Life Chronology: Liu Shan (Gongsi)

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Chronology of Liu Shan’s Life
劉禪 (公嗣)
(AD 207-271)

Authored by Morgan Evans

AD 207 Jian’an 12th year (Age 0)

  • Liu Shan is born.
  • Cao Cao attacks the northern tribes and then turns his sights on Liu Biao.
  • Liu Bei recruits Zhuge Liang.
  • Liu Biao offers Jingzhou to Liu Bei, but Xuande refuses.

AD 208 Jian’an 13th year (Age 1)

  • Liu Biao dies and is succeeded by his son, Liu Zong.
  • Cao Cao attacks Jingzhou, Liu Zong surrenders the region to Cao Cao.
  • While fleeing from Cao Cao’s forces at Changban, Liu Shan is left behind enemy lines but Zhao Yun returns to rescue him. Zhuge Liang is set to Wu to forge an alliance.
  • Battle of Chi Bi.
  • Sun Quan attacks He Fei

AD 209 Jian’an 14th year (Age 2)

  • Liu Bei becomes governor of Jingzhou
  • Liu Bei marries Sun Quan’s sister.
  • Wu propose a joint attack with Liu Bei on the region of Shu but Xuande refuses.

AD 210 Jian’an 15th year (Age 3)

  • Zhou Yu dies of illness.

AD 211 Jian’an 16th year (Age 4)

  • Battle of Tong Gate begins between Ma Chao and Cao Cao.
  • Sun Quan relocates the capital of Wu to Moling
  • Liu Bei is invited to Jizhou by Imperial Protector Liu Zhang.

AD 212 Jian’an 17th year (Age 5)

  • Cao Cao attacks Sun Quan while Yue Jin attacks Guan Yu at Qing Ni.
  • A rift develops between Liu Bei and Liu Zhang, accordingly, Liu Bei attacks Fucheng.

AD 213 Jian’an 18th year (Age 6)

  • Battle of Ruxu between Wu and Wei
  • Liu Bei conquers more of Shu’s cities.

AD 214 Jian’an 19th year (Age 7)

  • Cao Cao named Duke of Wei.
  • Liu Bei finally occupies Chengdu after receiving the surrender of Liu Zhang.
  • Liu Bei becomes Imperial Protector of Yizhou.
  • Ma Chao joins Liu Bei.

AD 215 Jian’an 20th year (Age 8)

  • Sun Quan writes to Liu Bei requesting Jingzhou be given to him, Liu Bei refuses.
  • Cao Cao conquers Hanzhong leading Liu Bei to propose an alliance with Wu. Jingzhou is split between Shu and Wu.
  • Cao Cao orders Zhang He and Xiahou Yuan to attack Shu. Liu Bei sends Zhang Fei to defend the border.
  • Zhang Liao leads an 800 man charge against Sun Quan’s 100,000 men at He Fei.

AD 216 Jian’an 21st year (Age 9)

  • Cao Cao becomes King of Wei

AD 217 Jian’an 22nd year (Age 10)

  • Wei defeats Wu at Ruxu.
  • Cao Pi is named as heir to Cao Cao’s title.
  • Liu Bei attacks Hanzhong. Lu Su dies, Lu Meng replaces him.

AD 218 Jian’an 23rd year (Age 11)

  • Liu Bei fights with Zhang He and Xiahou Yuan.
  • Rebellion in Xuchang against Cao Cao.

