Yao then kept hostage by Wei after 216. Title died with him.
胡母班 (季皮)
Humu Pan (Chi-p‘i) 胡母班 (季皮)
Sent by Dong Zhuo to pursuade Yuan Shao to lay down his arms. Executed by Wang Kuang.

Notes: Hou Han shu records his style as Jiyou. SGZ: Yuan Shao.

Huo Tu 霍笃
Had a few hundred followers, he died young and his brother inherited his troops.
Huo Hu 火虎
Huo Hu, self-proclaimed master of powders, joins Liu Bei in Capcom’s Destiny of an Emperor.

Notes: Huo Hu 火虎 literally translates as Fire Tiger. As such, it was probably intended to be a title rather than a name. Furthermore, Huo 火 is not a proper surname. In Japanese, Huo Hu is pronounced Kako. Discussion. Also, Huo is actually pronounced Huo3 in Chinese, but because Hu3 is after it, it changes Huo3 to Huo2.

霍峻 (仲邈)
Huo Chün (Chung-miao) 霍峻 (仲邈)
Held Jiameng against Liu Zhang’s generals before his countering and defeating them.
Huo Nu 霍奴
Killed the Inspector of Youzhou and Governor of Zhuojun. Defeated and executed by Cao Cao.
Huo Hsing 霍性
Petitioned against Cao Pi’s inspection of the south. Tortured and executed before Pi changed his mind.
霍弋 (紹先)
Huo I (Shao-hsien) 霍弋 (绍先)
Son of Huo Jun, was concerned about lack of defences at Chengdu.
Ch‘i Chi 戚寄
Persuaded by Liu Fu to defect around the year 197.
嵇康 (叔夜)
Chi K‘ang (Shu-yeh) 嵇康 (叔夜)
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was exeuted by Sima Zhao.

Notes: Sometimes translated incorrectly as Xi Kang.

Chi Ling 纪灵
Served under Yuan Shu. A fierce warrior who was killed by Zhang Fei.
吉邈 (文然)
Chi Miao (Wên-jan) 吉邈 (文然)
Son of Ji Ping. Joined Geng Ji’s coup to avenge his father but was killed in the fighting.

Notes: Ji Miao sometimes appears as Ji Mao. The correct translation of 邈 is Miao.

吉穆 (思然)
Chi Mu (Ssŭ-jan) 吉穆 (思然)
Son of Ji Ping. Fled the capital but returned secretly. Died in Geng Ji’s coup.
Chi P‘ing 吉平
Court physician from Luoyang. Forced to commit suicide by Cao Cao.

Notes: Also referenced by the name Chi T’ai in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Called Ji Ben in SGZ and ZZTJ.

Chi Shao 嵇绍
Son of Ji Kang. Nominated to office after his father’s death by Shan Tao.

Notes: Sometimes translated incorrectly as Xi Shao.

賈充 (公閭)
Chia Ch‘ung (Kung-lü) 贾充 (公闾)
Suggested usurpation of the throne to Sima Yan and opposed invasion of Wu.
Chia Fan 贾范
Officer of Gongsun Yuan. Was executed by Yuan for opposing his declaration of independence.
Chia Hua 贾华
Officer of Wu. Guarded Sun Quan at the battle of Hefei.
賈逵 (梁道)
Chia K‘uei (Liang-tao) 贾逵 (梁道)
Served as strategist to Cao Xiu, seeing through Zhou Fang’s plot.
Chia Hsin 贾信
Left to guard Liyang while Cao Cao went to fight Liu Biao. Defeated two rebels.
賈詡 (文和)
Chia Hsü (Wên-ho) 贾诩 (文和)
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.

Notes: Jia Xu is pronounced Jia2 Xu3 because of the 3rd tone preceeding the second in his normal given name. His name and style name should be pronounced and said as “Jia3 Wen2 He2”, not “Jia2 Wen2 He2”

Chien Shuo 蹇硕
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by fellow eunuch Guo Sheng.

Notes: The character 碩 can also be translated as Shi and in some academic sources this is considered to be the standard translation (e.g. anything by Rafe de Crespigny). We are using Jian Shuo because that is the most commonly used Romanization.

簡雍 (憲和)
Chien Yung (Hsien-ho) 简雍 (宪和)
Trusted friend of Liu Bei, a wit and often used as envoy. Persuaded Liu Zhang to surrender.

Notes: Jian Yong’s family name may have originally been ‘Geng’ (耿), but in the Youzhou dialect ‘Geng’ it was pronounced ‘Jian’, so he changed it.

Chiang Pan 蒋班
Advised Zhuge Dan to force a battle to escape but was rejected. Surrendered to Wei.
Chiang Pin 蒋斌
Served Shu as a general under Liu Shan. Later surrendered to Zhong Hui.
蔣幹 (子翼)
Chiang Kan (Tzŭ-i) 蒋干 (子翼)
Friend of Zhou Yu, he was sent to spy on Wu but was tricked, helping to cause Wei’s defeat at Chibi.
Chiang Kung 江宫
Bandit who was defeated and killed by Li Tong.
蔣濟 (子通)
Chiang Chi (Tzŭ-t‘ung) 蒋济 (子通)
Advised against moving the capital when Guan Yu attacked. Helped Sima Yi deal with Cao Shuang.

Notes: Known as Drunkard Jiang in his early days. Also known as Master Jiang for the works he wrote.

蔣欽 (公奕)
Chiang Ch‘in (Kung-i) 蒋钦 (公奕)
Led the volunteer forces that joined Sun Ce in the battle of Qu’e.
Chiang Shih 蒋石
Local leader, sent Han Sui’s head to Cao Cao. May have killed Han Sui.
Chiang Shu 蒋舒
Jiang Wei highly prized his talent, was disgruntled and defected in Wei’s invasion.
蔣琬 (公琰)
Chiang Wan (Kung-yen) 蒋琬 (公琰)
Served Shu starting with the Yi invasion. Trusted and influential. Died as Regent.
姜維 (伯約)
Chiang Wei (Po-yüeh) 姜维 (伯约)
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
Chiang Hsien 蒋显
Sent by Liu Shan to order Jiang Wei to surrender.
姜敘 (伯奕)
Chiang Hsü (Po-i) 姜叙 (伯奕)
Helped to drive out Ma Chao, but Ma Chao killed his mother, defeated Ma Chao again later on.
Chiang Ich‘ü 蒋义渠
Officer of Yuan Shao. Comforted Yuan Shao after his defeat at Guandu.
姜子牙[呂望] (子牙)
Chiang Tzŭya [Lü Wang] (Tzŭ-ya) 姜子牙[吕望] (子牙)
Zhou Dynasty. Legendary historical figure. Resided by the Weishu River 3,000 years ago.

Notes: Lü Wang is most commonly referred to as ‘Jiang Ziya’ a combination of his ancestral name, Jiang (姓), and his style name, Ziya (子牙). ‘Lü Wang’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. ‘Jiang Ziya’ in Warriors Orochi 2.

Chiao Ch‘u 焦触
Served Yuan Xi with Zhang Nan. Betrayed to Cao Cao. Killed by Han Dang at Chibi.
Chiao Chiao (Chiao Chêngch‘iang) 焦矫(焦征羌)
Head of a powerful family in Runan. Treated Bu Zhi poorly when he came for aid.

Notes: Jiao Jiao, as Magistrate of Zhengqiang, also became known as Jiao Zhengqiang (as such you may see him referenced by this name). The name Qiao has also been associated with him and we are attempting to source it.

Chiao I 焦彝
Advisor of Zhuge Dan, slipped over the walls and surrendered to Wei.
伊籍 (機伯)
Yin Chi (Chi-po) 伊籍 (机伯)
Received favour comparable to Mi Zhu, helped compile the administrative code.

Notes: ‘Yi Ji’ in novel translations and games. ’伊’, Romanized, is Yin, as is the case in Rafe de Crespigny’s works and is the standard Romanization of other instances in names. As such, Yin Ji instead of Ji Yi [Wade-Giles: I Chi].

Chin Shang 金尚
Imperial Protector of Yangzhou. Executed after declining office from Yuan Shu.
金旋 (元機)
Chin Hsüan (Yüan-chi) 金旋 (元机)
Served as Governor of Wuling. Defeated by Zhang Fei.

Notes: Called Jin Shun in Liu Bei’s SGZ.

金祎 (德禕)
Chin I (Tê-i) 金禕 (德祎)
Descendant of Jin Midi. Advised Geng Ji on killing Wang Bi. Died fighting in the coup.

Notes: May also have been Jin Wei, son of Jin Shang.

Chinhuansanchieh 金环三结
An officer of Meng Huo, he died fighting the Shu army during their attack.

Notes: ‘Jinhua Sanjie’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Chü Ku 沮鹄
Maintained Handan. Defeated by Zhang Liao and shot while fleeing.

Notes: Appears in some Koei games, and a few other sources, as Ju Hu.

Chü Kuang 鞠光
Rebelled against Wei in Xiping, but was killed by his own followers.
Chü Shou 沮授
Urged caution when attacking Cao Cao but was ignored and demoted.
闞澤 (德潤)
K‘an Tsê (Tê-jun) 闞泽 (德润)
Delivered Huang Gai’s false letter of defection to Cao Cao.
King Ch‘êlichi 彻里吉大王
Fictional. King of Western Qiang. Ally of Cao Rui.

Notes: Frequently written ‘King Cheli Ji’.

King Tossŭ 思朵大王
Officer of Meng Huo. Said to be the wisest man in all of Nanman.
King K‘opinêng 轲比能大王
Unifier of the Xianbei tribe. Fought often with Wei until he was assassinated.

Notes: You may also see him as Kebinang, Ke Binang, Kebe Neng, Kebe Nang, etc.

King Mêng Huo 孟獲大王
Ruled Nanman after Shamoke’s death. Captured and released seven times by Kongming.

Notes: In pronunciation, Meng is his surname, Huo his given name. Da means “big/large” and Wang means King, for your information, Wang2 is only one word for King, Emperors have different titles, usually Huang2 Di4.

