Officer Names (CH/EN): Popular Officers

Three Kingdoms Novel and History: Officer Names (Chinese/English)

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Welcome to the Romance of the Three Kingdoms English/Chinese Hanzi Project. The objective is simple. We wish to create an ever-growing list of Chinese officers with their names presented in both English Romanizations and Chinese, along with the decimal entity values needed to display them on non-Unicode websites and forum (e.g. phpBB 2). Would you like to submit some new names?

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Style Names (Zi, ): By Officer Name [TOP]

Name (family, given), style, Wade-Giles, tones, traditional and simplified Chinese.

Officer Name
(Wade-Giles)
Traditional,
Simplified
Traditional Chinese,
Simplified Chinese
鮑三娘
Pao Sanniang 鲍三娘
Guan Suo’s wife. Both beautiful and skilled in combat. Fictional.
蔡琰 (文姬)
Ts‘ai Yen (Wên-chi) 蔡琰 (文姬)
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.

Notes: Better known as the poetess Cai Wenji. An alternate style, Zhaoji (昭姬), is used in Lie Nu Hou Zhuan, while Wenji (文姬) is most commonly used (including in the Hou Han shu).

曹操 (孟德)
Ts‘ao Ts‘ao (Mêng-tê) 曹操 (孟德)
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.

Notes: In Sanguozhi Chen Shou references him with the honorary title, Wu Di (武帝), or ‘Martial Emperor’. Cao Cao appears in other sources under this name. Cao Cao’s infant name was A-Man (阿瞞).

曹丕 (子桓)
Ts‘ao P‘i (Tzŭ-huan) 曹丕 (子桓)
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
曹仁 (子孝)
Ts‘ao Jên (Tzŭ-hsiao) 曹仁 (子孝)
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
大喬
Ta Ch‘iao 大乔
Elder of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Xiao Qiao. Married to Sun Ce.

Notes: Da (大), in this context, translates to ‘Big’, thus ‘Elder’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Older Qiao’, the name Da Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by Koei in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

鄧艾 (士載)
Têng Ai (Shih-tsai) 邓艾 (士载)
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
典韋
Tien Wei 典韦
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.

Notes: We originally listed Dian Wei’s style as Ziman (子曼). As we are no longer able to locate the source, and a few possible causes for error have turned up, we no longer have reason to believe he had the name.

貂嬋
Tiaoch‘an [Sable Cicada] 貂婵
Wang Yun’s adopted daughter. Helped to kill Dong Zhuo. Fictional.

Notes: Also known as Sable Cicada.

丁奉 (承淵)
Ting Fêng (Ch‘êng-yüan) 丁奉 (承渊)
Famous Wu officer, assassinated Sun Chen with Zhang Bu. Defeated Wei at Dongxing.
董卓 (仲穎)
Tung Cho (Chung-ying) 董卓 (仲颖)
Siezed control of Luoyang and the Han government before being killed by Lü Bu.
張皇后[星彩]
Empress Chang [Hsingts‘ai] 张皇后[星彩]
Zhang Fei’s daughter. Empress Zhang married to Liu Shan. Zhang Xingcai in Koei games.

Notes: ‘Empress Zhang’ or ‘Lady Zhang’ in the novel and other historic sources, she has been given a fictional personality by Koei under the name ‘Zhang Xingcai’ or simply ‘Xing Cai’. Both names refer to the same person, but the story given her in Koei games is fictional. I’ve recorded this as the English translation presents itself (so, Huanghou Zhang (empress Zhang) and Xing1cai3 as her given name)

甄皇后[甄姫]
Empress Chên [Chên Chi] 甄皇后[甄姫]
Formerly Yuan Xi’s wife. Later married to Cao Pi. Became Empress.

Notes: Empress Zhen is frequently called Zhen Ji, as she is named by Koei. Referenced elsewhere as Zhen Luo (甄洛) or Empress Wenzhao (文昭皇后). I’ve recorded this as Huang2hou4 Zhen1 (Empress Zhen), with Ji1 as her given name. To say her name as Koei suggests, use Zhen (surname) and Ji1 (given name) together.

甘寧 (興霸)
Kan Ning (Hsing-pa) 甘宁 (兴霸)
Known to be brave and strong. Served Huang Zu, then Wu. Died of illness.
關平
Kuan P‘ing 关平
Served Shu. Guan Yu’s son (adopted in novel). Executed with Guan Yu by Sun Quan.
關興 (安國)
Kuan Hsing (An-kuo) 关兴 (安国)
Son of Guan Yu. Served in Zhuge Liang’s northern campaigns.
関夫人[銀屏]
Lady Kuan [Yinp‘ing] 関夫人[银屏]
Daughter of Guan Yu. Sun Quan wanted to arrange a marriage between her and Sun Deng.

