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Three Kingdoms Officer Names: Officers A-G

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Officers A–G: officer names from the Three Kingdoms officer name English–Chinese reference tool. Cross-reference given (xìng), personal (míng) and style (zì), given (xìng) and personal (míng) names in Pinyin, Wade-Giles, and traditional Chinese (both in Hanzi and decimal-encoded form for non-Unicode websites and forums).

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Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
Akuei 阿贵
In 213, joined with ally Qianwan and Ma Chao. Defeated and killed by Xiahou Yuan.
Ahuinan 阿会喃
Served and executed by Meng Huo. Marshal of the Third Cave. Captured by Zhang Yi.

Notes: Some translations depict his name as Ahui Nan.

巴祇 (敬祖)
Pa Chih (Ching-tsu) 巴只 (敬祖)
An Inspector of Xu who held command against the Yellow Turbans, and reported on the excellent conduct of Zhao Yu.
Pai Ch‘i 白起
General of Qin, rumored to have been undefeated. Conquered the state of Chu.
鮑出 (文才)
Pao Ch‘u (Wên-ts‘ai) 鲍出 (文才)
Saved his mother and sister-in-law from bandits. Invited to office for his actions, but he refused.
Pao Hung 鲍鸿/洪
A colonel in the northern army who would later be reported embezzling local funds.
Pao Lung 鲍隆
Served Zhao Fan. Fell two tigers with a few arrows. Executed by Zhao Yun.
Pao Jung 鲍融
Son of Bao Shao, to whom the inheritance went after Bao Shao’s death.
Pao Sanniang 鲍三娘
Guan Suo’s wife. Both beautiful and skilled in combat. Fictional.
Pao Shao 鲍邵
Enfeoffed in memory of the loyalty of his father Bao Xin.
Pao Su 鲍素
Fictional officer of Jiang Wei. Acted as a decoy but was defeated and killed by Chen Tai.
Pao T’ao 鲍韬
Younger brother of Bao Xin who accompanied him against Dong Zhuo. Died in battle.
Pao Hsin 鲍信
Urged Yuan Shao to attack Dong, invited Cao Cao to govern Yan. Died fighting Turbans.
鮑勛 (叔業)
Pao Hsün (Shu-yeh) 鲍勋 (叔业)
Strict morality meant Xun had conflicts with Cao Pi, was eventually executed.
Pao Chung 鲍忠
Served Bao Xin, his brother. Died in battle with Hua Xiong.
Pei Tou 北斗
God in Koei’s Three Kingdoms. Reference to Star God/Lunar House Beidou (in Big Dipper).
Pei Yen 卑衍
Served Gongsun Yuan. Defeated by Sima Yi. In novel, fell in a duel against Xiahou Ba.
Pei Yü 贝羽
A county magistrate in Nan. Independent in AD 190, later submitted to Liu Biao.
Peikung Poyü 北宮伯玉
Lead mutiny of troops then Qiang revolt. Huangfu Song and Zhang Wen failed to put him down.
Pi Ch‘ên 毕谌
Aide to Cao Cao, his family was captured and he left only to be captured later.

Notes: Also called Bi Cheng in the SGZ.

畢軌 (昭先)
Pi Kuei (Chao-hsien) 毕轨 (昭先)
Officer of Cao Shuang’s faction, executed by Sima Yi after Sima Yi’s coup.
Pi Lan 毕岚
One of the 12 Regular Attendants who was known for his engineering achievements.
Pi Yü 毕瑜
Sent with seal to Liu Yu who rejected the appointment and may have executed Bi Yu.
Pien Ping 卞秉
Served Wei. Brother of Empress Bian.
Pien Ho 卞和
Historically, a statesman of Chu. Discovered the jade from which the imperial seal was crafted.
Pien Hung 边鸿
Part of Sun Yi’s escort, he assassinated his master after dusk. Executed by his co-conspirators.
Pien Lan 卞蘭
Close to both Cao Pi and Cao Rui, an honest advisor. Suffered from diabetes.
邊讓 (文禮)
Pien Jang (Wên-li) 边让 (文礼)
Governor of Jiujiang. Killed by Xiahou Dun reinforcing Tao Qian against Cao Cao.
Pien Hsi 卞喜
Met Guan Yu with mock hospitality at Sishui Pass, and died for his trouble.
Pien Yüan 卞远
Father of Empress Bian. Posthumously enfeoffed as marquis.
Pien Chang 边章
Forced into leading the Qiang’s in revolt against the Han alongside Han Sui.

Notes: Originally named Bian Yuan (元).

? Ping ?昺
General who took part in a stele about Cao Pi’s rise to the Imperial Throne.
邴良 (文鸞)
Ping Liang (Wên-luan) 邴良 (文鸾)
Son of Bing Zhi, he served under Sun Ce.
邴玄 (文表)
Ping Hsüan (Wên-piao) 邴玄 (文表)
Succeeded Bing Liang in his post. His daughter married Sun Deng. Mourned by Sun Quan.
邴原 (根矩)
Ping Yüan (Kên-chü) 邴原 (根矩)
Friend of Hua Xin. Belly of “The Dragon”, a group of three scholars.
邴祉 (宣嗣)
Ping Chih (Hsüan-ssŭ) 邴祉 (宣嗣)
An Administrator under Sun Jian who died in the early 190s
Po Po 白波
A leader of the Black Mountain Bandits who hailed from the Bobo valley.

Notes: While 白 is translated as ‘Bo’ in this case, and in the name of the valley from which Bo Bo hailed, 白 is most commonly translated as Bai. As such you may read of a Bai Bo who came from Baibo valley.

Po Ts‘ai 波才
Defeated Zhu Jun then lost to the combined armies of Zhu Jun, Huangfu Song and Cao Cao.
Po Jao 白绕
Black Mountain Bandit leader. Plundered Wan but was defeated by Cao Cao.
Po Shou 白寿
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Po Hsiaoch‘ang 柏孝长
An officer of Merit who first hid when Liu Biao attacked, but took part in fighting after 5 days.
Poku 伯固
King of a tribe as a minor in 130, he survived to give tribute to Gongsun Du in 190.

Notes: Known to Korean history as Paekko.

Poch‘üeh [White Sparrow] 白雀
Part of the Black Mountain Bandits in 185.
Pu Ch‘an (Chung-ssŭ) 步阐
Served Wu. Bu Zhi’s son. Surrendered his city to Jin. Killed by Lu Kang.
Pu Chi 步玑
Son of Bu Xie, sent by Bu Chan to Luoyang when the Bu family revolted.
卜靜 (玄風)
Pu Ching (Hsüan-fêng) 卜靜 (玄风)
Widely admired, he became a magistrate of Kuaiji under Sun Quan.
Pu Ssŭ 卜巳
Local leader, captured and killed by Fu Xie.

Notes: Also named Bu Yi

Pu Hsieh 步协
Son of Bu Zhi, became General who Consoles the Army.
Pu Hsüan 步璇
Youngest son of Bu Zhi, he took part in Bu Chan’s defection to Jin.
步騭 (子山)
Pu Chih (Tzŭ-shan) 步骘 (子山)
Served Sun Quan. Accurately predicted Guan Yu’s invasion of Jing.
Putukên 步度根
A Lord of the Xianbei. Allied with Wei, then allied and got killed by Kebineng.
Ts’ai Fang 蔡方
Rebel who killed Licheng county’s governor Xu Zhi.
Ts‘ai Kung 蔡貢
Attacked Bu Chan of Xiling, traitor to Wu, who turned from the country in 272.
Ts‘ai Ku 蔡谷
Warned his cousin Cai Yong that fleeing Dong Zhuo would fail due to Yong’s fame.
Ts‘ai Ho 蔡和
Cai Mao’s brother. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but executed by Zhou Yu.
Ts‘ai Lin 蔡林
Officer of Zhuge Ke, he defected to Wei with his entire company at Xincheng.
蔡瑁 (德珪)
Ts‘ai Mao (Tê-kuei) 蔡瑁 (德圭)
Assisted Liu Biao in taking control of Jingzhou, prevented Liu Qi from visiting father.
Ts’ai Hsün 蔡埙
Relative of Cai Mao, killed with an arrow by Gan Ning in a navy battle.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

Ts‘ai Yang 蔡扬
Sent to take Runan from Liu Bei and Liu Pi but failed and was killed.

Notes: His given name may be either ’揚’ or ’陽’.

Ts‘ai I 蔡遗
Filed complaints against the uncultured Lü Meng. Later recommended by Meng for a job.
蔡邕 (伯喈)
Ts‘ai Yung (Po-chieh) 蔡邕 (伯喈)
Advised Emperor Ling’s court. Hated the eunuchs. Died honoring Dong Zhuo.

Notes: In some Wade-Giles translations of the novel Cai Yong is incorrectly listed as Ch’ai Yung.