King Mulu 木鹿大王
A Nanman chieftan. Initially drove back Zhuge Liang’s armies with his magic.
King Shamok‘o 沙摩柯大王
Originally a tribal leader, he helped Liu Bei at Yiling but died fighting Wu.
King Wut‘uku 兀突骨大王
Ruled the cave dwelling Wuguo Kingdom in south China. Twelve spans tall.
孔融 (文舉)
K‘ung Jung (Wên-chü) 孔融 (文举)
A famed scholar who did not always get on with his lords. One of the Seven Masters.
K‘ung Shang 孔尚
Great-great-grandfather of Kong Rong, who served Wei.
K’ung Hsien 孔羡
Descendant of Confucius who was enfeoffed by Cao Pi for the purpose of offering sacrifice to Confucius.
K‘ung Hsiu 孔秀
One of the defenders of the Passes killed by Guan Yu.
孔昱 (世元)
K‘ung Yü (Shih-yüan) 孔昱 (世元)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. Scholar who took a moral line on when to serve.

Notes: Also known as Kong Yi (Yi4 翊). Styled Shiyuan or Yuanshi (Yuan4shi4 元世).

K‘ung Chou (Chi-chiang) 孔宙
Father of Kong Rong and Kong Bao. Steele was set up on his death.
孔伷 (公緒)
K‘ung Chou (Kung-hsü) 孔伷 (公绪)
Known for his eloquent way of speaking. He joined alliance against Dong Zhuo.

Notes: Sometimes you can find his name incorrectly translated as Kong You2.

蒯良 (子柔)
K‘uai Liang (Tzŭ-jou) 蒯良 (子柔)
Adviser of Liu Biao. Came up with the plan that resulted in Sun Jian’s death.
K‘uai Ch‘i 蒯祺
Governor of Fangling. Killed by Meng Da’s troops. Supposedly related to Kuai Yue.
蒯越 (異度)
K‘uai Yüeh (I-tu) 蒯越 (异度)
Younger brother of Kuai Liang. Became a vassal of Wei when Cao Cao took Jing.
Lü Yu 吕由
Officer of Tao Qian. Defeated by Cao Ren when Cao Cao attacked Xuzhou.
Lady Pao 鲍夫人
Mother of Bao Chu. She lived more than 100 years.
Lady Pu [Pu Lienshih] 步夫人[步练师]
Lian Shi in Dynasty Warriors 7. Made Empress upon her death, was noted for not being jealous.

Notes: Lian Shi (步夫人) in Dynasty Warriors 7. Also Bu Lianshi (步練師).

Lady Ting 丁夫人
Cao Cao’s first wife, she blamed him for Cao Ang’s death and they divorced.
Lady Tung 董夫人
Arrested and executed due to her father’s plots against Cao Cao despite being pregnant.
Lady Tu 杜夫人
Married to Qin Yilu. Guan Yu wished to marry her but Cao Cao took her instead.

Notes: Du Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Li 李夫人
Killed herself when her husband Ma Miao surrendered to Wei.

Notes: Appears as ‘Li Shi’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Liu 刘夫人
Yuan Shao’s wife. Mother of Yuan Shang.
Lady Mi 糜夫人
Consort of Liu Bei. Mi Zhu’s sister. Took her own life so Zhao Yun could save Liu Shan.
Lady P‘an 潘夫人
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Was a native of Juzhang in Kuaiji.
Lady Sun [Sun Shanghsiang] 孙妃[孙尚香]
Sun Quan’s sister. Married to Liu Bei by Sun Quan, but later returned to Wu.

Notes: Sun Shangxiang is Lady Sun’s name in most Koei Games. ‘Sun Ren’ (孫仁) in the seventh chapter of Romance of the Three Kingdoms (learn more; not a duplicate mention of Sun Lang). Also appears as Sun Li at times. Both Sun Ren and Sun Li are incorrect and have no bearing on her true name, which is unknown.

Lady Sun 孙夫人
Daughter of Sun Ce. Wife of Lu Xun. Her marriage bonded the Lu and Sun families.

Notes: Sun Shi in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Lady T‘ang Chi 唐姫夫人
Favorite concubine of Liu Bian, danced for him as he died. Daughter of Tang Mao.

Notes: ‘Lady Tang’ in various translations of the novel.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Second only to Madam Bu, Sun Luban slandered her to death.

Notes: Lady Wang of Langya. Not to be confused with Lady Wang of Nanyang.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Mother of Sun Xiu. Was a native of Nanyang.

Notes: Lady Wang of Nanyang. Not to be confused with Lady Wang of Langya.

Lady Wang 王夫人
Mother of Liu Xie (Emperor Xian). Concubine to Emperor Ling. Poisoned by Empress He.
Lady Wu 夫人吴
Mother of Sun Quan and Sun Ce. Wife to Sun Jian. Endorsed marriage of lady Sun.
Lady Hsi Shih 西施夫人
Spring and Autumn Period. One of the Four Beauties of Ancient China. Lived in Zhuji, capital of Yue.
Hsiahou Lingnü 夏侯夏侯
Married to Cao Wenshu, a relative of Cao Shuang, mutilated herself rather then marry again.
Lady Hsü 夫人徐
Wife of Sun Quan, the Lord of Wu. Was a native of Fuchun in Wu Commandary.
Lady Yang 杨夫人
Admired Wang Yi so convinced Ma Chao to trust Zhao Ang. Ang’s revolt led to her death.

Notes: Yang Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Lady Chujung 祝融妃
Wife of King Meng Huo. Said to be descended from the Goddess of Fire.

Notes: Zhu4rong2 is her name, but Fei1 means literally “imperial concubine”

Lady Tsou 邹氏
Former wife of Zhang Ji. Caught Cao Cao’s fancy while staying with Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Appears as ‘Lady Zhou’ in Koei games, and in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. Lady Zou’s name is strange in meaning. Zou1 is a surname as expected, but Shi4 is a clan or maiden name.

Lai Kung 赖恭
Driven away by Wu Ju, he later became a senior minister for Liu Bei.
來敏 (敬達)
Lai Min (Ching-ta) 来敏 (敬达)
Tested Fei Yi over a game of Weiqi, educated Liu Shan but may have been slightly crazy.

Notes: Called Liu Min in poisonpie’s novel listing.

Lang Chih 郎稚
Rose up in revolt in 211 but was defeated by He Qi.
Lei Po 雷薄
Serves Yuan Shu, then later leaves to join the Mt. Songshan Bandits with Chen Lan.

Notes: Also known as Lei Pu and possibly the same as Lei Xu.

Lei T‘ung 雷铜
Officer of Liu Zhang and, later, Liu Bei. Killed by Zhang He at Baxi.
Lei Hsü 雷绪
Leader of dissidents, driven away by Xiahou Yuan with his many followers.

Notes: May be Lei Bo.

Lêng Pao 冷苞
Fought Wei Yan and Huang Zhong, he was captured twice. He was executed the second time.

Notes: Sometimes erroneously referred to as Ling Bao.

Hired Hua Tuo but rejected his warning that his wife carried twins. Lost both children.
Li Ch‘êng 李成
A patient of Hua Tuo, he was cured but was unable to get medicine after a relapse.
Li Ch‘êng 栗成
Overthrown by Heishan bandits led by Yu Du and killed.
李典 (曼成)
Li Tien (Man-ch‘êng) 李典 (曼成)
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
Li Fêng (Hsüan-kuo) 李丰
Famed from a young age, had a habit of faking illness. Plotted against Sima Shi.

Notes: Also styled Anguo

Li Fêng 李丰
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.

Notes: ‘Li Deng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Li Fêng 李封
Served Lü Bu. Killed by Xu Chu after neglecting his post in Yanzhou.

Notes: ‘Li Fang’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Li Fu (Sun-tê) 李辅
Chief Secretary. Sent by Liu Shan to check on the dying Zhuge Liang.
李孚 (子憲)
Li Fu (Tzŭ-hsien) 李孚 (子宪)
Snuck through the Wei lines into Ye and then back out again.

Notes: ‘Li Mu’ in chapter 32 and ‘Li Qu’ in chapters 79 and 80, and ‘Li Zu’ in chapter 97 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation to distinguish from others named Li Fu.

Li Ku 李固
Sent by Emperor Xian to give Li Jue rank as Grand Marshal.
Li Hu 李虎
Zong chieftain who submitted to Cao Cao. Moved North when Liu Bei took Hanzhong.
李恢 (德昂)
Li Hui (Tê’-ang) 李恢 (德昂)
Begged Liu Zhang not to let Liu Bei in, persuaded Ma Chao to surrender to Liu Bei.
Li Chi 李基
Son of Li Tong who inherited his rank.
Li Chin 李进
Defeated Lü Bu’s attack of his home town Shengshi.
李傕 (稚然)
Li Chüeh (Chih-jan) 李傕 (稚然)
Served Dong Zhuo. Later took control of the imperial court with Guo Si.
Li Chün 李俊
Local lord used by Jiang Xu to defeat Ma Chao. Was later enoffed and became a general.
Li K‘an 李堪
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Accidentally killed by Yu Jin’s arrow.
Li Lê 李乐
Bandit who helped Xian escape Li Jue’s grasp, found the boat used to cross the river.
Li Li 李利
Performed badly against Ma Teng so slandered his commander Fan Chou.
李立 (建賢)
Li Li (Chien-hsien) 李立 (建贤)
Appointed as Inspector of Jing after Liu Cong’s surrender.
Li Mêng 李蒙
Helped Li Jue take Chang’an but was later executed by Ma Teng.
李密 (令伯)
Li Mi (Ling-po) 李密 (令伯)
Student of Qiao Zhou, evaluated the abilities of Liu Shan and his works were highly valued.
Li Min 李旻
Captured alive by Xu Rong after Sun Jian’s defeat and boiled to death.
Li Ch‘ien 李乾
Had heroic qualities, served Cao Cao early on but was killed in Lü Bu’s revolt.
Li Ch‘iu 李球
Officer of Shu. Died defending Mianzhu during Deng Ai’s attack on the city.
李權 (伯豫)
Li Ch‘üan (Po-yü) 李权 (伯豫)
Influential man in Shu, executed by Liu Yan on a pretext.
李仁 (德賢)
Li Jên (Têhsien) 李仁 (德贤)
Studied in Nanyang, was widely read and an expert in many fields.
Li Ju 李儒
Served Dong Zhuo as an advisor. Died with his lord’s ambitions.
李邵 (永南)
Li Shao (Yung-nan) 李邵 (永南)
Clerical officer, Jiang Wei was later compared to Li Shao by Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Style also known as Weinan.