Notes: Guan Yinping is a fictional name given to her by Koei.

關羽 (雲長)
Kuan Yü (Yün-ch‘ang) 关羽 (云长)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Originally styled Changsheng (長生). He is frequently referenced by the honorary title, Guan Gong (關公), or ‘Lord Guan’. Guan Yu appears as Guan Gong or Lord Guan in most novel translations, many historic texts, and modern conversation outside the Three Kingdoms community, and on most merchandise. In religion he is called Saintly Emperor Guan (關聖帝君) or in Buddhism, Sangharama Bodhisattva (伽藍菩薩) (more).

郭淮 (伯濟)
Kuo Huai (Po-chi) 郭淮 (伯济)
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
郭嘉 (奉孝)
Kuo Chia (Fêng-hsiao) 郭嘉 (奉孝)
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
黃蓋 (公覆)
Huang Kai (Kung-fu) 黄盖 (公覆)
Veteran general in Wu. Came up with the “Bitter Meat Plan” for Chibi.
黃月英
Huang Yüehying 黄月英
Zhuge Liang’s wife. Huang Chengyan’s daughter. Was very smart, but not beautiful.
黃忠 (漢升)
Huang Chung (Han-shêng) 黄忠 (汉升)
Joined Liu Bei after Han Xuan’s defeat. One of the Five Tiger Generals.
賈詡 (文和)
Chia Hsü (Wên-ho) 贾诩 (文和)
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.

Notes: Jia Xu is pronounced Jia2 Xu3 because of the 3rd tone preceeding the second in his normal given name. His name and style name should be pronounced and said as “Jia3 Wen2 He2”, not “Jia2 Wen2 He2”

姜維 (伯約)
Chiang Wei (Po-yüeh) 姜维 (伯约)
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
孟獲大王
King Mêng Huo 孟獲大王
Ruled Nanman after Shamoke’s death. Captured and released seven times by Kongming.

Notes: In pronunciation, Meng is his surname, Huo his given name. Da means “big/large” and Wang means King, for your information, Wang2 is only one word for King, Emperors have different titles, usually Huang2 Di4.

步夫人[步練師]
Lady Pu [Pu Lienshih] 步夫人[步练师]
Lian Shi in Dynasty Warriors 7. Made Empress upon her death, was noted for not being jealous.

Notes: Lian Shi (步夫人) in Dynasty Warriors 7. Also Bu Lianshi (步練師).

孫妃[孫尚香]
Lady Sun [Sun Shanghsiang] 孙妃[孙尚香]
Sun Quan’s sister. Married to Liu Bei by Sun Quan, but later returned to Wu.

Notes: Sun Shangxiang is Lady Sun’s name in most Koei Games. ‘Sun Ren’ (孫仁) in the seventh chapter of Romance of the Three Kingdoms (learn more; not a duplicate mention of Sun Lang). Also appears as Sun Li at times. Both Sun Ren and Sun Li are incorrect and have no bearing on her true name, which is unknown.

祝融妃
Lady Chujung 祝融妃
Wife of King Meng Huo. Said to be descended from the Goddess of Fire.

Notes: Zhu4rong2 is her name, but Fei1 means literally “imperial concubine”

李典 (曼成)
Li Tien (Man-ch‘êng) 李典 (曼成)
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
凌統 (公績)
Ling T‘ung (Kung-chi) 凌统 (公绩)
Served Wu. Resented Gan Ning for killing his father, Ling Cao, but later forgave him.
劉備 (玄德)
Liu Pei (Hsüan-tê) 刘备 (玄德)
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.

Notes: Liu Bei is commonly referenced by the name, Xian Zhu (先主), ‘First Ruler’ or ‘First Soverign’. Chen Shou, in the Sanguozhi, refers to Liu Bei by this title to indicate the illegitimacy of his dynasty in the eyes of Jin. Sun Quan and his clan are placed on an even lower pedestal. Sometimes referred to as the ‘Princely One’ in the Brewitt-Taylor novel translation.

劉表 (景升)
Liu Piao (Ching-shêng) 刘表 (景升)
Inspector of Jing province under the Han. Opposed the Sun family militarily.
劉禪 (公嗣)
Liu Shan (Kung-ssŭ) 刘禅 (公嗣)
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.