Ts‘ai Chung 蔡中
Cai Mao’s cousin. Surrendered to Wu before Chibi, but was killed by Gan Ning.
倉慈 (孝仁)
Ts‘ang Tz‘ŭ (Hsiao-jên) 仓慈 (孝仁)
Governor of Dunhuang, his handling of foreign affairs gave him a great reputation.
Ts‘ang Hsün 仓恂
Son of Cang Ci. Served as a military official in Jinping.
曹昂 (子脩)
Ts‘ao Ang (Tzŭ-hsiu) 曹昂 (子脩)
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s first son. Died to save his father.
Ts‘ao Anmin 曹安民
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s nephew. Died in the battle against Zhang Xiu.

Notes: Misrepresented as ‘Cao Amin’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Ts‘ao Pao 曹豹
Beaten and later slain by Zhang Fei. He caused Lü Bu’s attack on Xuzhou.
曹彪 (朱虎)
Ts‘ao Piao (Chu-hu) 曹彪 (朱虎)
Cao Zhi wrote a poem about him. Cao Biao would later be found guilty of treason.
Ts‘ao Puhsing 曹不兴
Such a good painter, his pictures seemed to come alive.
曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

Ts‘ao Ch‘an 曹阐
Replaced his deceased brother as Cao Zheng’s descendant.
Ts‘ao Ch‘ên 曹谌
Grandson of Cao Jun, inherits his father’s rank.
Ts‘ao Ch‘êng 曹乘
Prince, died without issue.
曹沖 (倉舒)
Ts‘ao Ch‘ung (Ts‘ang-shu) 曹冲 (仓舒)
One of Cao Cao’s sons. Possessed an adult’s intelligence at age 5, but died young.
曹純 (子和)
Ts‘ao Ch‘un (Tzŭ-ho) 曹纯 (子和)
Cao Ren’s younger brother. Defeated by Zhou Yu in the southern cities.
Ts‘ao Tê 曹德
Brother of Cao Cao. Killed by Zhang Kai with his father Cao Song.
Ts‘ao Fan 曹范
Adopted to continue the line of the deceased Cao Zheng. Died without issue.
曹芳 (蘭卿)
Ts‘ao Fang (Lan-ch‘ing) 曹芳 (兰卿)
Cao Rui’s crown prince. Became Emperor at age eight. Deposed by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Fu 曹馥
Son of Cao Hong. Inherited his father’s fief and title.
Ts‘ao Kan 曹干
Son of Cao Cao, contemplated revolt against Cao Rui.
Ts‘ao Kun 曹衮
Noted for his scholarship and quiet conduct. Wrote essays when young.

Notes: Called Cao Kun in the ZZTJ.

Ts‘ao Hung 曹宏
Friend of Tao Qian, he killed many innocent people and disturbed the province.
曹洪 (子廉)
Ts‘ao Hung (Tzŭ-lien) 曹洪 (子廉)
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s cousins and a vital element of his army.
曹奐 (景明)
Ts‘ao Huan (Ching-ming) 曹奂 (景明)
Son of Cao Yu. Last Emperor of the Wei Dynasty. Abdicated to Sima Yan.

Notes: Originally named Cao Huang (曹璜). An Emperor’s given name was ineffable. As such, it was stricken from use (sometimes changing city names and re-writing literature). Cao Huang changed his name to Huan to lessen the impact of this practice (learn more).

Ts‘ao Hui 曹徽
Maintained Cao Yu’s line. When Cao Cao died, he went hunting until reigned in.
Ts‘ao Chi 曹棘
Died early and was later made a Prince.
曹節 (元偉)
Ts‘ao Chieh (Yuan-wei) 曹节 (元伟)
The Chief of the Ten Regular Attendants under Emperors Huan and Ling of Han.
Ts‘ao Ching 曹京
Son of Cao Cao. Died young. Posthumously enfeoffed as a duke.
Ts‘ao Chiung 曹冏
First son of Cao Rui. Prince of Qinghe. Died the year he was born.
Ts‘ao Chü 曹据
Punished for having his men produce illegal goods. Lived in south for his health.
Ts‘ao Chün 曹均
Transferred to the line of his uncle, had a child.
Ts‘ao K‘ang 曹犺
Wei Duke, had son.
Ts‘ao Mao 曹茂
Arrogant, vicious and sinful, he had to wait a long time to be King, had large family.
曹髦 (彥士)
Ts‘ao Mao (Yen-shih) 曹髦 (彥士)
Grandson of Cao Pi. Was made Emperor after Cao Fang’s abdication by Sima Shi.
Ts‘ao Mu 曹穆
Second son of Cao Rui. Prince of Fanyang. Died young.
曹丕 (子桓)
Ts‘ao P‘i (Tzŭ-huan) 曹丕 (子桓)
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
曹全 (景完)
Ts‘ao Ch‘üan (Ching-yüan) 曹全 (景完)
Helped defeat the Turbans, a generous offical who was much admired.
曹仁 (子孝)
Ts‘ao Jên (Tzŭ-hsiao) 曹仁 (子孝)
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
曹儒 (俊林)
Ts‘ao Ju (Chün-lin) 曹儒 (俊林)
Served under Cao Zhang and then later against Wu. Became a Minister.
Ts‘ao Jui 曹蕤
Son of Cao Pi.
曹叡 (元仲)
Ts‘ao Jui (Yüan-chung) 曹睿 (元仲)
Emperor of Wei, he defended the dynasty from Shu and Wu, but was criticized for his spending.
Ts‘ao Ch‘in 曹勤
Died early without issue.
曹肇 (長思)
Ts‘ao Shao (Ch‘ang-ssŭ) 曹肇 (长思)
Son of Cao Xiu.
Ts‘ao Shên 曹参
Prime Minister under Liu Bang. Ancestor of Cao Cao.

Notes: Sometimes Romanized ‘Cao Can’.

Ts‘ao Shu 曹淑
Cao Rui’s daughter and fourth child. Died in infancy.
曹爽 (昭伯)
Ts‘ao Shuang (Chao-po) 曹爽 (昭伯)
Regent of Cao Fang. Underestimated Sima Yi, was stripped of power, and executed.
Ts‘ao Shuo 曹铄
Served Wei. The Prince of Xiangshang. Died at a young age.
曹嵩 (巨高)
Ts‘ao Sung (Chü-kao) 曹嵩 (巨高)
Adopted son of Cao Teng and father of Cao Cao. Also called Xiahou Song.

Notes: Occasionally listed as, and once named, Xiahou Song (夏侯嵩).

Ts‘ao T‘ai 曹泰
Son of Cao Ren. Succeeded his father’s fief and later became a general of Wei.
曹騰 (季興)
Ts‘ao T‘êng (Chi-hsing) 曹腾 (季兴)
Adopted Cao Song (formerly Xiahou), father of Cao Cao, into the Cao family. Eunuch.
Ts‘ao Hsi 曹羲
Warned his brother about his excesses but was ignored. Recommended surrender.
Ts‘ao Hsing 曹性
Slain by Xiahou Dun in battle, who lost an eye to the archery of this man.
Ts‘ao Hsiung 曹熊
Fourth son of Cao Cao from second wife Lady Bian.
曹休 (文烈)
Ts‘ao Hsiu (Wên-lieh) 曹休 (文烈)
Performed well against Shu and Wu but fell for Zhou Fang’s ploy at Shiting.
Ts‘ao Hsün 曹训
Cao Zhen’s third son. Younger brother of Cao Shuang. Executed by Sima Yi.
Ts‘ao Yen 曹演
Held military rank. In the 240’s, the fief he inherited was raised in rank.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹殷
Third son of Cao Rui. Posthumously Prince Ai of Anping. Died the year after he was born.
Ts‘ao Yin 曹寅
Prefect of Wuling. Forged a decree to Sun Jian calling for Wang Rui’s execution.
Ts‘ao Yung 曹永
General of Cao Ren. Killed by Pang De, who also took his horse.
曹宇 (彭祖)
Ts‘ao Yü (P‘êng-tsu) 曹宇 (彭祖)
Son of Cao Cao. Refused to be Regent to Cao Fang due to his modest nature.
曹彰 (子文)
Ts‘ao Chang (Tzŭ-wên) 曹彰 (子文)
Cao Cao’s second son by Empress Bian. Fond of martial arts. Died not long after Cao Cao.
曹真 (子丹)
Ts‘ao Chên (Tzŭ-tan) 曹真 (子丹)
Served Wei. Adopted into Cao family. Managed affairs after Cao Pi’s death.

Notes: Cao Zhen’s original family name was Qin. He was adopted into the Cao clan.