Li Shêng 李升
Killed by Ma Xing’s revolt in one of their first acts.

Notes: Also called Yi Pou.

李勝 (公昭)
Li Shêng (Kung-chao) 李胜 (公昭)
Member of Cao Shuang’s faction, he was sent to check on Sima Yi’s health.
Li Shu 李术
Killed Wei’s Yan Xiang but then rebelled again against Quan and was executed.
李肅 (偉恭)
Li Su (Wei-kung) 李肃 (伟恭)
Using Red Hare and other gifts he persuaded Lü Bu to kill Ding Yuan and join Dong Zhuo.
Li Su (Wei-kung) 李肃
An excellent judge of talents, he would later be held in high honour by the people.
李通 (文達)
Li T‘ung (Wên-ta) 李通 (文达)
An officer of Wei. Saved Cao Cao’s rearguard in the retreat from Zhang Xiu.
Li Wênhou 李文侯
Part of Beigong Boyu’s rebellion. Killed by Han Sui, who took command of his troops.
Li Hsien 李暹
Nephew of Li Jue. Helped Li Jue smuggle out the Emperor. Killed by Xu Chu.
Li Hsin 李歆
Officer of Shu. Achieved merit in Jiang Wei’s first northern campaign.
Li Hsü 李绪
Son of Li Tong who was stationed at Fancheng, where he achieved some merit.
李嚴 (正方)
Li Yen (Chêng-fang) 李严 (正方)
A talented officer, exiled after he forged a decree to cover up failure of supplies.

Notes: Li Yan changed his name to Li Ping (李平)after rising in Shu authority.

Li I 李异
General of Sun Huan. Slain by Guan Xing in the novel.
Li I 李意
Immortal who warned Liu Bei what would happen should he attack Wu.

Notes: Known as Li Yi in the novel.

Li I 李遗
Li Hui’s son.

Notes: There are two ways to display 遺 in Pinyin: Yi and Wei. We use Yi2.

Li Ying 李膺
Governor of Henan. Visited and impressed by a young Kong Rong.
Li Ying 李应
Opposed Li Jue’s wish to execute his former superior Zhao Wen and won.
Li Itzŭ 李移子
Oath brother of Gongsun Zan, disreputable cloth seller.
Li Yung 李永
An attentive man, he was murdered by Dian Wei on order of a rival.
Li Chên 李祯
An acquittance of Li Jue, he reassured the general about the courtiers being armed.
Li Chêng 李整
Sent to collect his father’s troops, he defeated Xue Lan and Li Feng.
李譔 (欽仲)
Li Chuan (Ch‘in-chung) 李譔 (钦仲)
Fond of practical jokes, admired by Liu Xuan but not given important tasks. Skilled scholar
Liang Poning 梁伯宁
A Yellow Scarves leader in Yingchuan. Defeated and killed by Fu Xie in AD 184
Liang Ta 梁大
Vassal of Liu Bei, he was defeated by Yue Jin.
Liang Kang 梁綱
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
梁鵠 (孟皇)
Liang Ku (Mêng-huang) 梁鹄 (孟皇)
Famed writer, the Wei Heng’s Siti Shu Shixu accuses him of fraud.
Liang K‘uan 梁宽
Revolted against Ma Chao at Yicheng, executing Ma Chao’s family.
Liang Lung 粱龙
Led a rebellion in Jiaozhi. Was defeated and killed by Zhu Jun.

Notes: Long may not have been his given name. It might have been his nickname: “Dragon Liang”

涼茂 (伯方)
Liang Mao (Po-fang) 凉茂 (伯方)
Advised Gongsun Du against attacking Ye while Cao Cao was on campaign elsewhere.
Liang Ch‘i 梁岐
Surrendered his county to Cao Cao in 204.
Liang Shao 粱绍
Had arguments with Yuan Shao and held hostage by Li Jue. Held eunuch rank yet was a man.

Notes: Dr. Rafe de Crespigny notes his personal name as either 邵 or 紹

Liang Shuang 梁双
In 210, as a local rebel he stormed Xi city but later made peace with the authorities.
梁習 (子虞)
Liang Hsi (Tzŭ-yü) 梁习 (子虞)
He pacified the Xiongnu and some of Bing, noted for good governance.
Liang Hsing 梁兴
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Killed by Ma Chao in an attempt to protect Sui.
Liang Hsü 梁绪
Originally of Wei, he submitted to Zhuge Liang and was made Governor of Tianshui.
Liang Yen 梁衍
Advised Huangfu Song to raise troops against Dong Zhuo.
梁寓 (孔儒)
Liang Yü (K‘ung-ju) 梁寓 (孔儒)
Sent to spy on Wei court and ask for permission to attack Guan Yu.
Liao Ch‘un 廖淳
Served at Yiling, Jiang Wan recommended him for rank.
廖化 (元儉)
Liao Hua (Yüan-chien) 廖化 (元俭)
Officer in service of Shu. Served through the full span of the Shu Kingdom.

Notes: Also known as Liao Chun (廖淳).

廖立 (公淵)
Liao Li (Kung-yüan) 廖立 (公渊)
Arrogant officer who neglected his duties, was demoted by Zhuge Liang.
Ling Ts‘ao 凌操
Served Wu. Was killed in one of Gan Ning’s arrow attacks fighting Huang Zu.
凌統 (公績)
Ling T‘ung (Kung-chi) 凌统 (公绩)
Served Wu. Resented Gan Ning for killing his father, Ling Cao, but later forgave him.
Linghu Yü 令弧愚
Plotted against Sima Yi but died before it could begin.
Liu A 刘阿
Defeated by Liu Bei at Yi Ling. Later defeated by Zhang He.
Liu Ai 劉艾
Chief Clerk to Dong Zhuo. A famous historian who authored the Lingdi Ji.

Notes: ‘Liu Cai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉巴 (子初)
Liu Pa (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 刘巴 (子初)
Rescued Shu’s economy after Liu Bei’s troops had plundered the treasury.
Liu Pang [Kaotsu] 刘邦[高祖]
Founder of the Han dynasty. Fought with Xiang Yu for control of China and eventually won.

Notes: Also known by his temple name, Emperor Gaozu of Han. Originally Liu Ji (劉季). Emperor Gao (高帝). Gao Huangdi (高皇帝).

Liu Pao 刘豹
United many Hun tribes so Deng Ai suggest stirring up trouble. Father of Liu Yuan.
劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

劉表 (景升)
Liu Piao (Ching-shêng) 刘表 (景升)
Inspector of Jing province under the Han. Opposed the Sun family militarily.
Liu Ch‘an 刘阐
Described as affectionate and generous with other people.
Liu Ch‘ên 刘谌
Liu Shan’s fifth son. Rather than surrender to Wei, he committed suicide.

Notes: Also known as Liu Chan in some versions of the novel.

Liu Ch‘êng 刘丞
Guarded the gates of the palace. Executed by Sun Chen for taking part in Sun Liang’s plot.
Liu Ch‘ung 刘宠
During the Yellow Scarves rebellion he created his own kingdom. Killed by Yuan Shu.
Liu Ts‘ung 刘琮
Inherited Liu Biao’s kingdom upon his death, then surrendered it to Cao Cao.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Liu Zong’, but this is incorrect.

劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Fought Liu Bei with Wang Zhong but had no success.
劉岱 (公山)
Liu Tai (Kung-shan) 刘岱 (公山)
Governor of Yan. Attacked the Qingzhou Yellow Scarves, but was killed.
Liu Tan 刘诞
Son of Liu Yan, executed alongside Liu Fan after a failed coup against Li Jue.
Liu Têjan 刘德然
A student of Lu Zhi’s, related to Liu Bei whose own studies were paid for by Deran’s father.
Liu Tu 刘度
Governor of Lingling. He surrendered to Liu Bei after his son was defeated.
Liu Fan 刘范
Han Left Imperial Corps Commander. Helped Ma Teng. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
劉放 (子棄)
Liu Fang (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘放 (子弃)
Recommended Cao Shuang as joint regent of Cao Fang. A brilliant writer, Han lineage.
Liu Fêng 刘封
Liu Bei’s adopted son. Executed after the death of Guan Yu at Zhuge Liang’s suggestion.

Notes: ‘Kou Feng’ (寇封) before Liu Bei adopted him.

劉馥 (元穎)
Liu Fu (Yüan-ying) 刘馥 (元颖)
His farming and defence improvements in Yangzhou allowed Wei to keep control of the area.
Liu Kuei 刘璝
Sent to hold Luocheng, he advised visiting a local sage. Cut down by Zhang Yi.

Notes: Sometimes appears in games as Liu Kui.

Liu Ho 刘郃
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Liu Ho 刘何
General, captured by Cao Ren.
Liu Ho 刘和
Ordered to escape capital and seek help for Xian. Captured by Yuan’s, later sent against Zan.
Liu Hung 刘弘
Liu Bei’s father. Son of Liu Xiong, said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.

Notes: His given name was originally Shan (山) and later Yi (義).

劉弘 (于高)
Liu Hung (Yü-kao) 刘弘 (于高)
Occupied high post but was sacked so Dong Zhuo could have his job.
Liu Hu 刘虎
Sent to aid Huang Zu while he was being attacked by Sun Ce.
Liu Hui 刘徽
Mathematician and cartographer of the Wei Dynasty. He obtained a more precise value of Pi, and edited the “The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art”
劉基 (敬輿)
Liu Chi (Ching-yü) 刘基 (敬舆)
Favoured in court by Sun Quan. Stopped a drunken Quan from executing Yu Fan.
Liu Chün 刘俊
Attacked Mianzhu while Liu Bei welcomed Ma Chao. Killed by Zhao Yun.
Liu Chün 刘隽
A county magistrate in Wuwei. Killed by Qu Sheng during the Liang Rebellion.
Liu K‘ungtz‘ŭ 刘孔慈
Skilled at speaking quickly. He and Wang Zifa were favorites of Kong Rong.
Liu K‘uan (Wên-yao) 刘宽
A kind man, once fell into drunken sleep during court meeting. Warned about the Turbans,
劉理 (奉孝)
Liu Li (Fêng-hsiao) 刘理 (奉孝)
Third son of Liu Bei. Married to Ma Chao’s daughter.
Liu Liang 刘良
Predicted Lady Zhen would have a great future.
劉梁 (曼山)
Liu Liang (Man-shan) 刘梁 (曼山)
Confucian Scholar. Wrote books advocating the elimination of court factionalism.
刘伶 (伯倫)
Liu Ling (Po-lun) 刘伶 (伯伦)
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove.
Liu Lüeh 留略
General under Zhuge Ke, defended against Wei.
Liu Mao 刘瑁
A favourite of Liu Yan, illness incapacitated when Zhang took control.
Liu Min 刘敏
Was of some renown, agreed with Wang Ping’s Hanzhong plan.
Liu Ning 刘宁
Participated in Liu Bei’s attack on Wu, but was defeated and surrendered.
Liu P‘an 刘磐
Attempted guerilla warfare against Sun Ce but was foiled by Taishi Ci.
Liu P‘i 刘辟
After rebelling with the Yellow Scarves, moved to Runan. Later joined Liu Bei.
Liu P‘ing 留平
Officer of Wu. Was executed by Sun Hao for objecting to his cruelty.
Liu P‘ing 刘平
Either noted Liu Bei’s talent or tried to kill Liu Bei, depends what source.

