Three Kingdoms History: Biographies

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Kongming’s Archives – Romance of the Three Kingdoms Biographies

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Many biographies have been translated or authored for the Three Kingdoms officers discussed on this site, and you can find them using this page. Contents include: Sanguozhi biographies (translations from the historical record by Chen Shou), Sanguo yanyi biographies (Romance of the Three Kingdoms biographies), Comprehensive Officer Biographies (based on multiple historical and cultural sources), Officer Life Chronologies), and links to biographies on other sites.

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Kingdom of Wei

(Search results for officers in the Kingdom of Wei.)

Bao Xin; Lived AD 152–192
Urged Yuan Shao to attack Dong, invited Cao Cao to govern Yan. Died fighting Turbans.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Bao Xun (Shuye); Lived ?–224
Strict morality meant Xun had conflicts with Cao Pi, was eventually executed.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cai Mao (Degui); Lived AD ?–208
Assisted Liu Biao in taking control of Jingzhou, prevented Liu Qi from visiting father.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi DZ   Comprehensive   
Cai Yan (Wenji); Lived AD 177–250
Captured by the Xiongnu, but bought back by Cao Cao. Some of her poems survive.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Ang (Zixiu); Lived AD C. 177–197
Served Wei. Cao Cao’s first son. Died to save his father.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Cao (Mengde); Lived AD 155–220
Founder of Wei. Built the foundation of what would become the Jin Dynasty.
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive JW   Chronology ME
Sanguozhi AL   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Chong (Cangshu); Lived AD 195–208
One of Cao Cao’s sons. Possessed an adult’s intelligence at age 5, but died young.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Chun (Zihe); Lived AD 170–210
Cao Ren’s younger brother. Defeated by Zhou Yu in the southern cities.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Hong (Zilian); Lived AD 169–232
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s cousins and a vital element of his army.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Pi (Zihuan); Lived AD 187–226
Cao Cao’s second son and successor. Deposed Emperor Xian. First Wei Emperor.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Ren (Zixiao); Lived AD 168–223
Cao Cao’s cousin. Served as Minister of War for Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Shuo; Lived AD 178–200
Served Wei. The Prince of Xiangshang. Died at a young age.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Xiong; Lived AD ?–220
Fourth son of Cao Cao from second wife Lady Bian.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Xiu (Wenlie); Lived AD C. 178–228
Performed well against Shu and Wu but fell for Zhou Fang’s ploy at Shiting.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cao Zhang (Ziwen); Lived AD ?–223
Cao Cao’s second son by Empress Bian. Fond of martial arts. Died not long after Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Cao Zhen (Zidan); Lived AD C. 185–231
Served Wei. Adopted into Cao family. Managed affairs after Cao Pi’s death.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Cao Zhi (Zijian); Lived AD 192–232
Cao Cao’s third son by Empress Bian. Originally favored as heir over Cao Pi. Famous poet.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Chen Gong (Gongtai); Lived AD 154–198
Talented advisor who served, and died with, Lü Bu. Helped Cao Cao in the novel.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Chen Jiao (Jibi); Lived AD ?–237
Known as a righteous, happy yet calm person. Highly respected governor.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Chen Tai (Xuanbo); Lived AD ?–260
Defended Wei against Jiang Wei. Wept at Cao Mao’s death, and died soon after.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Cheng Yu (Zhongde); Lived AD 142–221
Served Wei as an advisor. From Dong’e in Dongjun.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Deng Ai (Shizai); Lived AD C. 197–264
Campaigned against Shu with Zhong Hui and brilliantly struck Chengdu.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Deng Zhong; Lived AD ?–264
Served Wei. Deng Ai’s talented son. Died attempting to aid his father.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Dian Wei; Lived AD 160–197
Served Wei. One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards. Dian Man’s father.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi DL   Comprehensive JW
Du Yu (Yuankai); Lived AD 222–284
Served Jin to unification. The Field Marshal that led the invasion of Wu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi MH   Comprehensive   