Notes: Also known by his infant name, A-Dou (阿斗). See Liu Shan’s Comprehensive Officer Biography for more information on his name.

呂布 (奉先)
Lü Pu (Fêng-hsien) 吕布 (奉先)
Said to be the finest warrior of the Three Kingdoms era. Executed by Cao Cao.
呂蒙 (子明)
Lü Mêng (Tzŭ-ming) 吕蒙 (子明)
Served Wu. Originally a skilled warrior, turned out to be a scholar as well.

Notes: The Lü surname is pronounced Lü2 because of the preceeding Meng, which is 3rd tone, the same rule applies when pronouncing the style name because Zi3 is also third tone.

魯肅 (子敬)
Lu Su (Tzŭ-ching) 鲁肃 (子敬)
Brilliant and insightful Wu commander. Was ambassador to Shu.

Notes: When saying Lu Su’s surname and style name together the surname should be pronounced Lu2 instead of Lu3 because of the tone preceeding it.

陸遜 (伯言)
Lu Hsün (Po-yen) 陆逊 (伯言)
Famous and brilliant Wu commander that defeated Liu Bei at Yiling.

Notes: Originally named Lu Yi (陸議).

馬超 (孟起)
Ma Ch‘ao (Mêng-ch‘i) 马超 (孟起)
Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
馬岱
Ma Tai 马岱
Ma Chao’s cousin. He surrendered to Liu Bei with Ma Chao.
龐德 (令明)
P‘ang Tê (Ling-ming) 庞德 (令明)
Served Ma Chao, Zhang Lu, then Cao Cao. Fought against Guan Yu at Fancheng.
龐統 (士元)
P‘ang T‘ung (Shih-yüan) 庞统 (士元)
Friend of Sima Hui’s and Shu’s “Fledgling Phoenix.” Killed by an arrow at Luocheng.
司馬師 (子元)
Ssŭma Shih (Tzŭ-yüan) 司马师 (子元)
Sima Yi’s son. Instrumental in the rise of Jin.
司馬懿 (仲達)
Ssŭma I (Chung-ta) 司马懿 (仲达)
A skilled advisor of the Wei kingdom. His efforts laid the foundation of Jin.
司馬昭 (子上)
Ssŭma Chao (Tzŭ-shang) 司马昭 (子上)
Son of Sima Yi. Father of Sima Yan. Controlled the Wei army after his brother, Shi’s, death.
孫策 (伯符)
Sun Ts‘ê (Po-fu) 孙策 (伯符)
Sun Jian’s oldest son. Built the foundation of the Wu kingdom.
孫堅 (文台)
Sun Chien (Wên-t‘-ai) 孙坚 (文台)
Father of Sun Ce, Sun Quan, and the kingdom of Wu.
孫權 (仲謀)
Sun Ch‘üan (Chung-mou) 孙权 (仲谋)
Sun Jian’s second son. Sun Ce’s brother. Long-lived first Emperor of Wu.
太史慈 (子義)
T‘aishih Tz‘ŭ (Tzŭ-i) 太史慈 (子义)
Served Liu Yao, then Wu. Helped save Kong Rong from the Yellow Scarves.
王元姬
Wang Yüanchi 王元姬
Empress dowager during Jin Dynasty. Wife of Sima Zhao and mother of Sima Yan.

Notes: Formerly Empress Wenming (文明皇后; “civil and understanding empress”)

魏延 (文長)
Wei Yen (Wên-ch‘ang) 魏延 (文长)
Talented commander. Killed Han Xuan and surrendered his territory to Liu Bei.
夏侯霸 (仲權)
Hsiahou Pa (Chung-ch‘üan) 夏侯霸 (仲权)
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
夏侯惇 (元讓)
Hsiahou Tun (Yüan-jang) 夏侯惇 (元让)
One of Cao Cao’s original officers, with civil and military talent. Lost an eye in battle.
夏侯淵 (妙才)
Hsiahou Yüan (Miao-ts‘ai) 夏侯渊 (妙才)
Xiahou Dun’s brother. Famed for his attacks against the western barbarians.
小喬
Hsiao Ch‘iao 小乔
Younger of Wu’s Qiao Sisters. Sister to Da Qiao. Married to Zhou Yu.

Notes: Xiao (小), in this context, translates to ‘Little’, thus ‘Younger’. Rather than refer to her as the ‘Younger Qiao’, the name Xiao Qiao has become a popular alternative. Da Qiao and Xiao Qiao were names first used by KOEI in Dynasty Warriors 3 when the characters were introduced. Note that Da4 and Xiao3 can still be used in this context in the modern-day family, and usually as the surname.