Notes: Also known as Liu Ziping.

Liu Ch‘i 刘琦
Eldest son of Liu Biao and legitimate heir of Jing. Became close friends with Liu Bei.
Liu Jo 刘若
High on list of petitioners to make Cao Cao a Duke and Cao Pi emperor.
劉禪 (公嗣)
Liu Shan (Kung-ssŭ) 刘禅 (公嗣)
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.

Notes: Also known by his infant name, A-Dou (阿斗). See Liu Shan’s Comprehensive Officer Biography for more information on his name.

Liu Shao 刘邵
Sent with Mi Fang to take Qichun and took Jin Zong captive.
劉劭 (孔才)
Liu Shao (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘劭 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Rui to save Jiangxia from Wu. Compiled a considerable number of works.
Liu Shêng 刘胜
Liu Bei’s ancestor. Prince of Jing of Zhongshan. Son of Emperor Jing of Han.
Liu Shih 刘石
Defeated by Yuan Shao.
劉寔 (子真)
Liu Shih (Tzŭ-chên) 刘寔 (子真)
Predicted Shu would fall but also that neither Deng Ai nor Zhong Hui would return.
劉陶 (子奇)
Liu T‘ao (Tzŭ-ch‘i) 刘陶 (子奇)
Accused the eunuchs of bringing down the Han and was murdered.
Liu Wangchih 刘望之
Gave honest criticism that wasn’t received well, asked to go home.
Liu Wei 刘卫
Killed by local Yellow Turban forces.
Liu Hsien 刘贤
Liu Du’s son. Defended Lingling with Xing Daorong against Liu Bei, but failed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xiang’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsien (Shih-tsung) 刘先
Served under Liu Cong with Deng Yi. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as ‘Liu Xin’ in some Brewitt-Taylor editions.

Liu Hsiang 刘详
Sent to defend Kuangting, reinforced by Yuan Shu when Cao Cao attacked.
Liu Hsieh 刘偕
Failed to get supplies from local tribe so advised a quick attack on them.
Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Liu Bei’s grandfather. Said to be descended from Emperor Jing of Han.
Liu Hsiung 刘雄
Defeated by Xiahou Yuan, took in refugees and was popular with the people.
劉璿 (文衡)
Liu Hsüan (Wên-hêng) 刘璿 (文衡)
Son of Liu Shan, and his crown prince. Died during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.

Notes: Called Liu Rui in Moss Roberts and Brewitt Taylor translations of the novel.

Liu Hsün 刘循
Raised a force against Yuan Tan at Tayin.
劉勳 (子臺)
Liu Hsün (Tzŭ-t‘-ai) 刘勋 (子台)
Tricked into abandoning his city by Sun Ce and fled to Cao Cao. Executed for extortion and corruption.

Notes: ‘Liu Xu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Liu Yen 刘延
Grand Administrator of Dong commandery. Yuan Shao sent Yan Liang to attack him.

Notes: ‘Liu Yue’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

劉焉 (君郎)
Liu Yen (Chün-lang) 刘焉 (君郎)
Liu Zhang’s father. Magistrate in the Yi territory after fighting Yellow Scarves.
劉琰 (威碩)
Liu Yen (Wei-shih) 刘琰 (威硕)
Former Administrator of Yizhou. Executed after accusing Liu Shan of seducing his wife.

Notes: Liu Yan’s style, Weishi, is also translated as Weishuo. Either may turn up in references. Called Liu Yang in the Brewett-Taylor version of the novel.

劉繇 (正禮)
Liu Yao (Chêng-li) 刘繇 (正礼)
Imperial Inspector of Yangzhou. Liu Dai’s brother. Defeated by Sun Ce, then died of illness.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Liu Yong’ in many Koei games, along with a few other video games. Historical sources, and nearly all novel translations, use ‘Liu Yao’ instead.

劉曄 (子揚)
Liu Yeh (Tzŭ-yang) 刘晔 (子扬)
With other officials, went to Emperor Xian to petition his abdication to Cao Pi.
Liu I 刘翊
Sent to trick Xun Yu into giving Lü Bu supplies but Xun Yu saw through the lie.
劉廙 (恭嗣)
Liu I (Kung-ssŭ) 刘廙 (恭嗣)
Among the officials that petitioned Emperor Xian to abdicate to Cao Pi.
劉翊 (子相)
Liu I (Tzŭ-hsiang) 刘翊 (子相)
Saved several hundred people from famine during the Yellow Scarves Rebellion.
劉邕 (南和)
Liu Yung (Nan-ho) 刘邕 (南和)
Joined Liu Bei during the Yizhou Campaign. Made Administrator of Jiangyang.
劉虞 (伯安)
Liu Yü (Po-an) 刘虞 (伯安)
Governor of Youzhou during the Later Han. Quelled Zhang Ju’s rebellion.
劉淵 (元海)
Liu Yüan (Yüan-hai) 刘渊 (元海)
Grandson of the Xiongnu chief Yufuluo. Founded the Han-Zhao dynasty.
Liu Yüanch‘i 刘元起
Liu Bei’s uncle. Recognized Liu Bei’s ambition, and worked to maintain the family.
Liu Yün 贇贇
King of Ji’nan. Killed by Yellow Turbans in 207.
留贊 (正明)
Liu Tsan (Chêng-ming) 留赞 (正明)
Father of Liu Lue. Marched to meet Wei’s invasion on Zhuge Ke’s orders.
劉璋 (季玉)
Liu Chang (Chi-yü) 刘璋 (季玉)
Son of Liu Yan. Governed Ba-shu before Liu Bei took his kingdom out from under his feet.
劉楨 (公幹)
Liu Chên (Kung-an) 刘桢 (公干)
A brilliant writer, he admonished Cao Zhi for not listening to Xing Yong.
Liu Chêng 刘正
Left Beihai for Liaodong, gathering followers. Later returned to Beihai with Taishi Ci.
Liu Chêng 刘政
Administrator of Youbeiping. Killed in the rebellion of Zhang Chun and Zhang Ju.
劉助 (孔才)
Liu Chu (K‘ung-ts‘ai) 刘助 (孔才)
Sent by Cao Cao to reinforce Zhao Yan, who was having trouble with mutineers.
Liu Tzŭhui 刘子惠
Advised Han Fu to wait and see what the other lords did before joining in.
Liu Tzŭching 刘子敬
Liu Yuanqi’s brother
Liu Chou 刘胄
Led revolt against Shu but was defeated by Ma Zhong.
K‘ou 侯寇
Father of Liu Feng, who Liu Bei adopted as his heir. His family held a county fief in Changsha.
Lou Fa 娄发
Rebelled against Liu Zhang but was defeated and fled to Jing.
婁圭 (子伯)
Lou Kuei (Tzŭ-po) 娄圭 (子伯)
A former officer of Jing, assured Cao Cao that Liu Cong’s surrender was real.

Notes: ‘Lou’ and ‘Lu’ are both accepted ways of writing 婁. As such, his name is sometimes written ‘Lu Gui’.

樓玄 (承先)
Lou Hsüan (Ch‘êng-hsien) 楼玄 (承先)
Executed for rebuking Sun Hao about his tyranny.
Lou I 楼异
Offers up his horse to the injured Cao Cao, helping him escape from Lü Bu’s troops.
Liu Chan 刘展
Was part of the petition to make Cao Cao Duke.
Lou-pan 楼班
Along with Tadun, assisted Yuan Shang and Yuan Xi in opposing Cao Cao.
Lü Pa 吕霸
Son of Lü Meng, was given hereditary nobility.
Lü Poshê 吕伯奢
Friend of Cao Song. Killed by the fleeing Cao Cao.
呂布 (奉先)
Lü Pu (Fêng-hsien) 吕布 (奉先)
Said to be the finest warrior of the Three Kingdoms era. Executed by Cao Cao.
Lü Ch‘ang 吕常
Father of Lü Yi (Jiyang). He served Liu Yan and followed him into Yizhou.
路粹 (文蔚)
Lu Ts‘ui (Wên-yü) 路粹 (文蔚)
Slandered Kong Rong which resulted in Kong Rong’s execution. Executed by Cao Cao.
呂岱 (定公)
Lü Tai (Ting-kung) 吕岱 (定公)
General of Wu. Executed the last vestiges of the Shi clan in Jiao province.
呂範 (子衡)
Lü Fan (Tzŭ-hêng) 吕范 (子衡)
Was an aide to Yuan Shu, but left for Sun Ce. Suggested Lady Sun’s marriage.
陸績 (公紀)
Lu Chi (Kung-chi) 陆绩 (公纪)
During his youth, he was said to have stolen an orange from Yuan Shu to give to his mother.
陸景 (士仁)
Lu Ching (Shih-jên) 陆景 (士仁)
The second son of Lu Kang and Wu Grand Admiral. Died in battle with Jin forces.
呂據 (世議)
Lü Chü (Shih-i) 吕据 (世议)
Second son of Lü Fan and an officer of Wu. Killed by Sun Chen.
陸凱 (敬風)
Lu K‘ai (Ching-fêng) 陆凯 (敬风)
Together with Wan Yu, shared the responsibility of Prime Minister under Sun Hao.