Ts‘ao Chêng 曹整
Adopted into the Cao Shao line but died without issue.
曹植 (子建)
Ts‘ao Chih (Tzŭ-chien) 曹植 (子建)
Cao Cao’s third son by Empress Bian. Originally favored as heir over Cao Pi. Famous poet.
Ts‘ao Tsun 曹遵
Relative of Cao Zhen. Appointed as vanguard against Zhuge Liang. Killed by Wei Yan.
Ts‘ên Pi 岑璧
Tried to taunt Yuan Shang into a duel but got Lü Kuang instead and was soon killed.
Ts‘ên Hun 岑昏
Eunuch and favourite of Sun Hao, he was killed and eaten by palace officials.
Ts‘ên Wei 岑威
Escort for the captured Wooden Horses but was killed by Wang Ping.
岑桎 (公孝)
Ts‘ên Chih (Kung-hsiao) 岑桎 (公孝)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Nanyang.
Ch‘ai Yü 柴玉
Well known bell maker, argued with Du Kui over a pair of them. Cao Cao made him a horse herder.
Ch‘ang Tiao 常雕
Led an attack on Ruxu but was ambushed and killed by Zhu Huan.
Ch‘ang Chi 常纪
Lost husband in 192, father killed in 195. Admired for her fine bearing in such times.
常林 (伯槐)
Ch‘ang Lin (Po-huai) 常林 (伯槐)
Advised Cao Pi to not lead the army against Su Bo and Tian Yin but to leave it to a vassal.
Ch‘ang Nu 苌奴
Helped Dong Cheng block Cao Hong from reaching Emperor Xian.
Ch‘ang Hsi 昌豨
One of the Taishan Bandits. Joined and rebelled against Cao Cao several times.
常洽 (茂尼)
Ch‘ang Hsia (Mao-ni) 常洽 (茂尼)
Claimed that Li Jue would not harm Zhao Wen. Killed during Emperor Xian’s flight.

Notes: Also called Chang Qia.

Ch‘ê Chou 车胄
Served Cao Cao. Provisional Protector/Imperial Inspector of Xuzhou.
Ch‘ên Pao 陈宝
General; sent to get Sun Ce’s family and bring them to Wu.
Ch‘ên Pao 陈宝
Tried to ravage and kill Lady Lu Rong.
陳寶 (盛先)
Ch‘ên Pao (Shêng-hsien) 陈宝 (盛先)
Celebrated throughout the west, honest and maintained strict conduct.

Notes: Also known as Chen Shi (陳實).

陳表 (文奧)
Ch‘ên Piao (Wên-ao) 陈表 (文奥)
Chen Wu’s son. Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Zhang Xiu, and Gu Tan.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ê 陈策
Bandit defeated in 200 by Cao Cao, thanks to Liu Ye’s advice.
Ch‘ên Ch‘ao 陈超
Rose in revolt against Liu Yan with Ren Qi.
Ch‘ên Ts‘ung 陈琮
Son of Chen Qiu, became an administrator under Cao Cao.
陳耽 (漢公)
Ch‘ên Tan 陈耽 (汉公)
Loyal Minister that, due to slander by the eunuchs, was arrested and died in jail.
陳到 (叔至)
Ch‘ên Tao (Shu-chih) 陈到 (叔至)
Served Liu Bei since he held Yizhou. Held office just under Zhao Yun.
陳登 (元龍)
Ch‘ên Têng (Yüan-lung) 陈登 (元龙)
Spied on Lü Bu with his father, Gui, for Cao Cao. Joined Liu Bei, then surrendered to Cao.
Ch‘ên Tuan 陈端
One of the seven heroes who gave their lives so Zhao Qian could escape Turbans.
陳端 (子正)
Ch‘ên Tuan (Tzŭ-chêng) 陈端 (子正)
Advisor to Sun Ce, along with fellow countrymen Zhang Hong and Qin Song.
Ch‘ên Fan 陈蕃
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Imperial Guardian. Died opposing the eunuchs.
Ch‘ên Fêng 陈凤
Captured by Xie Jing and Li Yi, he surrendered to Wu.
Ch‘ên Kung 陈恭
Friend of Li Tong, helped him kill Zhou Zhi. Killed by his in-law Chen He.
陳宮 (公臺)
Ch‘ên Kung (Kung-t‘-ai) 陈宫 (公臺)
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
陳珪 (漢瑜)
Ch‘ên Kuei (Han-yü) 陈珪 (汉瑜)
Father of Chen Deng. Served Cao Cao and Liu Bei spying on Lü Bu, then under Cao.
Ch‘ên Ho 陈郃
Killed Chen Gong, the husband of his sister but was defeated by Li Tong.
Ch‘ên Hêng 陈横
Van leader with Xue Li under Liu Yao. Shot by Jiang Qin when ambushed by Sun Ce.
Ch‘ên Hu 陈曶
Sent by Zhuge Liang to attack Huang Yuan.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈济
Served Shu. Chen Zhen’s son.
Ch‘ên Chi 陈纪
Served Yuan Shu guarding Shouchun, but died after his defeat there by Cao Cao.
陳紀 (元方)
Ch‘ên Chi (Yüan-fang) 陈纪 (元方)
A highly respected minister, opposed Dong Zhuo’s plan to move the capital.
陳矯 (季弼)
Ch‘ên Chiao (Chi-pi) 陈矫 (季弼)
Known as a righteous, happy yet calm person. Highly respected governor.
Ch‘ên Chiu 陈就
Chief Controller, led Huang Zu’s navy but was killed by Lü Meng.
Ch‘ên Chün 陈俊
General of Sima Zhao. Participated in Sima Zhao’s campaign against Zhuge Dan.
Ch‘ên Lan 陈兰
Serves Yuan Shu, then later joined the Songshan Bandits with Lei Bo.

Notes: Chen Jian in To Esablish Peace

陳琳 (孔璋)
Ch‘ên Lin (K‘ung-chang) 陈琳 (孔璋)
Served under Emperor Ling, then under Yuan Shao. A superior writer.
Ch‘ên Mao 陈茂
Member of a powerful local family, slandered the family of Han Ji. Assassinated by Han Ji.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
Officer of Chen Yu, he was killed by Lü Fan.
Ch‘ên P‘ing 陈平
Former Han. A minister who served under Liu Bang.
Ch‘ên P‘u 陈仆
Leader of barbarians in the south, conquered by He Qi in 208.
陳騫 (休淵)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ien (Hsiu-yüan) 陈骞 (休渊)
A key Wei officer in the suppression of Zhuge Dan. Brigadier General of Jin.

Notes: Appears in some sources under the name Chen Xuan (陳鶱).

Ch‘ên Ch‘in 陈勤
Abused his power, insulted Ling Tong and Ling Cao at banquet, later killed.
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün 陈群
Served Cao Rui. Captain under Sima Yi in his campaign against Gongsun Yuan.
陳群 (長文)
Ch‘ên Ch‘ün (Ch‘ang-wên) 陈群 (长文)
Served Wei. Imperial Censor under Cao Cao. Supreme Commander under Cao Pi.

Notes: Sometimes his style is referenced incorrectly as ‘Zhangwen’.

Ch‘ên Jung 陈容
Embarrassed Yuan Shao by rebuking him over Zang Hong’s revolt and was executed.
Ch‘ên Jung 陈融
Served Wu and compiled Precepts.
Ch‘ên Shêng 陈生
Rode out aid the exhausted Zhang Hu but was shot in the face by Sun Jian.

Notes: Also known as Chen Zuo.

Ch‘ên Shih 陈式
Rumored father of Chen Shou. Traded for Xiahou Shang at Hanzhong. Executed.
陳寔 (仲躬)
Ch‘ên Shih (Chung-kung) 陈寔 (仲躬)
A government official who was well-liked by many. Admired throughout the Empire.
陳壽 (承祚)
Ch‘ên Shou (Ch‘êng-tso) 陈寿 (承祚)
Served Shu and later Jin. Author of the highly-respected Three Kingdoms history, Sanguozhi.
Ch‘ên Su 陈肃
Made an imperial courtier by Cao Pi in honour of Chen Gui’s accomplishments.
Ch‘ên Sun 陈孙
Began pillaging the people of Jiangxia. Zhang Fei killed him in one blow.
陳泰 (玄伯)
Ch‘ên T‘ai (Hsüan-po) 陈泰 (玄伯)
Defended Wei against Jiang Wei. Wept at Cao Mao’s death, and died soon after.
Ch‘ên T‘ao 陈桃
Was said to have seen Yu Fan meeting with sages and immortals in his dreams.
陳調 (元化)
Ch‘ên T‘iao (Yüan-hua) 陈调 (元化)
Local strongman, tried to avenge his master but was wounded and died in battle.
Ch‘ên Wei 陈炜
Served Han as High Minister. Advisor to Li Ying. Mocked in jest by young Kong Rong.
陳溫 (元悌)
Ch‘ên Wên (Yüan-t‘i) 陈温 (元悌)
Inspector of Yangzhou, he helped Cao Hong raise troops and died of illness.
陳武 (子烈)
Ch‘ên Wu (Tzŭ-lieh) 陈武 (子烈)
Served Sun Ce as Commandant. Surrounded at Hefei and fought to his death.
陳翔 (仲麟)
Ch‘ên Hsiang (Chung-lin) 陈翔 (仲麟)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Ch‘ên Mu 陈牧
An officer of Yan Baihu. Defeated by Lü Fan.
Ch‘ên I 陈祎
Protected Empress Bian but joined in Wei Feng’s plot. Then revealed the plot out of fear.
Ch‘ên Ying 陈应
Officer of Zhao Fan. Fought with Zhao Yun, but was later executed by him.