Empress Bian; Lived AD 160–230
Wife of Cao Cao and mother of Cao Pi. Made empress dowager when Cao Pi became emperor.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive QH
Gao Lan; Lived Unlisted–
Originally a talented officer of Yuan Shao. Defected with Zhang He to Wei.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Guan Yu (Yunchang); Lived AD 160–219
Sworn brother of Liu Bei and Zhang Fei. First of the Five Tiger Generals.
Sanguozhi SO   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (Reference)
Sanguozhi JY   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Guo Huai (Boji); Lived AD 187–255
Served Wei and fought extensively against Shu. Brother of Guo Pei. Father of Guo Tong.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Guo Jia (Fengxiao); Lived AD 170–207
Served Cao Cao as a trusted adviser during the formative years of Wei.
Sanguozhi WF   Sanguo yanyi DL   Comprehensive JW
Han Sui (Wenyue); Lived AD C. 144–215
Worked with Ma Chao, before defecting to Cao Cao. Lost his hand to Ma Chao.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Han Xuan; Lived AD 163–C. 209
Magistrate of Changsha. Wei Yan killed him and surrendered to Liu Bei.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ZZ   Comprehensive   
Hao Zhao (Bodao); Lived Unknown–
A talented officer of Wei. Successfully defended against Zhuge Liang at Chencang.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Huang Quan (Gongheng); Lifespan Unlisted
Served Liu Zhang and later Liu Bei. Surrendered to Wei out of necessity.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Jia Kui (Liangdao); Lived AD 174–228
Served as strategist to Cao Xiu, seeing through Zhou Fang’s plot.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Jia Xu (Wenhe); Lived AD 147–223
Skillful advisor. Served Dong Zhuo, Li Jue, Guo Si, Zhang Xiu, then Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Jiang Shu; Lifespan Unknown
Jiang Wei highly prized his talent, was disgruntled and defected in Wei’s invasion.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Jiang Wei (Boyue); Lived AD 202–264
Served Shu as Minister of War, eventually inheriting Zhuge Liang’s responsibilities.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Jiang Xu (Boyi); Lifespan Unlisted
Helped to drive out Ma Chao, but Ma Chao killed his mother, defeated Ma Chao again later on.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi DZ   Comprehensive   
Jiao Chu; Lived AD ?–208
Served Yuan Xi with Zhang Nan. Betrayed to Cao Cao. Killed by Han Dang at Chibi.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Kong Rong (Wenju); Lived AD 153–208
A famed scholar who did not always get on with his lords. One of the Seven Masters.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi DZ   Comprehensive   
Li Dian (Mancheng); Lived AD C. 181–C. 217
Served Wei. Assisted Zhang Liao in the defense of Hefei.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Li Tong (Wenda); Lived AD C. 168–C. 209
An officer of Wei. Saved Cao Cao’s rearguard in the retreat from Zhang Xiu.
Sanguozhi ZR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Liu Bei (Xuande); Lived AD 161–223
First Emperor of Shu and sworn brother of Guan Yu and Zhang Fei.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Liu Shan (Gongsi); Lived AD 207–271
Liu Bei’s son and the second Emperor of Shu. Destroyed Shu through ineptitude.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   Chronology ME   External (SGZ)
Liu Ye (Ziyang); Lived AD 171–232
With other officials, went to Emperor Xian to petition his abdication to Cao Pi.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Lü Qian (Zike); Lifespan Unlisted
Served Cao Cao, and later Cao Pi, as Military Aide.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi QH   Comprehensive   
Ma Teng (Shoucheng); Lived AD ?–212
Governed Xiliang. Descendant of the famous warrior Ma Yuan. Ma Chao’s father.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Man Chong (Boning); Lived AD C. 171–242
Served Cao Cao as Military Aide. Helped to repel Shu’s fifth northern campaign.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive   
Mao Jie (Xiaoxian); Lived AD 161–216
Served as Military Aide to Cao Cao. Later Staff Supervisor, then Naval Commander.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Mi Fang (Zifang); Lived Unknown–
Mi Zhu’s brother. Served all three kingdoms. Surrendered to Wu after threat of punishment from Guan Yu.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Pang De (Lingming); Lived AD ?–219
Served Ma Chao, Zhang Lu, then Cao Cao. Fought against Guan Yu at Fancheng.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi ME   Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Shi Huan (Gongliu); Lived AD ?–209
General of Xu Huang, captured messenger which gave them vital information.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Sima Jun (Zizang); Lived AD 232–286