Notes: Listed incorrectly as ‘Lu Kuai’ in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

呂凱 (季平)
Lü K‘ai (Chi-p‘ing) 吕凯 (季平)
Served Shu with Wang Kang. Was Kongming’s guide while battling against the Nanman.
陸康 (季寧)
Lu K‘ang 陆康 (季宁)
Criticised Emperor Ling and the eunuchs, held out for two years despite facing Sun Ce.
陸抗 (幼節)
Lu K‘ang (Yu-chieh) 陆抗 (幼节)
Lu Xun’s second son. Known to be as capable a commander as his father.
Lü K‘uang 吕旷
Served Yuan Shang. Defected to Yuan Tan then Cao Cao. Attacking Liu Bei, killed by Zhao Yun.
Lu K‘uei 鲁馗
Served Han as Court Steward. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
呂蒙 (子明)
Lü Mêng (Tzŭ-ming) 吕蒙 (子明)
Served Wu. Originally a skilled warrior, turned out to be a scholar as well.

Notes: The Lü surname is pronounced Lü2 because of the preceeding Meng, which is 3rd tone, the same rule applies when pronouncing the style name because Zi3 is also third tone.

呂虔 (子恪)
Lü Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-k‘o) 吕虔 (子恪)
Served Cao Cao, and later Cao Pi, as Military Aide.
Lu Shu 鲁淑
The son of Lu Su. Praised as a capable military commander.
Lu Shui-hu 盧水胡
Rebel based in Liangzhou.
魯肅 (子敬)
Lu Su (Tzŭ-ching) 鲁肃 (子敬)
Brilliant and insightful Wu commander. Was ambassador to Shu.

Notes: When saying Lu Su’s surname and style name together the surname should be pronounced Lu2 instead of Lu3 because of the tone preceeding it.

Lü Weihuang 吕威璜
Officer of Yuan Shao. Guarded Wuchao as a lieutenant of Chunyu Qiong.
Lü Hsiang 吕翔
Younger brother of Lü Kuang, whom he followed everywhere.

Notes: He is known as Lü Xiang in SGZ and SGYY, and Gao Xiang (高翔) in HHS and ZZTJ.

Lu Hsün 卢逊
Officer of later-Shu. Defeated Zhong Hui at Nanzheng, but was later killed by Xun Kai.
陸遜 (伯言)
Lu Hsün (Po-yen) 陆逊 (伯言)
Famous and brilliant Wu commander that defeated Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: Originally named Lu Yi (陸議).

呂乂 (季阳)
Lü I (Chi-yang) 吕乂 (季阳)
Served Shu as Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time.

Notes: Some Brewitt-Taylor translations incorrectly list Lü Yi as ‘Lu Yin’. Some books, historical or simplified, including some Chinese Moss Roberts translations, list Lü Yi’s name as 呂義 or its simplified variant 呂义. They are presented as the same person because the two names are both used in reference to the same person, a Lü Yi who was Grand Administrator of Hanzhong during Zhuge Liang’s time, and because there is no reference to another Lü Yi in Shu.

盧毓 (子家)
Lu Yü (Tzŭ-chia) 卢毓 (子家)
Lost his family in civil war, he rose up through the ranks to become an Excellency.
陸雲 (士龍)
Lu Yün (Shih-lung) 陆云 (士龙)
Son of Lu Kang. Served Wu and later Jin. Executed during the War of the Eight Princes.
Lu Yüshêng 陆郁生
Daughter of Lu Ji of Wu.
Lu Chao 路招
Dispatched with Liu Bei to block Yuan Shu’s attempts to get to Yuan Shao.
盧植 (子幹)
Lu Chih (Tzŭ-kan) 卢植 (子干)
Imperial Corps Commander in service of Han. Was Liu Bei’s teacher and friend.
Lun Chih 伦直
He was beheaded for criticizing Gongsun Yuan’s plan to revolt.
羅本 (貫中)
Lo Pên (Kuan-chung) 罗本 (贯中)
Better known as Luo Guanzhong. Credited for having authored the Sanguo yanyi.

Notes: In discussion and reference his style name is nearly always used, hence ‘Luo Guanzhong’.

駱俊 (孝遠)
Lo Chün (Hsiao-yüan) 骆俊 (孝远)
Many children were named after him. Killed by Yuan Shu’s agents over supplies.
Lo Mêng 罗蒙
Luo Xian (Lingze)’s father. Served in Shu to avoid the chaos in the land.
駱統 (公緒)
Lo T‘ung (Kung-hsü) 骆统 (公绪)
Vassal of Sun Quan, famed for being a poor yet honourable man, loyal to his step mother.
羅憲 (令則)
Lo Hsien (Ling-tsê) 罗宪 (令则)
Luo Meng’s son. Served in Shu under Liu Shan. Did not support Huang Hao.
Ma Ai 马艾
Held office as Administrator of Dunhuang.
Ma Ping 马秉
Son of Ma Liang.
馬超 (孟起)
Ma Ch‘ao (Mêng-ch‘i) 马超 (孟起)
Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
Ma Ch‘êng 马承
Son of Ma Chao, inherited his father’s titles.
Ma Tai 马岱
Ma Chao’s cousin. He surrendered to Liu Bei with Ma Chao.
馬鈞 (德衡)
Ma Chün (Tê-hêng) 马钧 (德衡)
Master of Works for Cao Rui. Advised the Emperor to drink Celestial Elixir.
馬良 (季常)
Ma Liang (Chi-ch‘ang) 马良 (季常)
Administered Jing after Liu Bei took Shu. Nicknamed ‘White Eyebrows’.
馬隆 (孝興)
Ma Lung (Hsiao-hsing) 马隆 (孝兴)
Fought the Xianbei and defeated the rebel Tufa Shujineng.
Ma Miao 马邈
Surrendered Jiangyou castle prompting his wife to commit suicide.
馬日磾 (翁叔)
Ma Miti (Wêng-shu) 马日磾 (翁叔)
Sent as envoy to stop the war between Yuan Shao and Gongsun Zan.
Ma P‘u 马普
A scholar of history, he fled south during the civil war. Sun Yu lavished him with gifts.
馬齊 (承伯)
Ma Ch‘i (Ch‘êng-po) 马齐 (承伯)
Became a Minister of Writing, known for his ability.
Ma Ch‘in 马秦
Bandit leader with Gao Sheng, killed by Li Yan.
Ma Ch‘iu 马秋
Son of Ma Chao, handed over to Zhang Lu by Cao Cao and was killed.
馬謖 (幼常)
Ma Su (Yu-ch‘ang) 马谡 (幼常)
Ma Liang’s younger brother. Executed by Zhuge Liang after his failure at Jie Ting.
馬騰 (壽成)
Ma T‘êng (Shou-ch‘êng) 马腾 (寿成)
Governed Xiliang. Descendant of the famous warrior Ma Yuan. Ma Chao’s father.
Ma T‘ieh 马铁
Killed in a volley of arrows as Cao Cao attacks the Ma’s outside Xuchang.
Ma Wan 马玩
Served under Han Sui. Tried to protect Han Sui from Ma Chao, but failed.
Ma Hsiu 马休
Second son of Ma Teng. Executed by Cao Cao on his way to Xuchang.
Ma Hsiu 马脩
Son of Ma Zhong (Dexin). His family continued service in Jin after Shu’s surrender.
馬勳 (盛衡)
Ma Hsün (Ch‘êng-hêng) 马勋 (盛衡)
Served in varying positions under Liu Bei, showed ability and was trusted.
Ma Yen 马延
Served Yuan Shang, and later Cao Cao. Killed by Gan Ning.
Ma Yü 马宇
Han Privy Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ma Yü 马玉
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
馬援 (文淵)
Ma Yüan (Wên-yüan) 马援 (文渊)
General of the Han who campaigned against the Vietnamese. Ma Teng was descended from him.
Ma Yüani 马元义
Follower of Zhang Jue and the Yellow Scarves. Torn asunder by chariots for treason.
Ma Yünlu 马云騄
Fictional character from Fan Sanguo Yanyi. Ma Teng’s daughter. Married to Zhao Yun.

Notes: Sometimes appears incorrectly as Ma Yunli.

Ma Chung 马忠
Captured Guan Yu and Guan Ping. Executed to satiate Liu Bei in the novel.
馬忠 (德信)
Ma Chung (Tê-hsin) 马忠 (德信)
Served Shu notably during the northern and southern campaigns.

Notes: Also known as Hu Du (狐篤). Mistranslated as Ma Zheng in the Brewitt-Taylor edition of the novel.

Ma Tsun 马遵
Was defeated by Shu and fled to Hu, drives Jiang Wei into Shu by his paranoia.
滿寵 (伯寧)
Man Ch‘ung (Po-ning) 满宠 (伯宁)
Served Cao Cao as Military Aide. Helped to repel Shu’s fifth northern campaign.
Mangyach‘ang 忙牙长
Second in command to the Nanman’s armies. Killed by Ma Dai.
Mao Kan 毛甘
Leader of a group of Chinese renegades, conquered by He Qi in 208.
Mao Chia 毛嘉
A joke among the court, Cao Rui held drinking parties at his house.
毛玠 (孝先)
Mao Chieh (Hsiao-hsien) 毛玠 (孝先)
Served as Military Aide to Cao Cao. Later Staff Supervisor, then Naval Commander.
Mao Chiung 毛炅
Made General, plotted to raid Tao Huang but was discovered and executed.
毛綸 (聲山)
Mao Lun (Shêng-shan) 毛纶 (声山)
Father of Mao Zonggang. One of two authors behind the Mao edition of Sanguo yanyi.
毛宗崗 (序始)
Mao Tsungkang (Hsü-shih) 毛宗岗 (序始)
Son of Mao Lun. One of two authors behind the Mao edition of Sanguo yanyi.
Mei Ch‘êng 梅成
Bandit lord with Chen Lan, he feigned surrender to Yu Jin and revolted again.
Mei Fu 梅敷
His defection left a hole in the local area that turned into no man’s land.
Mei P‘ing 梅平
Forced to return home due to illness, Hua Tuo warned him he had only five days to live.
[Mêng K‘o] 孟子[孟轲]
Chinese philosopher. Often considered to the most famous Confucian outside Confucius himself.

Notes: Rarely referenced as Meng Ke (sometimes Meng Ko), his actual name. Best known as ‘Mencius’, a variation of the name Mengzi (孟子). Posthumously named Master Meng the Second Sage (亞聖孟子; Yàshèng Mèngzǐ).