Notes: In Destiny of an Emperor 2 his name is incorrectly mistranslated as Chen Shu.

Ch‘ên Yü (Kung-wei) 陈禹
Tried to destroy Sun Ce by getting lords in the south to ally against him.
Ch‘ên Yüan 陈元
Officer of Yang Hu, advised against drinking wine sent by Lu Kang.
Ch‘ên Tsao 陈造
Vanguard of Cao Zhen’s army. Slain by Ma Dai.
陳震 (孝起)
Ch‘ên Chên (Hsiao-ch‘i) 陈震 (孝起)
Local official, was sent as emissary to Wu, swearing oath of alliance with Sun Quan.
程秉 (德樞)
Ch‘êng Ping (Tê-shu) 程秉 (德枢)
Advisor to Sun Quan. Sent as diplomat, with Zhang Fei’s head, to Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: ‘Cheng Deshu’ in chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms despite being Cheng Bing elsewhere.

Ch‘êng Kungying 成公英
Served Han Sui as a strategist. Suggested hiding among the Qiang. Submitted to Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng K‘o 程克
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
Ch‘êng K‘uang 程旷
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.
Ch‘êng Lien 成廉
General noted for his courage under Lü Bu. In novel, killed by Yue Jin.
Ch‘êng Liang 程良
Son of Cheng Yu, who served Wei.
程普 (德謀)
Ch‘êng P‘u (Tê-mou) 程普 (德谋)
Served three generations of the Sun family. From Tuyin in Youbeiping.

Notes: Incorrectly referred to as ‘Chen Pu’ once in some Brewitt-Taylor translations.

Ch‘êng Wu 程武
Served Wei. Son of Cheng Yu. Advised Xiahou Mao against Zhao Yun.
Ch‘êng I 成宜
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Attacked Chang’an with Ma Chao. Killed by Xiahou Yuan.
Ch‘êng Yin 程银
One of Han Sui’s Eight Knights. Died fighting Cao Cao at Wei Nan.
程昱 (仲德)
Ch‘êng Yü (Chung-tê) 程昱 (仲德)
Served Wei as an advisor. From Dong’e in Dongjun.

Notes: Cheng (程) Li (立) was his original name, he dreamed about the mount Tai Shan when he was young, holding the sun (日) with both hands. Hence Cao Cao changed his name to Yu (昱) [Cheng Yu]. As you can see the word of Yu is composed with the word ‘sun’ (日) and the word ‘stand’ Li (立), together they form the word of Yu (昱).

Ch‘êng Yüanchih 程远志
Served Yellow Scarves as a chieftain. Killed by Guan Yu.
郗慮 (鴻豫)
Ch‘ih Lü (Hung-yü) 郗虑 (鸿豫)
Slandered Kong Rong leading to his death and took away the Empress’ seal.
Ch‘ung Fu (Ying-po) 种拂
Served Han as Minister of Ritual. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.
Ch‘ung Chi 种辑
Served Han as Changshui Commandant. Friend of Dong Cheng. Executed by Cao Cao.
Ch‘ung Shao (Shên-fu) 种邵
Han Court Counsellor. Helped Ma Teng and Han Sui. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si.
Ch‘ung’êrh [Duke Wên of Chin] 重耳[晋文公]
Spring and Autumn Period. Chong’er, literally “Double Ears”, came to lead state of Jin.

Notes: ‘Er Chong’ in the Moss Roberts novel translation. ‘Er Chong’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. “Chong’er” literally translates to ‘Double Ears’, though there is no historic basis pointing out that he had unusual ears.

Wuhuan Ch‘u [Ch‘u of Wuhuan] 乌桓触
Tribal chief, swore fealty to Cao Cao rather then help the Yuan sons.

Notes: The characters of 烏桓 (wuhuan) are the same as those used for the Wuhuan tribe, thus ‘Chu of Wuhuan’ in many respected sources.

Ch‘unyü Tan 淳于丹
Sent by Lu Xun to test Liu Bei’s encampments. Is defeated and wounded.
淳于瓊 (仲簡)
Ch‘unyü Ch‘iung (Chungchien) 淳于琼 (仲简)
Served Yuan Shao. Mutilated by Cao Cao after failing Yuan Shao at Guandu.
Ch‘unyü Shih 淳于式
Complained to Sun Quan that Lu Xun was unnecessarily disrupting the people. Later was praised for Lu Xun as an excellent officer.
Ts‘uan Ku 爨谷
Governor of Jiaozhi. Allied with Jin and became powerful in the region.
Ts‘uan Hsi 爨习
A resident of Nanzhong. He later surrendered to Zhuge Liang, and his clan became powerful.
Ts‘ui Chün 崔钧
Joined alliance despite his father serving Dong Zhuo. Had reputation as fighting man.
Ts‘ui Liang 崔谅
Governor of Anding, tried to lure Shu army into trap but was killed by Zhang Bao.
崔烈 (威考)
Ts‘ui Lieh (Wei-k’ao) 崔烈 (威考)
Commandant of the Capital Gates. Cui Yi’s brother. Killed by Li Jue and Guo Si’s troops.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Yi’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

崔林 (德儒)
Ts‘ui Lin (Tê-ju) 崔林 (德儒)
Cui Yan’s younger cousin, discussed the scholars of Ji province with Chen Qun.
崔琰 (季珪)
Ts‘ui Yen (Chi-kuei) 崔琰 (季珪)
Scholar who served Yuan Shao then Cao Cao, who executed him for his opposition.
Ts‘ui I 崔毅
Served Han under Emperor Ling. Cui Lie’s brother.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Sui Lie’ in Brewitt-Taylor’s translation and other sources.

Ts‘ui Yung 崔勇
Served Guo Si. Killed by Xu Huang after taunting Yang Feng.
Ts‘ui Yü 崔禹
Went to Sun Huan’s aid instead of Zhu Ran but was captured and executed.
崔均 (元平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Yüanp‘ing) 崔均 (元平)
Accompanied his father, wanted to avenge him but died of illness.
崔鈞 (州平)
Ts‘ui Chün (Choup‘ing) 崔钧 (州平)
One of Zhuge Liang’s close childhood friends. Friend of Xu Shu as well. From Boling.
Ta Ch‘iao 大乔
Elder of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Xiao Qiao. Married to Sun Ce.

Notes: Da (大), in this context, translates to ‘Big’, thus ‘Elder’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Older Qiao’, the name Da Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by Koei in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

Tai Kan 戴干
Recommended by Chen Qun to Cao Cao. Died fighting against Wu.
Tai Ling 戴陵
Served as assistant general to Zhang He during battle against Zhuge Liang.
Tai Yüan 戴员
Killed Sun Yi, Bian Hong and Sun He before he was assassinated.
Tailaitungchu 带来洞主
Younger brother of Zhurong. Participated in the battle against Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Sometimes appears as Chief or King. ‘King Dai Lai’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Tan Mêng 儋萌
Executed a quarrelling officer, Pan Xin but was killed in battle with Pan Miao.
Tang Chün 党均
Served as advisor to Deng Ai. Spread false rumours about Jiang Wei.
鄧艾 (士載)
Têng Ai (Shih-tsai) 邓艾 (士载)
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
Têng Tang 邓当
Fought against the Shanyu under Sun Ce. Tried to persuade a young Lü Meng to stay home.
鄧方 (孔山)
Têng Fang (K‘ung-shan) 鄧方 (孔山)
Followed Liu Bei into Shu and was later given command of the south.
Têng Fu 邓辅
In 219, he was attacked and defeated by Lu Xun.
Têng Chi 邓济
In 197, he and his garrison at Nanyang were defeated by Cao Cao.
Têng Ching 邓靜
An expert vocalist, he served the Han orchestra under Cao Cao.
Têng K‘ai 邓凯
Raised non-Chinese people to resist Sun Quan. Lost to Xie Jing and fled to Shu.
Têng Liang 邓良
Served Liu Shan. Surrended to Deng Ai on behalf of Liu Shan.
Têng Lung 邓龙
Attempted to attack Zhou Yu at Chaisang, Deng Long was defeated and captured.
Têng Mao 邓茂
Served Yellow Scarves under Cheng Yuanzhi. Killed by Zhang Fei.
Têng P‘in 邓聘
Accompanied Emperor Xian during his flight but was killed.
Têng Shêng 邓升
Officer of Gao Gan. Left to guard Shangdang as Gan went to seek aid.
Têng T‘ung 邓铜
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
Têng Hsi 邓羲
Resigned in protest at Liu Biao’s continued alliance with Yuan Shao.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
Meng Da’s nephew. Under orders from Sima Yi, he betrayed Meng Da.
Têng Hsien 邓贤
One of the many generals that fights Liu Bei. Is killed by Huang Zhong in the novel.
Têng Hsüanchih 邓玄之
Used by Lü Meng to persuade the Governor of Lingling to surrender the city.
Têng I 邓义
Served under Liu Cong with Liu Xian. Surrendered to Cao Cao after Cong’s death.
鄧禹 (仲華)
Têng Yü (Chung-hua) 邓禹 (仲华)
Han Dynasty general and statesman. Major contributor to Emperor Guangwu’s effort to reestablish the Han.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Zheng Yu’ in chapter 43 of the online Brewitt-Taylor translation and the Moss Roberts translation.

