Served Shu after fleeing from the north. Third of the Five Tiger Generals.
Wade-Giles: Ma Ch‘ao (Mêng-ch‘i)
Simplified Chinese: 马超 (孟起)
Pronunciation: Ma3 Chao1 (Meng4qi4)
Cantonese (Yale): Ma Chiu (Maang-hei)
Cantonese (Jyutpin): Maa Ciu (Maang-hei)
Min-Nan: Ma Tiauw (Beng-ki)
Birthplace: Maoling County, Fufeng Prefecture
Rank and Titles
Subordinate Officer of Sili Xiaowei (Sili Xiaowei Dujun Congshi); Lieutenant-General; General Who Conquers the West (self-proclaimed); General Who Subdues the West and Colonel Consultant of the Army; Marquis of Duting; General of the Left; General of the Agile Cavalry and Provincial Governor of Liang (AD 221); Marquis of Lixiang (AD 221); Marquis of Yuewei (posthumous); One of the “Five Tiger Generals”
Groups and Associations
Family and Relationships
Fact vs. Fiction
Differences Between Fact and Common Fiction
- Ma Chao probably did not participate in Ma Teng’s attack on Li Jue. If he did fight in this campaign, he did not slay Wang Fang or capture Li Meng.
- Ma Chao commanded Ma Teng’s troops in the Battle of Fen River (AD 202), a battle that is not mentioned in Romance of the Three Kingdoms.
- Ma Chao did not slay Li Tong around Tong Pass.
- Contrary to the novel, Ma Teng, Chao’s father, was killed after Ma Chao rebelled against Cao Cao.
- Ma Chao never fought a large battle with Zhong Yao.
- Historical sources do not mention Ma Chao dueling with Yu Jin, Cao Hong, Zhang He or Li Tong. Ma Chao also didn’t come close to slaying Cao Cao at Tong.
- Xu Chu, Cao Cao’s bodyguard, did not strip down and duel with Ma Chao historically.
- Ma Chao did not historically cut off Han Sui’s left hand.
- When praising Ma Chao, Yang Fu cited Ying Bu as like Ma Chao, and not Lü Bu.
- It is not clear if Ma Chao dueled Yang Fu at Licheng. Yang Fu was wounded numerous times in the battle, however.
- Ma Chao never dueled Zhang Fei at Jiameng Pass or fight with Liu Bei’s army historically.
- Ma Chao did not guard Xiping or prevent a Xianbei invasion of Shu. In fact, Kebineng, king of the Xianbei, was an enemy of Wei, and never historically warred with Shu.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms: 10, 57–60, 64, 65, 69, 70–74, 77, 79, 81, 85–87, 91, 92
Sanguozhi: Wei 1, Wei 8-10, Wei 12-18, Wei 21-25, Wei 30, Shu 2-3, Shu 6, Shu 10, Shu 13, Wu 9
Hou Han shu: 9, 69, 75
Jin Shu: 23, 26
Zizhi tongjian: 64-68
- Ma Chao, Getting Treated Unfairly by Liu Bei?
- Was Ma Chao a Good General for Shu
- Ma Chao and Chang’An.
- Ma Chao and Zhao Yun
- Ma Yunlu (Ma Chao’s Sister; Zhao Yun’s Wife)
- Ma Chao’s Loyalty
- Did Ma Chao Deserve to Be One of the Five Tigers?
- The Qiang Rebellion of 185 and Ma Chao’s Supposed Folly.
- Whats the Deal Wit All the Ma Chao Haters?
- Ma Chao!
- Zhao Yun, Ma Chao, and Lu Bu
- Ma Chao’s Invasion of Wei(historical).
- If Ma Chao Wins at Tong Pass?
- Your Opinion of Ma Chao?