The Dugu clan of Tang trace their ancestry through this man.
孟達 (子敬)
Mêng Ta (Tzŭ-ching) 孟达 (子敬)
Refused aid to Guan Yu. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, kills Xu Huang.

Notes: Meng Da was originally styled Zijing (子敬), but later changed his style to Zidu (子度) because the uncle of his lord, Liu Bei, was named Liu Jing.

Mêng Tai 孟岱
Warned Yuan Shao that Shen Pei planned to rebel but Shen Pei was too loyal.
孟光 (孝裕)
Mêng Kuang (Hsiao-yü) 孟光 (孝裕)
Raised concerns over Liu Xuan’s education, an arrogant but bright scholar.
孟建 (公威)
Mêng Chien (Kungwei) 孟建 (公威)
Friend of Xu Shu and Zhuge Liang. Joined Wei. Became Inspector of Liang Province.

Notes: ‘Meng Gongwei’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

Mêng Yao 孟曜
Helped Du Kui create music fit for the Imperial Court. Music which Du Kui’s moral objections meant it never got used.
Mêng I 孟溢
Sent to aid Gongsun Zan in the failed camapign against Zhang Ju and Zhang Chun.
Mêng Yu 孟优
Meng Huo’s brother. Captured by Zhuge Liang.
孟宗 (恭武)
Mêng Tsung (Kung-wu) 孟宗 (恭武)
One of the 24 paragons of filial piety, almost executed for leaving post to attend funeral.

Notes: Originally named Meng Ren (孟仁).

麋芳 (子方)
Mi Fang (Tzŭ-fang) 麋芳 (子方)
Mi Zhu’s brother. Served all three kingdoms. Surrendered to Wu after threat of punishment from Guan Yu.
彌衡 (正平)
Mi Hêng (Chêng-p‘ing) 弥衡 (正平)
Reputable scholar. Infuriated Cao Cao’s officers with his audacious ways.

Notes: Called Ni Heng in the ZZTJ.

麋竺 (子仲)
Mi Chu (Tzŭ-chung) 麋竺 (子仲)
Served Shu. Mi Fang’s brother. Died shortly after Mi Fang’s betrayal.
繆裴 (文雅)
Miao P‘ei (Wên-ya) 缪裴 (文雅)
Widely read in the classics, refused all offers of employment.
Miao Shang 缪尚
Was left behind by Zhang Yang’s killer to guard the area.
Miao Ssŭ 苗祀
In charge of the residence of Empress Fu. Killed during the fighting in Hongnong.
繆襲 (熙伯)
Miao Hsi (Hsi-po) 缪袭 (熙伯)
One of the historians that worked on the Wei shu.
Michia 弥加
Allied with Tanshihuai, Wei and Kebineng. Established trading links with Wei.
Michia 弥加
Xianbei chieftain who offered trade with Wei.
閔純 (伯典)
Min Ch‘un (Po-tien) 闵纯 (伯典)
Opposed surrendering to Yuan Shao and was executed.

Notes: Guan Chun (關純) in Romance of the Three Kingdoms. These characters are from the original text, so Guan Chun is the proper novel translation.

Min Kung 闵贡
Han commander in the Henan district. Killed eunuch Duan Gui. Helped Emperor Shao.
Mo Ssŭ 莫嗣
Disapproved of the outlandish fashions among men and women’s clothing
沐并 (德信)
Mu Ping (Tê-hsing) 沐并 (德信)
A poor orphan, became a man of strong principle, willing to face down powerful opposition.
Mu Shun 穆顺
General of Governor Zhang Yang. Killed by Lü Bu in a duel.
Mu Shun 穆顺
Plotted to save Emperor Xian with Empress Fu and Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.
Nan Tou 南斗
God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Nandou (in Sagittarius).
Nalou 那楼
A Wuhuan chieftain. Surrendered to Cao Cao after the Wuhuan’s defeat.
Nêngch‘ênti 能臣抵
Wuhuan chieftain. Surrendered to Cao Cao in 207, but rebelled with Pufulu later on.
Ning Sui 宁随
Officer in Shu’s later years. Offered Jiang Wei a plan that repelled Deng Ai.
Niu Tan 牛亶
Sent by the Han to replace Liu Zhang when Zhao Wei rebelled.
Niu Fu 牛辅
Fought against Lü Bu and Li Su, after Dong Zhuo’s death. Killed by Hu Che’er.

Notes: In Koei’s Dynasty Warriors 2-4 his name was presented as ‘Niou Fu’.

Niu Kai 牛盖
Also known as 朱蓋 Zhu Gai. Helped defeat Chen Lan in 209. Accompanied Xu Huang to Fan.
Niu Chin 牛金
Subordinate of Cao Ren. Attacked Zhou Yu’s camp at Nanjun, but was defeated and rescued by Cao Ren.
Nüwa (Nu Wa) 女娲
Chinese goddess. Created mankind from the yellow earth and repaired the Wall of Heaven.
P‘an Fêng 潘凤
Officer of Han Fu. Wielded a giant axe and fought with Hua Xiong, but was killed.
潘濬 (承明)
P‘an Chün (Ch‘êng-ming) 潘浚 (承明)
Began his career under Liu Biao then Liu Bei. After Guan Yu’s death, served in Wu.
P‘an Lin 潘临
Scourge of the area, kept evading capture until Lu Xun led an army against him.
P‘an Miao 番苗
Killed Dan Meng following his brother’s death.
P‘an Hsin 番歆
Snubbed Dan Meng’s father-in-law at a banquet and was put to death.
潘勗 (元茂)
P‘an Hsü (Yüan-mao) 潘勖 (元茂)
Wrote up the the proclamation that made Cao Cao Duke of Wei.
P‘an Yin 潘隐
Warned He Jin of Jian Shou’s plot and then of the Emperor’s death.
潘璋 (文珪)
P‘an Chang 潘璋 (文珪)
Served Wu. Led the forces which captured Guan Yu and his son, Guan Ping.
龐德 (令明)
P‘ang Tê (Ling-ming) 庞德 (令明)
Served Ma Chao, Zhang Lu, then Cao Cao. Fought against Guan Yu at Fancheng.
庞德公 (山民)
P‘ang Têkung (Shan-min) 庞德公 (山民)
A famed scholar. Uncle of Pang Tong.

Notes: Sima Hui called him Pang Gong as a nickname and therefore his name is sometimes mistranslated as such.

龐宏 (巨師)
P‘ang Hung (Chü-shih) 庞宏 (巨师)
Son of Pang Tong. Joined Wei with Huang Quan after the Shu army’s defeat by Wu.
龐渙 (世文)
P‘ang Huan (Shih-wên) 庞涣 (世文)
Son of Pang Degong.
P‘ang Hui 庞会
Pang De’s son. Had Guan Yu’s clan exterminated after Shu’s surrender.
P‘ang Chüan 庞涓
General of the state of Wei in the Warring States Period.
P‘ang Lin 庞林
Surrendered to Wei with Huang Quan, where Lin was reunited with his wife.
P‘ang Jou 庞柔
Cousin of Pang De, his service to Shu cast doubts on Pang De’s loyalty.
P‘ang Shu 庞舒
Sheltered Lü Bu and his family in Chang’an. Executed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
龐統 (士元)
P‘ang T‘ung (Shih-yüan) 庞统 (士元)
Friend of Sima Hui’s and Shu’s “Fledgling Phoenix.” Killed by an arrow at Luocheng.
P‘ang Hsi 庞羲
A friend of Liu Yan. Collected his grandchildren and brought them to Shu.
龐淯 (子異)
P‘ang Yü (Tzŭ-i) 庞淯 (子异)
Fillial man, helped avenge grandfather and tried to avenge master.
P‘ang Yüeh 庞乐
With Li Yi, turned against Zhao Wei and killed him.
P‘ei Hui (Wên-chi) 裴徽
Talented scholar and friends with many great men. Settled rivalry between Xun Can and Fu Gu.
裴茂 (巨光)
P‘ei Mao (Chü-kuang) 裴茂 (巨光)
Sent by Xian to give Cao Cao the Golden Seal. Took part in Li Jue’s death.
裴潛 (文行)
P‘ei Ch‘ien (Wên-hsing) 裴潜 (文行)
Refused service with Liu Biao, he dealt with the Shanyu without an army.
裴松之 (世期)
P‘ei Sungchih (Shih-ch‘i) 裴松之 (世期)
Annotated Chen Shou’s Sanguozhi with numerous and extensive footnotes.
裴秀 (季彥)
P‘ei Hsiu (Chi-yen) 裴秀 (季彦)
Expert cartographer, close adviser to Sima Zhao and Sima Yan.
裴玄 (彥黃)
P‘ei Hsüan (Yen-huang) 裴玄 (彦黄)
Evaluated by Bu Zhi. A leader scholar, he worked on texts along with Yang Jun.
P‘ei Yüanshao 裴元绍
Former Yellow Scarve killed by Zhao Yun during an attempt to steal his horse.
P‘êng Hu 彭虎
Raised ten thousand men under his control, fled on sight of Wu forces.
P‘êng T‘o 彭脱
Defeated by Huangfu Song and Zhu Jun.
彭羕 (永年)
P‘êng Yang (Yung-nien) 彭羕 (永年)
Friend of Meng Da, plotted revolt against Liu Bei. Repented but still executed.
P‘ufulu 普富卢
Wuhuan Chieftain in Dai. Surrendered to Cao Cao, rebelled, and was pacified by Cao Zhang.
P‘uching 普净
Monk. Warned Guan Yu of Bian Xi’s plot. Later helped Guan Yu’s spirit to find peace.

Notes: Pujing 普淨, a religious name, translates to Universal Purity. In the Brewitt-Taylor translation Pujing appears as Pu Jing and his name is translated as Transverse Peace. Other translations are possible.