許褚 (仲康)
Hsü Ch‘u (Chung-k‘-ang) 许褚 (仲康)
One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards and a commander. Leader of the Tiger Guard.

Notes: His name is frequently written ‘Xu Zhu’, but this is incorrect. His nickname, 虎痴 (Hu3 Chi1), has been translated as Marquis Tiger, Crazy Tiger, Mad Tiger, and other variations. He also appears once in the Brewitt-Taylor translation by the nickname Tiger Lust.

徐晃 (公明)
Hsü Huang (Kung-ming) 徐晃 (公明)
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
袁紹 (本初)
Yüan Shao (Pên-ch‘u) 袁绍 (本初)
Childhood friend, and later enemy of, Cao Cao. Defeated at Guandu.
袁術 (公路)
Yüan Shu (Kung-lu) 袁术 (公路)
Relative of Yuan Shao. Declared himself Emperor, but soon after died.
樂進 (文謙)
Yüeh Chin (Wên-ch‘ien) 乐进 (文谦)
Served Cao Cao from the beginning. Shot from his horse by Gan Ning. Small-framed.

Notes: His name is incorrectly translated as Yue Jing in some Brewitt-Taylor editions. Yue Jin is also sometimes translated as Le Jin (and in Destiny of an Emperor they somehow botched it up further to Le Xin).

張苞
Chang Pao 张苞
Fought against Wei and Wu, killing many generals. Died in the Northern Campaigns.

Notes: Sometimes ‘苞’ is translated as Pao, thus Zhang Pao. We continue to use Bao.

張飛 (益德)
Chang Fei (I-tê) 张飞 (益德)
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Guan Yu. Second of the Five Tiger Generals.

Notes: Sanguozhi records Zhang Fei’s style as 益 (yi4: ‘benefit’ or ‘increase’) rather than 翼 (yi4: ‘wing’), as used in the novel, games, and most literature.

張郃 (儁乂)
Chang Ho (Chün-i) 张郃 (儁乂)
Originally under Yuan Shao, defected to Wei. Died battling Zhuge Liang.

Notes: Apparently, Zhang He is misspelled ‘Zhang Yue’ in Romance of the Three Kingdoms XI.

張角
Chang Chüeh or Chiao 张角
Founder of the Yellow Scarves. Self-titled ‘Lord of Heaven’.

Notes: Written ‘Zhang Jiao’ (角 can be pronounced as both Jue and Jiao) at times (particularly by Koei) and as Zhang Jao in Destiny of an Emperor. The audio file says “Zhang Zue”, followed by “Jiao3”

張遼 (文遠)
Chang Liao (Wên-yüan) 张辽 (文远)
Served in Wei after Cao Cao defeated Lü Bu. Close friend of Guan Yu.
趙雲 (子龍)
Chao Yün (Tzŭ-lung) 赵云 (子龙)
Served Shu. Highly trusted by Liu Bei. Fourth of the Five Tiger Generals.
鍾會 (士季)
Chung Hui (Shih-chi) 锺会 (士季)
Close adviser of Sima Zhao. Later plotted rebellion and was killed by mutinous troops.
周泰 (幼平)
Chou T‘ai (Yu-p‘ing) 周泰 (幼平)
Wu officer who Saved Sun Quan’s life, and was loved dearly in return.
周瑜 (公瑾)
Chou Yü (Kung-chin) 周瑜 (公瑾)
Skilled war commander of Wu. Commanded Wu forces at the Battle of Chibi.
諸葛誕 (公休)
Chuko Tan (Kung-hsiu) 诸葛诞 (公休)
Zhuge Liang’s cousin. Tried to rebel against Sima Zhao, but was executed.
諸葛亮 (孔明)
Chuko Liang (K‘ung-ming) 诸葛亮 (孔明)
Mastermind of Shu’s rise as a great power. Also known as ‘Sleeping Dragon’.

Notes: Also known by his nickname, ‘Sleeping Dragon’ or ‘Wo Long’ (臥龍). His original novel introduction, with Pang Tong, comes under this title.

左慈 (元放)
Tso Tz‘ŭ (Yüan-fang) 左慈 (元放)
Taoist named ‘Master Black Horn’. Trained in the occult at Emei Mountain.

Notes: Rafe de Crespigny calls him Zuo Ce.

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March 7, 2014