Têng Yüan 邓渊
Detained by Guo Si when sent by Emperor Xian as envoy and later killed.
Teng Chan 邓展
A noted weapons expert who discussed swordplay with Cao Pi.
鄧芝 (伯苗)
Têng Chih (Po-miao) 邓芝 (伯苗)
Served Zhuge Liang. Was responsible for restoration of alliance with Wu.
Têng Chung 邓忠
Served Wei. Deng Ai’s talented son. Died attempting to aid his father.

Notes: Referenced incorrectly as ‘Deng Zong’ in some online historical sources.

Têng Tzŭhsiao 邓子孝
In 196, fled with Xu Jing to Jiao. In 208, met Wang Lang in Jing and gave him news.
Tien Man 典满
Served Wei. Dian Wei’s son, became a member of Cao Cao’s bodyguard.
Tien Wei 典韦
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.

Notes: We originally listed Dian Wei’s style as Ziman (子曼). As we are no longer able to locate the source, and a few possible causes for error have turned up, we no longer have reason to believe he had the name.

Tiaoch‘an [Sable Cicada] 貂婵
Wang Yun’s adopted daughter. Helped to kill Dong Zhuo. Fictional.

Notes: Also known as Sable Cicada.

Tilu Horse [Hex Mark] 的卢马
Liu Bei’s horse. Saved Liu Bei at the river Tan. Killed at Fallen Phoenix Slope, along with Pang Tong.

Notes: Called ‘Hex Mark’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

Ting Ch‘ung 丁冲
Early advisor to Cao Cao and Yang Feng, he died of overdrinking.
Ting Fan 丁蕃
Under He Qi’s command, reluctant to accept a humble post so He Qi killed him.
Ting Fei 丁斐
Magistrate of Weinan. Set free animals at Tong Gate to confuse Ma Chao’s army.
丁奉 (承淵)
Ting Fêng (Ch‘êng-yüan) 丁奉 (承渊)
Famous Wu officer, assassinated Sun Chen with Zhang Bu. Defeated Wei at Dongxing.
Ting Fêng 丁封
Served Sun Xiu under Ding Feng with Sun Yi. Dispatched to aid Zhuge Zhan.

Notes: Mistranslated as ‘Ding Fung’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

丁宮 (元雄)
Ting Kung (Yüan-hsiung) 丁宫 (元雄)
Recommended Shi Yi to the court, held high posts for the Han.
Ting Kuan 丁管
Served Han as Imperial Secretary. Opposed Dong Zhuo’s change of Emperors.
丁覽 (孝連)
Ting Lan (Hsiao-lien) 丁览 (孝连)
An orphan, he was an honourable and generous man but died before he could rise further.
Ting Li 丁立
Shu officer. Died in the year following Kongming’s occupation of Hanzhong.
丁謐 (彥靖)
Ting Mi (Yen-ching) 丁谧 (彦靖)
Supporter of Cao Shuang, part of the clever four club led by Xiahou Xu.
Ting Hsü 丁諝
Head of convict soldiers, he was befriended by Gu Shao. Would rise through the ranks.
丁廙 (敬礼)
Ting I (Ching-li) 丁廙 (敬礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi, a man of literary talent. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yì (丁儀). Sometimes incorrectly translated (perhaps in the name of disambiguation) as Ding Yin.

丁儀 (正禮)
Ting I (Chêng-li) 丁仪 (正礼)
Supporter of Cao Zhi after Cao Pi slandered him. Executed with his brother by Cao Pi.

Notes: Not to be confused with Ding Yí (丁廙).

丁原 (建陽)
Ting Yüan (Chien-yang) 丁原 (建阳)
An excellent horseman and archer, assassinated by Lü Bu on Dong Zhuo’s orders.
Ting (Tzŭ-su) (子嗣)
A local officer, one of the Seven Heroes who shielded Zhao Qian after losing to Turbans.
Tiwu Chün 第五儁
In 188, was ordered to raise a regiment to help He Xun defeat Liang rebels.
Tung Pa 董巴
Historian who wrote several works on the Han. Linked Cao Pi to Yellow Emperor.
Tung Pai 董白
Granddaughter of Dong Zhuo. Made a Lord even before she came of age.
Tung Ch‘ao 董朝
Objected to Pang De as leader for battle against Guan Yu.
Tung Ch‘êng 董承
Served Han as General of Cavalry and Chariots. Plots to assassinate Cao Cao.
Tung Ch‘ung 董重
Served Han as General of the Flying Cavalry. Lady Dong’s brother.

Notes: Is also known as Dong Zhong in the ZZTJ.

Tung Fang 董访
His service to Zhang Miao led to Dong Zhao losing favour with Yuan Shao.
Tung Fên 董芬
Tried to copy Gan Shi’s breathing style but failed, almost killing himself in the attempt.
董扶 (茂安)
Tung Fu (Mou-an) 董扶 (茂安)
Famed teacher and debater, he advised Liu Yan to go to Yi.

Notes: Professor Rafe has style name as Mao’an.

Tung Ho 董和
Captured in 214 by Sun Quan with Zhu Guang.
董和 (幼宰)
Tung Ho (Yu-tsai) 董和 (幼宰)
Suggested asking Zhang Lu for aid against Liu Bei. Admired for his honesty and plain living.
Tung Huang 董璜
Privy Counsellor under Dong Zhuo. Dong Zhuo’s nephew. Killed by Huangfu Song.
董恢 (休緒)
Tung Hui (Hsiu-hsü) 董恢 (休绪)
As an ambassador to Wu, advised Fei Yi on how to reply to Sun Quan.
董厥 (龔襲)
Tung Chüeh (Kung-hsi) 董厥 (龚袭)
Brought troops to defend Saber Pass from Deng Ai and Zhong Hui.
Tung Meng 董蒙
Petitioned Cao Cao to become Duke.
董旻 (叔穎)
Tung Min (Shu-yin) 董旻 (叔颖)
Served Dong Zhuo as Lord of Hu. Dong Zhuo’s brother. Killed by Huangfu Song.
Tung Ssŭ 董祀
Sentenced to death for some crime, Cai Yan appealed to Cao Cao and saved him.
Tung T‘ai 董台
A local gentleman, unsuccessfully sought the hand of the widow Han Jiang. His clients had her kidnapped.
董襲 (元代)
Tung Hsi (Yüan-tai) 董袭 (元代)
Historically killed two generals, drowned with his ship, refusing pleas to leave it.
董遇 (季直)
Tung Yü (Chi-chih) 董遇 (季直)
Loved to study and a quiet man, highly venerated Confucian scholar.
Tung Yüeh 董越
Sent to guard Mianchi against the Coalition. Killed by Niu Fu on advice of soothsayer.
董允 (休昭)
Tung Yün (Hsiu-chao) 董允 (休昭)
Served Shu as a High Minister during Liu Shan’s reign.
董昭 (公仁)
Tung Chao (Kung-jên) 董昭 (公仁)
Served Han then Wei. Advised Cao Cao to move the capital to Xuchang.
董卓 (仲穎)
Tung Cho (Chung-ying) 董卓 (仲颖)
Siezed control of Luoyang and the Han government before being killed by Lü Bu.
Tungkuo Yennien (Kung-yu) 东郭延年
Noted for long life and youthful appearance, obtained by various methods.
Tungli Kun 東里袞
He fought bravely to escape when Wan rebelled. Later aided Cao Ren in retaking the city.
Tungt‘una 董荼那
Fought against Zhao Yun and Wei Yan. Captured by Zhang Ni.

Notes: Appears as Dong Tu Na or Dong Tu Ne in Koei games.