濮陽興 (子元)
P‘uyang Hsing (Tzŭ-yüan) 濮阳兴 (子元)
Supported Sun Hao after Sun Xiu died, helping to elevate him to Emperor.
Ch‘i Chou 齐周
A clerical officer, joined in the revolt against Gongsun Zan under Liu He.
Ch‘ien Po 钱博
Local chieftain who surrendered to Lü Dai.
Ch‘ien Hung 牵弘
Served Wei. District Governor of Jincheng before helping Deng Ai’s invasion of Shu.
Ch‘ien T‘ung 钱铜
Led forces against Sun Ce but was defeated.
牽招 (子經)
Ch‘ien Chao (Tzŭ-ching) 牵招 (子经)
Persuaded the Wuhuan to side with Cao Cao over the Yuan’s. Mourned Yuan Shang.
Ch’iang-tuan 强端
A member of the Di at Yinping who executed Wu Lan and sent his head to Wei.
喬瑁 (元偉)
Ch‘iao Mao (Yüan-wei) 乔瑁 (元伟)
Forged decree against Dong Zhuo. Was killed by his enemy Liu Dai.
Ch‘iao Jui 桥蕤
Officer of Yuan Shu. Fought with Cao Cao’s forces, but was killed by Xiahou Dun.
橋玄 (公祖)
Ch‘iao Hsüan (Kung-tsu) 桥玄 (公祖)
Recognised Cao Cao’s talent and predicted Han would collapse. Noble offical.

Notes: ‘State Patriarch Qiao’ in the Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘State Elder Qiao’ in the Moss Roberts translation.

譙周 (允南)
Ch‘iao Chou (Yün-nan) 谯周 (允南)
Historian and teacher, advised Liu Shan to surrender. Opposed Jiang Wei and Huang Hao.
Ch‘imu K‘ai 綦母闓
Scholar in Liu Biao’s court. Produced the “Later Edition” with Song Zhong.

Notes: ‘Lord Qimu’ is referenced in SGZ: Wei 8 with a similar background to Qimu Kai. It is likely that ‘Lord Qimu’ and Qimu Kai are the same person.

Ch‘in Lang 秦狼
Raised men in revolt but was defeated and captured by Jiang Qin.
秦朗 (元明)
Ch‘in Lang (Yüan-ming) 秦朗 (元明)
Adopted son of Cao Cao. Led troops to pacify the Xianbei in 233. Close to Cao Rui.
秦宓 (子質)
Ch‘in Mi (Tzŭ-ch‘ih) 秦宓 (子质)
Rebuked Jian Yong for his arrogance, thrown in jail for opposing the invasion of Wu.
Ch‘in Ch‘i 秦祺
Served Wei under Xiahou Dun. In novel, killed by Guan Yu leaving Cao Cao.
Ch‘in Ch‘ingt‘ung 秦庆童
Servant of Dong Cheng. Punished for talking with Yun Ying. Betrayed him to Cao Cao.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Quin Quington’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition. Another calls him ‘Qui Lici’.

秦召 (伯南)
Ch‘in Shao (Po-nan) 秦召 (伯南)
Saved Cao Cao’s life at the cost of his own, his son was adopted by Cao Cao.
秦松 (文表)
Ch‘in Sung (Wên-piao) 秦松 (文表)
Served Sun Ce as an advisor, but died young. Usually appeared around Zhang Zhao.
秦頡 (初起)
Ch‘in Hsieh (Ch‘u-ch‘i) 秦颉 (初起)
Killed Zhang Mancheng and Han Zhong before being killed in a mutiny.

Notes: Also known as Qin Jie.

Ch‘in I 秦谊
Swordsman, helped kill Dong Zhuo, dressing up as a guard to do so.
Ch‘in Ilu 秦宜禄
Sent to ask for reinforcements, his wife was taken by Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Fei.
Ch‘iu Pên 丘本
Advisor to Deng Ai, calms him down and advises to try and surprise Zhuge Zhan.
Ch‘iu Chien 丘建
Commander of Zhong Hui, helped warn Wei forces of Zhong Hui’s revolt.
Ch‘iulichü 丘力居
Raided the Han. Defeated by Gongsun Zan but counter attack wiped out 60% of Zan’s army.
Ch‘ü Kung 瞿恭
Bandit who was defeated and killed by Li Tong.
Ch‘ü Mu 渠穆
Killed He Jin and cut off his head.
Ch‘ü Yen 麹演
Part of leading clan of Xiping, he helped kill Han Sui. Refused to accept Zou Qi.
Ch‘ü I 麴义
Defeated Han Fu, Yufuluo and destroyed Gongsun Zan. Became arrogant and was executed.
全琮 (子璜)
Ch‘üan Ts‘ung (Tzŭ-huang) 全琮 (子璜)
Son of Quan Rou and son-in-law of Sun Quan. Served Wu as general and advisor.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Quan Zong’, but this is incorrect.

Ch‘üan Tuan 全端
Defended Shouchun during Zhuge Dan’s rebellion, but surrendered to Wei.
Ch‘üan Chi 全纪
Brother-in-law of Sun Liang. Ordered to kill Sun Chen by Sun Liang, but was executed.
Ch‘üan Ching 全静
Son of Quan Cong who defected to Wei.
Ch‘üan Jou 全柔
Man of local family. Managed to bring in grain during famine.
Ch‘üan Shang 全尚
Father of Quan Ji. Was killed after his wife revealed his son’s plot against Sun Chen.
Ch‘üan I 全懌
Quan Cong’s son. Sent to aid Zhuge Dan’s rebellion, but surrendered to Wei.
Ch‘üan I 全祎
Conspired with Geng Ji and Wei Huang to abduct the Han Emperor.
Ch‘üan I 全懌
Quan Xu’s (perhaps Quan Duan’s) son. Quan Zong’s grandson. Quan Yi’s nephew.
Ch‘üeh Chien 却俭
Liu Yan’s predecessor, his attempt to raise levies caused revolts. Favorite of Emperor Ling.
Ch‘üeh Hsüan 阙宣
With Tao Qian’s support, declared himself Son of Heaven but was later killed by Qian.
Ch‘üehchi 阙机
Xianbei leader. Persuaded by Yan Rou to set up trade relations with Cao Cao.
Jao Chu 饶助
Hired to help bring the people of Lujiang over to Wu.
Jaolung Tsung 扰龙宗
Delivering a report, he forgot to take off his sword and was killed by Dong Zhuo.
Red Hare [Ch‘iht‘uma] 赤兔[赤兔马]
Lü Bu’s famed horse. “Among men, Lü Bu; among horses, Red Hare.” Novel: Later given to Guan Yu by Cao Cao.
Jen Fu 任福
Wei general who defeated the rebel Cai Fang.
Jên Fan 任籓
Was involved in petitioning for Cao Cao to be made Duke.
任恺 (元褒)
Jên K‘ai (Yüan-pao) 任恺 (元褒)
Minister of both Wei and Jin. He was said to be careful and hardworking with official business, and was widely praised. However his career was hindered by conflict with Jia Chong.
Jên K‘uei 任夔
Advised attacking Cao Hong early but the plan resulted in Kui’s death.
Jên Lan 任览
Friend of Wei Feng, forewarned by Zheng Mao of Wei Feng’s ambitions.
Jên Ch‘i 任岐
Raised troops against Liu Yan but was defeated and killed.
任峻 (伯達)
Jên Chün (Po-ta) 任峻 (伯达)
Looked after military stores with Mao Jie.
Jung Ko 荣邰
Held hostage by Guo Si.
Juan Chi 阮籍
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was also one of the compilers of the Wei shu.
Juan Hsien 阮咸
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove, criticized for chasing after his slave lover.
阮咸 (仲容)
Juan Hsien (Chung-jung) 阮咸 (仲容)
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove and nephew of Ruan Ji.
阮瑀 (元瑜)
Juan Yü (Yüan-yü) 阮瑀 (元瑜)
One of the Seven Jian’an Masters, studied under Cai Yong.
芮良 (文鸾)
Jui Liang (Wên-luan) 芮良 (文鸾)
Officer under Sun Ce who participated in the Jiangdong campaigns. Died in the late 190’s.
芮玄 (文表)
Jui Hsüan (Wên-piao) 芮玄 (文表)
Succeeded his brother’s position and was made Marquis of Liyang.
芮祉 (宣嗣)
Jui Chih (Hsüan-ssŭ) 芮祉 (宣嗣)
An officer of Sun Jian and Sun Ce. A man from Danyang.
Shamohan 沙末汗
After his father’s death, the Han court under Cao Cao confirmed him as a king.
Shan Ching 单经
Sent to aid Tao Qian against Cao Cao but defeated at Pingyuan.
Shan T‘ao 山涛
One of the Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove. He was the only Sage involved in politics.
Shan Yang 单飏
Asked by Qiao Xuan for interpretation of an omen, and predicted Cao Pi’s ascension to the throne.
Shang Shêng 商升
Opposed Sun Ce and defeated Han Yan. Wanted to surrender to He Qi but was murdered by his vassals.
Shang Yao 商曜
Rebelled and took Daling but was killed by the forces of Xu Huang and Xiahou Yuan.
邵悌 (元伯)
Shao T‘i (Yüan-po) 邵悌 (元伯)
Advisor of Sima Zhao’s. Warned Sima Zhao about trusting Zhong Hui.
射堅 (文固)
Shê Chien 射坚 (文固)
Of good repute, sacked during time of famine, went to Yi from Chang’an.
射援 (文雄)
Shê Yüan (Wên-hsiung) 射援 (文雄)
Of good reputation, Huangfu Song admired his talents. Memorialised Liu Bei be King of Hanzhong.
Shên Ch‘êng 沈成
Bandit who was defeated and killed by Li Tong.

Notes: Shen 沈 can also be translated as Chen, but this translation is not used in surnames. That said, you will still find him under the name Chen Cheng.

申耽 (義舉)
Shên Tan (I-chü) 申耽 (义举)
Brother of Shen Yi. Governor of Shangyong. Surrendered from Wei to Shu to Wei.
Shên Mi 沈弥
Took part in revolt against Liu Zhang but was defeated and fled to Jing.
審配 (正南)
Shên P‘ei (Chêng-nan) 审配 (正南)
Served Yuan Shao with loyalty. After Shao’s death, sided with his youngest son, Shang.
Shên Jung 审荣
Nephew of Shen Pei. Betrayed Jizhou after the family of his friend, Xin Pi, was executed.
Shên I 申仪
Brother of Shen Dan. Friend of Meng Da. Surrendered from Wei to Shu then again to Wei.
Shên Ying 沈莹
General of the Left under Sun Hao who was slain during Jin’s conquest of Wu.