AD 219 Jian’an 24th year (Age 12)

  • Wan falls to Cao Ren.
  • Mount Dingjun falls to Liu Bei when Xiahou Yuan is killed by Huang Zhong.
  • Guan Yu attacks Xiangyang and Fan Castle. Yu Jin is dispatched to reinforce Cao Ren.
  • The river Han floods, trapping Yu Jin on high ground. Guan Yu captures Yu Jin. Xu Huang is sent to reinforce Cao Ren.
  • Liu Bei occupies Hanzhong
  • Wu proposes an alliance with Wei against Guan Yu. Xu Huang defeats Guan Yu.
  • Liu Bei becomes Prince of Hanzhong

AD 220 Huangchu 1st year (Age 13)

  • Lu Meng captures Guan Yu. Jingzhou is occupied by Wu. Guan Yu is executed by Wu.
  • March 15th: Cao Cao dies.
  • Cao Pi deposes Emperor Xian, becomes Emperor and changes the reign year to Huangchu.
  • In response to Cao Pi’s ascension, Liu Bei declares himself Emperor and becomes known as The First Sovereign.
  • Liu Shan named Prince of Hanzhong.
  • Xiahou Dun dies.

AD 221 Huangchu 2nd year (Age 14)

  • Liu Bei changes the reign year for Shu-Han to Zhangwu. Zhuge Liang promoted to Prime Minister.
  • Liu Shan becomes Crown Prince. Zhang Fei is murdered by his subordinates.
  • Angry over the death of Guan Yu, Liu Bei proposes attacking Wu.
  • Liu Bei marches an army against Wu. Liu Bei recruits the tribes of Wuling to help him.
  • Gongsun Gong becomes Governor of Liaodong following the death of his father, Gongsun Kang.
  • Mi Zhu dies.

AD 222 Huangchu 3rd year (Age 15)

  • Liu Bei recaptures Zi Gui. The Wuling tribes revolt. Huang Quan is sent to attack Wu at Yi Ling.
  • Liu Bei’s army sets up encampments tens of miles wide. Ten days later, Lu Xun defeats Liu Bei at Xiao Ting. Liu Bei retreats to Zi Gui and then withdraws to Yu Fu. Liu Bei renames Yu Fu, Yong’an.
  • Liu Bei writes to Zhuge Liang requesting that troops are placed at the north and south of Chengdu. Sun Quan proposes a truce with Liu Bei, Liu Bei accepts.
  • Hearing that Liu Bei is ill, the Governor of Hanjia, Huang Yuan, rebels.
  • Ma Chao dies of illness at the age of 47.
  • Yi Ling renamed Xiling.

AD 223 Huangchu 4th year (Age 16)

  • Zhuge Liang travels to Yong’an. Liu Bei becomes seriously ill and entrusts Shu to Zhuge Liang.
  • Huang Yuan is caught and executed in Chengdu.
  • Liu Bei dies in Yong’an, age 63.
  • Cao Ren dies.
  • Zhuge Liang is named Imperial Protector of Yizhou and Marquis of Wuxiang.
  • Liu Shan succeeds Liu Bei as Emperor and changes the reign name to Jianxing 1st year.
  • Liu Shan sets up Zhang Fei’s daughter as Empress Zhang.
  • Rebellion in Nanzhong begins.

AD 224 Huangchu 5th year (age 17)

  • Cao Pi attacks Guangling.

AD 225 Huangchu 6th year (Age 18)

  • Zhuge Liang leads a campaign south into Nanzhong defeating the rebelling tribes.
  • Wu Prime Minister Sun Shao dies.

AD 226 Huangchu 7th year (Age 19)

  • The Emperor of Wei, Cao Pi dies. Cao Rui becomes Emperor.
  • Philosopher Wang Pi is born.

AD 227 Taihe 1st year (Age 20)

  • Zhuge Liang attacks Hanzhong.

AD 228 Taihe 2nd year (Age 21)

  • Zhuge Liang’s campaign continues. Zhang He defeats Ma Su at Jie Ting. Zhuge Liang executes Ma Su. Liu Shan demotes Zhuge Liang over the defeat.
  • Zhou Fang tricks Cao Xiu into bringing troops to Wankou where he is utterly defeated by Lu Xun.
  • Winter: Zhuge Liang attacks Chencang but is forced to withdraw when the army’s food runs out. Wei general Wang Shuang attacks the retreating army but is killed.
  • Gongsun Yuan ousts his brother and becomes Governor of Liaodong.

