Encyclopedia: Guo Tu

Guo Tu (Gongze); Kuo T‘u (Kung-tsê); 郭圖 (公則)

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Guo Tu (Gongze) 郭圖 (公則)

Lived: AD ?–205

Biographies:
None Available

Served: Yuan Shao, Yuan Tan

Vassal of Yuan Shao. Supported Yuan Tan as Shao’s successor.

Officer Details

Wade-Giles: Kuo T‘u (Kung-tsê)
Simplified Chinese: 郭图 (公则)
Pronunciation: Guo1 Tu2 (Gong1ze2)
Cantonese (Yale): Gwok Tou (Gung-jak)
Cantonese (Jyutpin): Gwok Tou (Gung-zak)
Min-Nan: Kwee Touw (Kong-cek)

Literary Appearances

Romance of the Three Kingdoms: 22, 26, 28, 3032, 33

Sanguozhi: Wei 1, Wei 6, Wei 10, Wei 13, Wei 14, Wei 17, Wei 25

Hou Han shu: 74-75

Zizhi tongjian: 60-64

Biography

Sanguo Yanyi

When Yuan Shao was considering attacking Cao Cao, Guo Tu argued that they should ally with Liu Bei to attack, and that they must have good reason to attack. Later, after Guan Yu has killed Wen Chou, Guo Tu and Shen Pei advise Yuan Shao to execute Liu Bei, which Liu Bei evades. When Liu Bei persuades Yuan Shao to allow him to try to get help from Liu Biao, and Jian Yong persuades Yuan Shao to allow him to watch Liu Bei and make sure that he does what he was been ordered to, Guo Tu advises Yuan Shao to keep them near, saying that neither would return if he allowed them to leave. This advise was not followed either. When Yuan Shao learns that Liu Bei will not return, he wants to lead an attack on Liu Bei. Guo Tu dissuades this, he instructs Yuan Shao to instead attempt to ally with Sun Ce.

When Wuchao is being burned, Guo Tu sends Jiang Qi with 10,000 troops to Wuchao, while sending Gao Lan and Zhang He with 5,000 troops to Guandu to attack a camp he believe undefended. After the failure, Guo Tu lies to Yuan Shao by telling him that Gao Lan and Zhang He were glad when he lost and that they want to join Cao Cao. He then sends a message to the two, warning them of the danger they’d meet if they returned. This causes the two to surrender.

When Yuan Shao discusses who will succeed him after death, Guo Tu favors Yuan Tan, stating that the oldest should be the successor. After Yuan Shao has died, he advises Yuan Tan, whom he was now serving under in Qingzhou, to camp near Yuan Shang in Jizhou, while allowing him to observe the situation in the city himself. He learns that Yuan Shang has succeeded his father. He requests that Yuan Shang lends them Pen Ji or Shen Pei, and Peng Ji is chosen. When Peng Ji sees the ruse, he attempts to resign. Yuan Tan wants to execute him for this, but Guo Tu advises him to let him live, so that the brothers may keep peace until Cao Cao has been defeated.

Later, Guo Tu advises Yuan Tan to invite Yuan Shang and Shen Pei to a banquet, where they can be assassinated. The ruse is seen, and the two battle. He then advises Yuan Shang to surrender to Cao Cao, saying that Cao Cao and Yuan Shang will fight. Then, when the armies have been weakened, to join his brother and defeat Cao Cao, then defeat Yuan Shang after. When they surrender, Guo Tu sees Cao Cao’s plan to win over the troops through Lü Kuang and Lü Xiang, and thereby instructs Yuan Tan to promote the two to general, so that they may stay loyal to him. This plan fails.

Later, after Cao Cao has besieged Yuan Tan in Nanpi, he advises Yuan Tan to use the peasants as a screen for the soldiers in a final battle. After Yuan Tan has been killed in this battle, Guo Tu flees to Nanpi. Then Cao Cao’s officer Yue Jing and his archers kill Guo Tu with a volley of arrows.

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May 13, 2014