Notes: Also Shen Rong or Shen Zong in the online Brewitt-Taylor edition.

沈友 (子正)
Shên Yu (Tzŭ-ch‘êng) 沈友 (子正)
Compiled commentary on art of war, alienated from Sun Quan who later killed him.
Shên Chung 审忠
In 179 or 180, he denounced the eunuchs of the court.
Shêng Tao 盛道
Joined a failed revolt vs. Liu Zhang. His wife sacrificed herself to save him from execution
Shêng Man 盛曼
Served Wu. Made war with Wei following the subjugation of Shu in 264.

Notes: Sometimes he also appears as Cheng Man.

盛憲 (孝章)
Shêng Hsien (Hsiao-chang) 盛宪 (孝章)
Helped in resistance to Sun Ce, had quite a reputation. Killed by Sun Quan.
Shênshêng [Prince Shênshêng of Chin] 申生
Spring and Autumn Period. Half-brother to Chong’er, eldest son of Duke Xian of Jin.

Notes: ‘Shen Sheng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Er Shensheng’ in the Moss Roberts translation.

申屠蟠 (子龍)
Shênt‘u P‘an (Tzŭ-lung) 申屠蟠 (子龙)
Refused appointment and when Dong Zhuo tried to hire him, laughed at the idea.
石苞 (仲容)
Shih Pao (Chung-jung) 石苞 (仲容)
Sold weapons to make a living, became a leading general of Jin and a popular offical.
Shih Ho 史郃
Surrendered to Wei alongside Huang Quan.
史渙 (公劉)
Shih Huan (Kungliu) 史涣 (公刘)
General of Xu Huang, captured messenger which gave them vital information.
Shih Huang 史璜
His death caused conflict as the Han ordered Shi Xie to defeat Liu Biao’s replacements.
时苗 (德胄)
Shih Miao (Techou) 时苗 (德胄)
Eccentric minister, held a variety of civil posts and was respected for his talent.
Shih Shuo 施朔
Imperial Guard under Sun Xiu who reported Sun Chen’s rebellion.
石韜 (廣元)
Shih T‘ao (Kuang-yüan) 石韬 (广元)
Old friend of Zhuge Liang. Joined Cao Cao with Xu Shu and worked on agriculture.

Notes: ‘Shi Guangyuan’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms (his style name is used).

士燮 (威彥)
Shih Hsieh (Wei-yen) 士燮 (威彦)
Grand Administrator of Jiaozhi. Paid regular tribute to Sun Quan.
Shih Tsuan 师纂
Joined Deng Ai’s attack on the Riverlands. Was made Imperial Protector of Yizhou.
司馬防 (建公)
Ssŭma Fang (Chienkung) 司马防 (建公)
Sima Yi’s father. An honest hermit who had a sense of public duty.
司馬孚 (叔達)
Ssŭma Fu (Shu-ta) 司马孚 (叔达)
Served Wei loyally to the end, weeping over Cao Mao’s corpse and refusing Jin princedom.
司馬光 (君實)
Ssŭma Kuang (Chün-shih) 司马光 (君实)
Authored the Warring States to Song Dynasty historical text, Zizhi tongjian.

Notes: Also known as Sushui Xiansheng (涑水先生). Alternative style name (or hao 號) Yusou (taken late in his life). Posthumously given the honorary title (Shi or 謚) Wenzheng (文正), thus Sima Wenzhenggong (司馬文正公).

司馬徽 (德操)
Ssŭma Hui (Tê-ts‘ao) 司马徽 (德操)
Named ‘Water Mirror’ by Pang Degong. Former teacher of Zhuge Liang and Pang Tong.
司馬進 (惠達)
Ssŭma Chin (Hui-ta) 司马进 (惠达)
6th son of Sima Fang, he would hold a minor court office under Wei. His son, Ti, would be enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan took the throne.
司馬儁 (元異)
Ssŭma Chün (Yüan-i) 司马儁 (元异)
Grandfather of Sima Yi. Governor of Yingchuan.

Notes: ‘Sima Juan’ in the Moss Roberts translation and online Brewitt-Taylor translations. ‘Sima Jun’ in Rafe de Crespigny’s works.

司馬馗 (季達)
Ssŭma K‘uei (Chi-ta) 司马馗 (季达)
4th Son of Sima Fang, he would be a Chancellor of Lu and later awarded a marquisate.
司馬朗 (伯達)
Ssŭma Lang (Po-ta) 司马朗 (伯达)
Humane offical, his governing was popular with the people.
Ssŭma Ling 司马陵
Son of Sima Tong, he was enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan became Emperor.
Ssŭma Lou 司马楼
Helped Cao Cao onto a horse after he had fallen while fleeing from Lü Bu.
司馬敏 (幼達)
Ssŭma Min (Yu-ta) 司马敏 (幼达)
Youngest son of Sima Fang, he died young and left no heirs.
Ssŭma Ch‘üan 司马权
Son of Sima Kui, he was enfeoffed as a King upon Sima Yan becoming Emperor.
司馬師 (子元)
Ssŭma Shih (Tzŭ-yüan) 司马师 (子元)
Sima Yi’s son. Instrumental in the rise of Jin.
Ssŭma Sui 司马遂
Son of Sima Xun, he was enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan became Emperor.
Ssŭma T‘i 司马悌
Son of Sima Jin, he was enfeoffed as a King when Sima Yan became Emperor.
司馬同 (雅達)
Ssŭma T‘ung (Ya-ta) 司马同 (雅达)
7th son of Sima Fang, he served on the staff of the Director of Retainers and was enfeoffed.
司馬望 (子初)
Ssŭma Wang (Tzŭ-ch‘u) 司马望 (子初)
Fought Shu with Deng Ai, ambushed and killed Xiahou Ba.
司馬恂 (顯達)
Ssŭma Hsün (Hsien-ta) 司马恂 (显达)
Son of Sima Fang, was a mid-ranking civil officer under Wei.
司馬炎 (安世)
Ssŭma Yen (An-shih) 司马炎 (安世)
Installed as the first Emperor of the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: Known formally as Emperor Wu of Jin.

司馬懿 (仲達)
Ssŭma I (Chung-ta) 司马懿 (仲达)
A skilled advisor of the Wei kingdom. His efforts laid the foundation of Jin.
司馬攸 (大猷)
Ssŭma Yu (Ta-yu) 司马攸 (大猷)
Second son of Sima Zhao. Known as a kind and warm-natured man.
司馬昭 (子上)
Ssŭma Chao (Tzŭ-shang) 司马昭 (子上)
Son of Sima Yi. Father of Sima Yan. Controlled the Wei army after his brother, Shi’s, death.
司馬芝 (子華)
Ssŭma Chih (Tzŭ-hua) 司马芝 (子华)
Wei civil officer who served three generations of the Cao family.
司馬伷 (子將)
Ssŭma Chou (Tzŭ-chiang) 司马伷 (子将)
Led the force to which Sun Hao offered his seal and surrendered.
Sung Kuo 宋果
Proposed to Yang Feng that they should betray Li Jue. Overheard and killed by Li Jue.

Notes: Also called Song Ye.

Sung Chien 宋建
Rebelled against the Han for over thirty years until he was defeated by Xiahou Yuan.
Sung Chieh 宋阶
Served Wei. Friend of Cui Yan who died young.
Song Ch’i 宋奇
Husband of Cao Cao’s second cousin. He was executed and caused the removal from office of all those related to him.
Sung Ch‘ien 宋谦
Served Wu. In the novel, is killed by Li Dian at Hefei, but historically fights at Yiling.
Sung Jên 宋仁
Song Ren and his brother, Song Yong, join Liu Bei in Capcom’s Destiny of an Emperor.
Sung Hsien 宋宪
Served Lü Bu, but joined Cao Cao after Hou Cheng was punished. Killed by Yan Liang.
Song Yang 宋扬
A rebel alongside Han Sui, Bian Zhang and Beigong Yu.
Sung Yung 宋勇
Song Yong and his brother, Song Ren, join Liu Bei in Capcom’s Destiny of an Emperor.
Sung Chung [Tsung] (Chung-tzŭ) 宋忠
Scholar under Liu Biao with Qimu Kai. Sent by Liu Cong to surrender to Cao Cao.

Notes: Song Zhong’s name may have been written Song Zong 宋宗.

Su Fei 苏飞
Convinced Gan Ning to leave Huang Zu and join Sun Quan.
Su Ch‘in 苏秦
Su Qin was an influential political strategist during the Warring States Period.
蘇軾[蘇東坡] (子瞻)
Su Shih [Su Tungp‘o] (Tzŭ-chan) 苏轼[苏东坡] (子瞻)
Song Dynasty writer, poet, artist, calligrapher, pharmacologist and statesman.

Notes: Su Shi (蘇軾), styled Zizhan (子瞻), went by the pseudonym Dongpo Jushi (東坡居士; “The Scholar in Retirement at Eastern Slope”), and is often referenced as Su Dongpo (蘇東坡).

Su Shuang 苏双
Horse trader from Zhongshan with Zhang Shiping. Supplied Liu Bei’s first armed force.
Su Yung 苏顒
Vanguard commander of Guo Huai (who served Cao Zhen). Killed by Zhao Zilong.
Su Yu 苏由
Defended Ji when Yuan Shang went to help his brother against Cao Cao.
Su Yüeh 苏越
Hired to build a new palace for Cao Cao, tree he picks bleeds.
蘇則 (文師)
Su Tsê (Wên-shih) 苏则 (文师)
Considered Wei’s best frontier General, fiercely honest. Died after argument with Cao Pi.

Notes: Called Sun Tse in Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms.

眭固 (白兔)
Sui Ku (Poi-t‘u) 眭固 (白兔)
Killed Yang Chou who had killed Zhang Yang. Turned to Yuan Shao but killed in battle.

Notes: You will also find him referenced as Gui Gu and Kui Gu. In Moss Roberts’ translation he isn’t mentioned by name. ‘Kui Gu’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. Koei, until recently, referenced him as Gui Gu. Bo 白 in his style is frequently translated as Bai, thus Baitu. Sidenote: his style, Botu (白兔) literally translates to ‘White Rabbit’.

Sui Yüanchin 眭元进
Part of the defenders of Yuan Shao’s supply camp, captured and executed.

Notes: Gui Yuanjin in some versions of the novel.