AD 229 Taihe 3rd year (Age 22)

  • Zhuge Liang conquers Wudu and Yinping. In response, Liu Shan promotes Zhuge Liang back to Prime Minister.
  • Sun Quan declares himself Emperor.
  • Shu sends Chen Zen to Wu to congratulate Sun Quan. Quan gives Liang, Ji, Bing and Yan to Shu. Sili is split between the two kingdoms.
  • Zhao Yun dies of illness.

AD 230 Taihe 4th year (Age 23)

  • Wei builds a new city at He Fei.
  • Cao Zhen attacks Hanzhong.
  • Wu attack He Fei.

AD 231 Taihe 5th year (Age 24)

  • Zhuge Liang uses the ‘Wooden Ox’ for the first time in his campaign against Shanggui. The army runs out of grain and is forced to withdraw. Zhang He is ordered to pursue the retreating army and is killed in an ambush at Qingfeng.

AD 232 Taihe 6th year (Age 25)

  • Cao Zhi, Cao Cao’s third son, dies age 40.

AD 233 Qinglong 1st year (Age 26)

  • Ma Zhong pacifies a rebellion by the southern barbarian Liu Zhong.
  • Wei and Wu fight at Xincheng.
  • Wu unsuccessfully attacks He Fei.

AD 234 Qinglong 2nd year (Age 27)

  • Zhuge Liang marches the army north again, using ‘Flowing Horses’ for the first time. Sima Yi refuses to give battle and a 100 day stalemate ensues.
  • Zhuge Liang becomes ill and dies. As stated in his will, he is buried at Mount Dingjun in a simple grave with no riches.
  • Sima Yan is born.
  • Liu Xie (Emperor Xian) dies.
  • Wei Yan turns against Yang Yi but is captured and beheaded.

AD 236 Qinglong 4th year (Age 29)

  • Wu unsuccessfully attacks Xiangyang.
  • Zhang Zhao dies.

AD 237 Jingchu 1st year (Age 30)

  • Rebellions against Wu break out in Poyang, Yuzhang and Luling but are put down by Lu Xun.
  • Gongsun Yuan declares himself King of Yan.
  • Empress Zhang dies.

AD 238 Jingchu 2nd year (Age 31)

  • Sima Yi and Wuqiu Jian pacify Liaodong. Gongsun Yuan is killed.
  • Wuqiu Jian is made Marquis of Anyi.
  • Liu Shan changes the reign name for Shu-Han to Yanxi.

AD 239 Jingchu 3rd year (Age 32)

  • Cao Rui dies.
  • Cao Fang becomes Emperor of Wei.
  • Jiang Wan named Commander-in-Chief.

AD 240 Zhengshi 1st year (Age 33)

  • Zhang Yi pacifies Vietnamese rebels

AD 241 Zhengshi 2nd year (Age 34)

  • 3 feet of snow falls in Wu. Half the population of Niaoshou die.
  • Wei and Wu battle at Fancheng.

AD 244 Zhengshi 5th year (Age 37)

  • Lu Xun becomes Prime Minister of Wu.
  • Wuqiu Jian successfully attacks Goguryeo.
  • Hanzhong is attacked by Cao Shuang.

AD 245 Zhengshi 6th year (Age 38)

  • Lu Xun dies. Bu Zhi is named Prime Minister of Wu.

AD 246 Zhengshi 7th year (Age 39)

  • Wu and Wei battle at Juzhong.
  • Jiang Wan dies.

AD 247 Zhengshi 8th year (Age 40)

  • Jiang Wei leads the first of his attacks against the north.
  • Jiang Wei defeats the rebelling Wangshan barbarians.
  • Bu Zhi dies.

AD 248 Zhengshi 9th year (Age 41)

  • Fuling barbarians rebel but are defeated by Deng Zhi.