Tou Fu 窦辅
Grandson of Dou Wu, escaped being executed due to family friends.
Tou Wu 窦武
Served Emperor Ling of Han as Regent-Marshal. Died opposing the eunuchs.
Tou-mao 窦茂
King of Di who assisted Zhang Lu against Cao Cao.
Tu Ch‘ang 杜长
Sent to assist Gongsun Zan against Yuan Shao but was defeated.
杜畿 (伯侯)
Tu Chi (Po-hou) 杜畿 (伯侯)
Judged the best administrator in the empire, kept the people of Hedong loyal to Wei.
杜夔 (公良)
Tu K‘uei (Kung-liang) 杜夔 (公良)
Gentleman of the Court Music. Reprimanded Liu Biao for creating an orchestra for his court.
Tu P‘u 杜普
Advance guard against Yue Jin in Xiangyang but was driven back.
Tu Ch‘i 杜祺
Subordinate of Wang Lian, he rose up to become a high ranking officer.
杜瓊 (伯瑜)
Tu Ch‘iung (Po-yü) 杜琼 (伯瑜)
A teacher of Qiao Zhou and famed scholar, generally avoided public affairs despite rank.
Tu Sung 杜松
Garrisoned in Donghai, his men mutinied and Song was replaced by Lü Qian.
Tu T‘ung 杜通
In 220, was arrested by Zhang Jin and his position usurped. Restored by Su Ze.
杜微 (國輔)
Tu Wei (Kuo-fu) 杜微 (国辅)
Faked illness, even faked being deaf, to avoid serving Liu Bei.
杜襲 (子緒)
Tu Hsi (Tzŭ-hsü) 杜袭 (子绪)
Proposed to the troops that Zhang He take command after Xiahou Yuan was killed.
杜預 (元凱)
Tu Yü (Yüan-k‘-ai) 杜预 (元凯)
Served Jin to unification. The Field Marshal that led the invasion of Wu.
Tuan Kuei (Tzŭ-yin) 段圭
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. Killed by Min Gong searching for Emperor Ling.
Tuan Wei (Chung-ming) 段煨
Supplied Emperor Xian’s court despite being attacked. Destroyed Li Jue.
Tuan Hsü 段训
Sent to reward Liu Yu and Gongsun Zan, instead was forced to execute Liu Yu.

Notes: Also called Yin Xun (殷訓)

Tuan Chao 段昭
Defeated the rebel Cai Fang.
Tuhu 杜濩
Tribe leader, took in Zhang Lu and later surrendered to Cao Cao.
O Huan 鄂焕
General under Gao Ding. Captured by Shu forces.
Oho Shaoko 饿何烧戈
Sent with Chen Tai, he was tricked and fell into a pit. Committed suicide.
Emperor Kuangwu [Liu Hsiu] 光武皇帝[刘秀]
Emperor Guangwu restored the Han Dynasty in AD 25, making him the first Emperor of the Later Han.

Notes: Shizu (世祖) was his Temple Name. His style name is Wenshu (Wên-shu) (文叔).

Emperor Huan [Liu Chih] 桓帝[刘志]
Emperor Huan of the Han. Destroyed the Liang family, but empowered the eunuchs.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Huan (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Ling [Liu Hung] 灵帝[刘宏]
Emperor Ling of Han (AD 156–189). Ruled through the Yellow Turban Rebellion.

Notes: In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Ling (the name) Di (emperor).

Emperor Shao [Liu Pien] 少帝[刘辩]
Emperor Shao of Han (AD 189). Deposed and poisoned by Dong Zhuo.

Notes: ‘Emperor Bian’ at times in the Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Emperor Shun 舜帝
Ancient Chinese Emperor. One of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Ruled for a half-century.

Notes: Born Yao Chonghua (姚重華). Other names include Youyu-shi (有虞氏), the Great Shun (大舜) and Yu Shun (虞舜).

獻帝[劉協] (伯和)
Emperor Hsien [Liu Hsieh] (Po-ho) 献帝[刘协] (伯和)
Son of Emperor Ling. Reigned AD 189–220. Forced to abdicate by Cao Pi.

Notes: Called by the name ‘Prince of Chenliu’ frequently in novel translations. In Chinese the name of the emperor comes before the use of the word emperor hence Xian (the name) Di (emperor). In this case, Emperor Xian also has a style name attached to his normal name, therefore if you were addressing him as emperor you would say Xian Di, if you knew his name and were close you may use Liu Xie, or if you wanted his style name you’d call him Liu Bohe.

Empress Pien 卞皇后
Wife of Cao Cao and mother of Cao Pi. Made empress dowager when Cao Pi became emperor.

Notes: Called ‘Bian Shi’ in Koei’s Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Ts‘ao Chieh 曹节皇后
Emperor Xian’s empress after death of Empress Fu, opposed Cao Pi becoming Emperor.

Notes: Also known as Empress Cao, Empress Xianmu (獻穆皇后) and Duchess Shanyang.

Empress Fu Shou 伏寿皇后
Wife of Emperor Xian. From Langya. Daughter of Fu Wan. Executed by Cao Cao.

Notes: Commonly referenced simply as ‘Empress Fu’.

Empress Kan 甘皇后
Concubine and later Empress of Liu Bei. She was a native of Pei.
Empress Kuo (Nü-wang) 郭皇后
One of Cao Pi’s wives, said to have spread doubts about Cao Rui’s birth.

Notes: Guo Shi in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

Empress Ho 何皇后
Emperor Shao’s mother. He Jin’s half-sister. Died of grief or through suicide.
Empress Mu 穆皇后
Consort and later Empress of Liu Bei. From Chenliu. Wu Yi’s sister.

Notes: Empress Mu (穆皇后) is her traditional name. Informally, you will find her referenced as Empress Wu (吳皇后).

Empress Chang 张皇后
Daughter of Zhang Qi. Empress to Cao Fang. Ordered executed by Sima Shi.
Empress Chang 張皇后
Sister to Lady Zhang, second wife of Liu Shan.
Empress Chang [Hsingts‘ai] 张皇后[星彩]
Zhang Fei’s daughter. Empress Zhang married to Liu Shan. Zhang Xingcai in Koei games.

Notes: ‘Empress Zhang’ or ‘Lady Zhang’ in the novel and other historic sources, she has been given a fictional personality by Koei under the name ‘Zhang Xingcai’ or simply ‘Xing Cai’. Both names refer to the same person, but the story given her in Koei games is fictional. I’ve recorded this as the English translation presents itself (so, Huanghou Zhang (empress Zhang) and Xing1cai3 as her given name)

Empress Chên [Chên Chi] 甄皇后[甄姫]
Formerly Yuan Xi’s wife. Later married to Cao Pi. Became Empress.

Notes: Empress Zhen is frequently called Zhen Ji, as she is named by Koei. Referenced elsewhere as Zhen Luo (甄洛) or Empress Wenzhao (文昭皇后). I’ve recorded this as Huang2hou4 Zhen1 (Empress Zhen), with Ji1 as her given name. To say her name as Koei suggests, use Zhen (surname) and Ji1 (given name) together.