Friend to Cao Fang. A talented child who became a popular offical.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive      External (Jin Shu)
Sima Yi (Zhongda); Lived AD 179–251
A skilled advisor of the Wei kingdom. His efforts laid the foundation of Jin.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Wang Ping (Zijun); Lived AD ?–248
Served Wei but later surrendered to Shu. Served in the northern campaigns.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Wang Shuang (Ziquan); Lived AD ?–229
Served Cao Rui. Defeated Zhang Ni, and was later killed by Wei Yan.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Wen Ping (Zhongye); Lived Unknown–
After Liu Cong’s surrender he secluded himself in shame. Later served Cao Cao
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Wen Yang; Lifespan Unknown
Wen Qin’s son. Fought Sima Shi’s army. Later pledged loyalty to Zhuge Dan.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SW   Comprehensive   
Xiahou Ba (Zhongquan); Lived AD C. 185–C. 258
Xiahou Yuan’s son. Originally served Wei, betrayed to Shu. Attacked Didao with Jiang Wei.
Sanguozhi SH   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Xiahou Dun (Yuanrang); Lived AD ?–220
One of Cao Cao’s original officers, with civil and military talent. Lost an eye in battle.
Sanguozhi HM   Sanguo yanyi QH   Comprehensive   
Xiahou En; Lived AD 167–208
Carried Cao Cao’s Blue Blade. Cut down by Zhao Yun at Dangyang as he plundered.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi ZZ   Comprehensive   
Xiahou Shang (Boren); Lived AD ?–225
Captured at Mt. Dingjun, but traded for Chen Shi. Defended against Wu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Xiahou Yuan (Miaocai); Lived AD ?–219
Xiahou Dun’s brother. Famed for his attacks against the western barbarians.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Xu Chu (Zhongkang); Lived AD 170–2?
One of Cao Cao’s trusted guards and a commander. Leader of the Tiger Guard.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Xu Huang (Gongming); Lived AD 169–227
Served Cao Cao. Famous for breaking the siege of Fancheng against Guan Yu.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Xu Shu (Yuanzhi); Lived C. 170–C. 232-4
One of Sima Hui’s students. Served Liu Bei, then later, through trickery, Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JC   Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Xun You (Gongda); Lived AD 157–214
Advisor of Cao Cao. Xun Yu’s cousin. Died grieving Cao Cao’s interest in being Duke.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi QH   Comprehensive   
Xun Yu (Wenruo); Lived AD 163–212
Cousin of Xun You, a very talented advisor under Cao Cao. Commited suicide.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Yang Xiu (Dezu); Lived AD 175–219
A talented scholar and friend of Cao Zhi, helped Zhi cheat Cao Cao’s tests.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JP   Comprehensive   
Yang Yi (Weigong); Lived AD ?–235
Opposed old enemy Wei Yan. Later later stripped of rank for dissensitoius words.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Yu Jin (Wenze); Lived AD ?–221
Served Cao Cao. Surrendered to Guan Yu. Shamed by Cao Pi into suicide.
Sanguozhi SZ   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Yue Jin (Wenqian); Lived AD ?–218
Served Cao Cao from the beginning. Shot from his horse by Gan Ning. Small-framed.
Sanguozhi BR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Zang Ba (Xuangao); Lived AD C. 162–C. 230
Originally served Tao Qian, then Lü Bu. Later joined Cao Cao.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Zhang He (Junyi); Lived AD ?–231
Originally under Yuan Shao, defected to Wei. Died battling Zhuge Liang.
Sanguozhi JI   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW
Zhang Liao (Wenyuan); Lived AD 165–222
Served in Wei after Cao Cao defeated Lü Bu. Close friend of Guan Yu.
Sanguozhi JW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive JW   External (SGZ)
Zhang Xiu; Lived AD ?–207
He fought Cao Cao after he took Zhang Ji’s widow as a wife. Served Wei with distinction.
Sanguozhi LW   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive   
Zhang Yan; Lived Unknown–
Leader of the Black Mountain Bandits. Tried but failed to aid Gongsun Zan.
Sanguozhi ZR   Sanguo yanyi      Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Zhuge Dan (Gongxiu); Lived AD ?–258
Zhuge Liang’s cousin. Tried to rebel against Sima Zhao, but was executed.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi SS   Comprehensive      External (SGZ)
Zuo Ci (Yuanfang); Lived AD ?–306
Taoist named ‘Master Black Horn’. Trained in the occult at Emei Mountain.
Sanguozhi      Sanguo yanyi JP   Comprehensive   

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March 7, 2014