AD 249 Jiaping 1st year (Age 42)

  • Wei execute Cao Shuang prompting Xiahou Ba to defect to Shu.
  • Jiang Wei leads his second and third campaigns against Wei.
  • Wang Pi dies.
  • Zhu Ran dies.
  • Zhu Ju named Prime Minister of Wu.

AD 250 Jiaping 2nd year (Age 43)

  • Wei attack Nanjun in Wu. Fighting between Wu and Wei at Xiling.

AD 251 Jiaping 3rd year (Age 44)

  • Sun Quan becomes ill.

AD 252 Jiaping 4th year (Age 45)

  • Sun Quan dies, age 71, and is succeeded by Sun Liang.

AD 253 Jiaping 5th year (Age 46)

  • Wu and Shu joint attack on He Fei.

AD 254 Zhengyuan 1st year (Age 47)

  • Cao Fang dies and is succeeded by Cao Mao.
  • Jiang Wei attacks Wei at Lintao.

AD 255 Zhengyuan 2nd year (Age 48)

  • Wuqiu Jian dies during a revolt against Sima Shi who is also killed. Sima Zhao takes over from his brother.
  • Sixth attack on Wei led by Jiang Wei.

AD 256 Ganlu 1st year (Age 49)

  • Jiang Wei promoted to General-in-Chief.
  • Jiang Wei’s seventh northern campaign, attacking Shangbang but is defeated by Deng Ai.
  • Liu Shan names his son Zan as Prince of Xinping.

AD 257 Ganlu 2nd year (Age 50)

  • Jiang Wei attacks Wei for the eigth time.

AD 258 Ganlu 3rd year (Age 51)

  • Liu Shan changes the reign year title for Shu to Jingyao.
  • Huang Hao becomes more influential in the Shu court.
  • Sun Chen becomes Emperor of Wu but is killed by Sun Xiu who takes the throne.
  • Deng Ai begins his campaign against Shu.

AD 259 Ganlu 4th year (Age 52)

  • Liu Shan sets up his son Chen as Prince of Chendi, his son Xun as Prince of Xinying, and his son Qian as Prince of Shangdang.

AD 260 Jingyuan 1st year (Age 53)

  • Cao Huan succeeds Cao Mao as Emperor of Wei after Cao Mao is killed. Sima Zhao becomes Prime Minister.
  • Liu Shan gives posthumous titles to Guan Yu, Zhang Fei, Pang Tong, Ma Chao and Huang Zhong.

AD 261 Jingyuan 2nd year (Age 54)

  • Liu Shan gives a posthumous title to Zhao Yun.

AD 262 Jingyuan 3rd year (Age 55)

  • Jiang Wei invades Wei for the ninth time but is defeated by Deng Ai.

AD 263 Jingyuan 4th year (Age 56)

  • A shrine is built in memory of Zhuge Liang at Mianyang.
  • Liu Shan changes the reign year title for Shu to Yanxing.
  • Wei invades Shu. Liu Shan consults a witch doctor, Qia Zhou, for strategy.
  • Deng Ai enters Chengdu. Liu Shan, in binds and dragging a coffin, goes out to surrender to the Wei general.
  • Jiang Wei and Zhang Yi die.
  • Liu Shan is taken to Luoyang and is given the title Duke of Anle. Liao Hua and Zong Yu die on the journey to Luoyang.

AD 264 Xian Xi 1st year (Age 57)

  • Sun Hao becomes Emperor of Wu.
  • Sima Zhou dies.

AD 265 Taishi 1st year (Age 58)

  • Cao Huan abdicates to Sima Yan. Sima Yan renames Wei the Jin Dynasty.

AD 268 Taishi 4th year (Age 61)

  • Jin and Wu fight at He Fei.
  • Wu attacks Jiangxia

AD 270 Taishi 6th year (Age 63)

  • Wu and Jin clash at Guokou

AD 271 Taishi 7th year (Age 64)

  • Wu fights against Jin at the Blue Mountains.
  • Wu and Jin fight at Jiaozhi.
  • Liu Shan dies.

Copyright © 2004 Morgan Evans