Fa Miao 法邈
Served Shu. Son of Fa Zheng.
法真 (高卿)
Fa Chên (Kao-ch‘ing) 法真 (高卿)
A distinguished scholar but refused all office. A quiet man with few desires.
法正 (孝直)
Fa Chêng (Hsiao-chih) 法正 (孝直)
Served Liu Zhang then Liu Bei. Was integral to the foundation of Shu.
Fan A 樊阿
Expert at Acupuncture, studied under Hua Tuo around AD 200.
Fan Ch‘êng 范成
Appointed a prefect of Luoyang when Cao Cao moved the capital to Xuchang.
Fan Ch‘ou 樊稠
Controlled the Han court alongside Li Jue and Guo Si. A brave general, killed by Li Jue.
Fan Fang 范方
Sent with cavalry to help Liu Dai but Liu later turned to Yuan Shao and Fan went home.
樊建 (長元)
Fan Chien (Ch‘ang-yüan) 樊建 (长元)
Secretary under Jiang Wei. Went with Liu Shan when Shu fell.
Fan Chiang 范强
Assassinated Zhang Fei with Zhang Da and then fled to Wu.
范康 (仲真)
Fan K‘ang (Chung-chên) 范康 (仲真)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Bohai.
Fan Li 范蠡
Spring and Autumn Period. Advisor in the state of Yue. Resigned after Yue defeated Wu.
Fan Ling 范陵
Sent by Guanqiu Xing as diplomat to the Qiang but Fan abused his position.
樊陵 (德雲)
Fan Ling (Tê-yün) 樊陵 (德云)
Appointed by the eunuchs after He Jin’s death but was executed by Yuan Shao.
樊敏 (升達)
Fan Min (Shêng-ta) 樊敏 (升达)
An expert at Chunqiu, he would become an elder statesmen under Liu Zhang.
Fan Nêng 樊能
Served Liu Yao. Died after Sun Ce shouted at him in battle.
范滂 (孟博)
Fan P‘ang (Mêng-po) 范滂 (孟博)
One of the Eight Paragons of Jiangxia. From Runan.
Fan Hsien 范先
Aided Gao Gan against Cao Cao but Du Ji’s work ensured their failure.
Fan Yu 樊友
Governor of Yidu, fled his post to Lu Xun during Wu’s invasion of Jing.
范曾 (子閔)
Fan Tsêng (Tzŭ-min) 范曾 (子闵)
Serving under He Jin, he defeated Turbans in Nanyang.
Fan Chou 樊怞
From prestigious family, tried to raise forces for Liu Bei but was defeated by Pan Jun.
Fang Yüeh 方悦
A famous officer from Henei, he served Wang Kuang. Killed by Lü Bu.
Fei (Po-jên) (伯仁)
Invited west by his cousin in 200, looked after Fei Yi.
Fei Ch‘angfang 费长房
A local guard who met an exiled immortal. Had a dragon staff and did many feats of magic.
Fei Ch‘êng 费承
Served Shu. Son of Fei Yi, and his heir. Older brother to Fei Gong.
Fei Kung 费恭
Noted throughout the land but died young.
費觀 (賓伯)
Fei Kuan (Pin-po) 费观 (宾伯)
Relative of Liu Zhang, he recommended Li Yan and later surrendered to Liu Bei.
費詩 (公舉)
Fei Shih (Kung-chü) 费诗 (公举)
Gave refuge to Liu Zhang’s officers. Protested against Liu Bei becoming Emperor.
Fei Yao 费曜
Officer of Wei. Reached rank of Grand Commander, but died in battle.
費禕 (文偉)
Fei I (Wên-wei) 费祎 (文伟)
Shu official. Took over affairs of state after Jiang Wan’s death.
Fei Chan 费栈
Served the Shanyue. Later submitted to Wei, and rebelled against Sun Quan.
One of many that sponsored a stele commemorating Cao Pi becoming Emperor.
Fêng Tan (Shao-chou) 冯紞
Close to Sima Yan and part of Jia Chong’s clique. Opposed Yang Hu’s proposal to attack Wu.
Fêng Fang 冯方
Father of Yuan Shu’s wife, a Han offical willing to slander those that excluded him.
封衡 (君達)
Fêng Hêng (Chün-ta) 封衡 (君达)
Taoist Sage. Teacher of Zuo Ci. Taught him magics and path to longevity.
逢紀 (元圖)
Fêng Chi (Yüan-t‘u) 逢纪 (元图)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Shang as Shao’s successor.

Notes: ‘Peng Ji’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation. ‘Pang Ji’ in the ZZTJ.

Fêng K‘ai 冯楷
One of the commanders in Nanyang under Zhao Yan.
Fêng Li 张礼
Served Yuan Shang. Punished for intoxication. Betrayed to Wei. Killed by Shen Pei.
Fêng Jên 封仁
Around 215, Cao Cao told Feng of his confidence in the loyalty of Jiang Ji.
Fêng Su 冯肃
A dancer who helped keep the Han traditions alive.
馮習 (休元)
Fêng Hsi (Hsiu-yüan) 冯习 (休元)
Officer of Shu. Died fighting at the battle of Yiling.
馮熙 (子柔)
Fêng Hsi (Tzŭ-jou) 冯熙 (子柔)
Used as a historian by Sun Quan and as a diplomat to both Shu and Wei.
Fêng Hsü 封胥
One of the Ten Regular Attendants. An agent of Zhang Jue of the Yellow Scarves.
Fêng Tsê 冯则
A cavalry trooper, he pursued and personally cut down Huang Zu.
Fu Tê 伏德
Brother of Empress Fu, carried her into a boat when they attempted to escape Li Jue.
傅幹 (彦材)
Fu Kan (Yen-ts‘ai) 傅幹 (彥材)
Advised Cao Cao to concentrate on civil affairs rather then campaign against Wu.
傅嘏 (蘭石)
Fu Ku (Lan-shih) 傅嘏 (兰石)
Chair of the Secretariat, he opposed Sima Shi’s invasion of Wu.
Fu Chin 扶禁
Besieged Huo Jun at Jiameng for a year but was defeated in surprise attack.
輔匡 (元弼)
Fu K‘uang (Yüan-pi) 辅匡 (元弼)
Leader of the vanguard against Wu. Fought under Zhuge Liang against the Nanman.
Fu Ch‘ien 傅佥
Fu Tong’s son, served Shu. Captured Li Peng and Wang Zhen. Died in battle.
Fu Ch‘ien (Tzŭ-shên) 服虔
A noted scholar, one of his works circulating for several hundred years. Backed Tao Qian’s petition.
Fu Ch‘ün 傅羣
Inspector of Jing in 210.
傅士仁 (君義)
Fu Shihjên (Chün-i) 傅士仁 (君义)
Persuaded by Lü Meng to betray Guan Yu. Killed by Guan Xing after trying to return to Shu.

Notes: Just known as Shi Ren in ZZTJ and Generals of the South.

Fu T‘ung 傅彤
Central military advisor for the Shu forces. Died during the battle of Yiling.

Notes: Called Fu Rong by SGZ.

Fu Wan 伏完
Married a Princess, took a lesser position in Cao Cao’s court.
Fu Hsi 伏羲
The first of three noble emperors, the San Huang, in Chinese mythology.
傅燮 (南容)
Fu Hsieh (Nan-jung) 傅燮 (南容)
Loyal minister who fought against the Turbans with Zhu Jun.
Fu Hsüan 傅玄
Wrote the Fuzi and helped compile Wei’s history, a famed poet in his day.
傅巽 (公悌)
Fu Hsün (Kung-t‘i) 傅巽 (公悌)
Advised Liu Cong to surrender, urged Cao Cao to become a Duke and Cao Pi to become Emperor.

Notes: Incorrectly Romanized as ‘Fu Xuan’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Fu Yang 服养
A dancer who helped keep the Han traditions alive.
Fu Ying 傅婴
General of Sun Yi, avenged his master’s murder by killing Gui Lan.
Fuhu 朴胡
Chieftain who shielded Zhang Lu, latter surrendered to Wei. Defeated by Huang Quan.
Fulohan 扶罗韩
Passed over for succession so set up his own state. Assassinated by rival Kebineng.
Kan Huai 甘瑰
Exiled from Wu some time after his father’s death for causing trouble.
Kan Chi 干吉
A Taoist priest. In the novel, sent to execution by Sun Ce and said to have cursed him to death.

Notes: Gan Ji frequently referenced as ‘Yu Ji’, especially in games. Historically, ‘Gan Ji’ (干吉) is correct, and it is thought Luo Guanzhong may have confused the character for his family name and thus entered him as ‘Yu Ji’ (于吉). Notice the similarity between Gan ‘干’ and Yu ‘于’. Our recording features both “Gan4 Ji2” and “Yu2 Ji2.”

甘寧 (興霸)
Kan Ning (Hsing-pa) 甘宁 (兴霸)
Known to be brave and strong. Served Huang Zu, then Wu. Died of illness.
Kan Shih 甘始
Claimed to Cao Zhi, that he had been alive during the reign of the First Emperor.
Kan Shu 甘述
Gained rank in the Secretariat despite his brother’s exile.
Kao Ch‘êng 高承
Local officer, sent by Sun Ce with tribute gifts to the Han court.
高岱 (孔文)
Kao Tai (K‘ung-wên) 高岱 (孔文)
Took his lord to Xu Zhao for protection. Later executed by Sun Ce for contempt.
Kao Ting (Yüan) 高定
Shu vassal that revolted in the southern Man region.
Kao Fan 高蕃
Sent by Yuan Shang to block the Yellow River but he was defeated by Li Dian.
高幹 (元才)
Kao Kan (Yüan-ts‘ai) 高干 (元才)
Nephew of Yuan Shao. Defeated Li Dian and Yue Jin at Huguan Pass.

Notes: Gan written as 干 in HHS.

Kao Lan 高览
Originally a talented officer of Yuan Shao. Defected with Zhang He to Wei.
Kao P‘ei 高沛
Officer of Liu Zhang. Executed after an attempt to assassinate Liu Bei.
高柔 (文惠)
Kao Jou (Wên-hui) 高柔 (文惠)
Minister of the Interior. Given provisional command of the army to seize Cao Shuang’s camp.
Kao Shêng 高升
Yellow Scarf officer. Fought with Liu Bei at Quyang, but was slain by Zhang Fei.
Kao Shêng 高胜
Raised up large bandit force but, despite advantage of numbers, lost to Li Yan.
Kao Shun 高顺
Defeated Xiahou Dun. Caught and executed by Cao Cao at Xiapi.
Kao Wang 高望
An officer of medicines, he was close to Prince Liu Bian. Killed in the massacre.
Kao Hsiang 高翔
Officer of Shu. Participated in many of Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kao Ya 高雅
In 193, he was defeated by Yu Jin at Dongping.
Kao Yen 高焉
Gongsun Zan alleged that Yuan Shao executed Yan as Shao was greedy for Yan’s property.
Kao I (K‘uan-fang) 高颐
Served Liu Zhang in civil roles and died in office.
Kao Yu 高诱
Noted scholar and student of Lu Zhi, held a number of middle-range appointments under Cao Cao.
Kao (Yüan-lü) (元吕)
An expert physiognomist, about 217 he reassured Cao Pi about his prospects as a future ruler.
Kao Chên 高朕
Arranged the reconstruction of a ceremonial hall in honour of the sage Duke of Zhou.
Kao Tso 高祚
Sent with others to launch a sneak attack, they took Yang Ren’s head.
高棠隆 (升平)
Kaot‘ang Lung (Shên-p‘ing) 高棠隆 (升平)
A valued officer, created a calender for Wei, was Tutor to Cao Rui.
Ko Hsüan 葛玄
One of the founders of modern Daoism. Survived drowning apparently thanks to his advanced breathing methods.
Kêng Pao 耿苞
Suggested Yuan Shao take up the Imperial Title, called insane and was executed.
耿紀 (季行)
Kêng Chi (Chi-hsing) 耿纪 (季行)
Launched a coup against Cao Cao. Wounded Wang Bi. Executed after his failure.
Kêng Yen 耿眼
Historic reference from chapter 43 of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
Kung Tu 龚都
Joined Liu Bei. Former Yellow Scarve. Killed by Xiahou Yuan at Ru Nan.
Kung Ching 龚景
Imperial Protector of Qingzhou. Attacked by the Yellow Scarves. Supported by Liu Bei.
Kung Chih 巩志
Advised Jin Xuan to surrender. When Jin Xuan returned defeated, Gong Zhi shot him.
公孫度 (升濟)
Kungsun Tu (Shêng-chi) 公孙度 (升济)
Established an independent government in Liaodong, expanding against several tribes.
Kungsun Fan 公孙范
Cousin of Gongsun Zan. Given the seal to the Prefecture of Bohai by Yuan Shao.
Kungsun Fang 公孙方
Studied under Zheng Xuan with his friend Cui Yan. He died young.
Kungsun Kung 公孙恭
Advised Kang to kill Yuan Xi and Shang. Impotent and weak, he was deposed by Gongsun Yuan.
Kungsun Huang 公孙晃
Sent as hostage to Wei, warned of the likelihood of war. Executed when war did happen.
Kungsun K‘ang 公孙康
Executed the Yuan sons, extended power in Korea and restored communication with Japan.
Kungsun Hsü 公孙续
Sent to get help from Zhang Yan and succeeded, later killed by the Xiongnu.
Kung-sun Yang 公孙阳
Wu general who was captured during Wei’s invasion via Ruxukou.

Notes: Called Gongsun Yan by Professor Rafe.

Kungsun Yüan 公孙渊
Originally subject to Wei. Declared himself King of Yan, but was executed by Sima Yi.
Kungsun Yüeh 公孙越
Assassinated by Yuan Shao after a diplomatic mission. Served as envoy to Yuan Shu.
公孫瓚 (伯珪)
Kungsun Tsan (Po-ku) 公孙瓒 (伯珪)
Magistrate of Beiping. Fought Yuan Shao. Committed suicide with his family.
Kou An 句安
Drunkard officer under Li Yan. Beaten for arriving late with supplies, and fled to Wei.
顧譚 (子默)
Ku T‘an (Tzŭ-mo) 顾谭 (子默)
Advised Sun Deng with Zhuge Ke, Zhang Xiu, and Chen Biao. Exiled as a supporter of Sun He.
顧雍 (元嘆)
Ku Yung (Yüan-t‘-an) 顾雍 (元叹)
Studied under Cai Yong. Convinced to join Wu by Zhang Hong. Became Prime Minister.
Kuan Ch‘êng 管承
Pirate, he was defeated by combined attacks from Li Dian, Yue Jin and Zhang He.
Kuan Ting 关定
Father of Guan Ping, housed Guan Yu while Sun Qian went to Yuan Shao.
Kuan Ku 观鹄
Commanded the religious bandit group which, after he died, passed to Guo Shi and Zhou Chao.
Kuan Hai 管亥
Former member of the Yellow Scarves. Besiged Beihai and was killed by Guan Yu.
關靖 (士起)
Kuan Ching (Shih-ch‘i) 关靖 (士起)
Adviser to Gongsun Zan. Died fighting Yuan Shao’s army at Beiping.
Kuan Chün 灌均
Criticized Cao Zhi for drunkenness and irreverence.
管輅 (公明)
Kuan Lu (Kung-ming) 管辂 (公明)
A soothsayer able to foresee the coming deaths of others.
管寧 (幼安)
Kuan Ning (Yu-an) 管宁 (幼安)
Former friend of Hua Xin. Tail of “The Dragon”, a group of scholars. Became a hermit.
Kuan Ning 关宁
Brother of Guan Ping. Was a student when Guan Yu came to the farm.

Notes: ‘Guan Neng’ in the online Brewitt-Taylor translation.

Kuan P‘ing 关平
Served Shu. Guan Yu’s son (adopted in novel). Executed with Guan Yu by Sun Quan.
Kuan So 关索
Fictional son of Guan Yu. Greatly involved in Shu’s Southern Campaigns in the novel.
Kuan T‘ung 关统
Son of Guan Xing. Succeeded his father’s position as Marquis of Hanshou.
Kuan T‘ung 管统
Asked by Yuan Tan to provide aid on advice of Wang Xiu. Pardoned by Cao Cao in AD 205.
關興 (安國)
Kuan Hsing (An-kuo) 关兴 (安国)
Son of Guan Yu. Served in Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
Kuan I 关彝
Son of Guan Xing by concubine. Died fighting Wei troops during Zhong Hui’s rebellion.
Lady Kuan [Yinp‘ing] 関夫人[银屏]
Daughter of Guan Yu. Sun Quan wanted to arrange a marriage between her and Sun Deng.

Notes: Guan Yinping is a fictional name given to her by Koei.

關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

管夷吾 ()
Kuan Iwu (Chung) 管夷吾 ()
Famed prime minister of the state of Qi in the Spring and Autumn period.
毌丘甸 (子邦)
Kuanch‘iu Tien (Tzŭ-pang) 毌丘甸 (子邦)
Son of Guanqiu Jian, he advised his father to rebel.
毌丘儉 (仲恭)
Kuanch‘iu Chien (Chung-kung) 毌丘俭 (仲恭)
Officer of Wei. Revolted against Sima Shi when he deposed Cao Fang.

Notes: Sometimes mistranslated in Koei games as Wuqiu Jian.

Kuanch‘iu Hsing 毌丘兴
Warned by Cao Cao not to send anyone to the Qiang but ignored the advice.
Kuanch‘iu Hsiu 毌丘秀
Younger brother of Guanqiu Dian.
郭淮 (伯濟)
Kuo Huai (Po-chi) 郭淮 (伯济)
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
郭嘉 (奉孝)
Kuo Chia (Fêng-hsiao) 郭嘉 (奉孝)
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
Kuo Ma 郭马
Originally an officer of Wu, Guo Ma revolted in Nanhai. Eventually defeated by Tao Huang.
Kuo Shêng 郭胜
Warned close friend He Jin about Jian Shi’s plot. Killed by Yuan Shao and Cao Cao.

Notes: In the notes section of To Esablish Peace he is referenced with two names from different sources: 1) HHJ25 as Guo Mai; 2) Jiuzhou chunqiu as Lang Sheng.

Kuo Shih 郭石
With Zhou Chao, Ravaged Lingling, Guiyang, and Changsha until destroyed by Sun Jian.
Kuo Ssŭ (To) 郭汜
Served Dong Zhuo. Later took control of the imperial court with Li Jue.

Notes: Guo Si is sometimes called Guo Duo, a name that is listed as an alternate personal name in a few different sources.

郭圖 (公則)
Kuo T‘u (Kung-tsê) 郭图 (公则)
Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Tan as Shao’s successor.
郭奕 (伯益)
Kuo I (Po-i) 郭奕 (伯益)
Son of Guo Jia, became Imperial Tutor. Well educated.
郭攸之 (演長)
Kuo Yuchih (Yen-ch‘ang) 郭攸之 (演长)
Described by Zhuge Liang as loyal and honest, advised Liu Shan on palace matters.
Kuo Yüan 郭援
Yuan Shang general. Zhong Yao’s sister’s son. Slain by Pang De at Pingyang.
國淵 (子尼)
Kuo Yüan (Tzŭ-ni) 国渊 (子尼)
Student of Zheng Xuan who described Zini as a state treasure. Impressed with honest counsel.



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March 7, 2014